Presentation on theme: "Arsenal of Democracy. After the Great War, Americans wanted to do everything they could to stay out of the next war. Adopted several policies of neutrality."— Presentation transcript:
After the Great War, Americans wanted to do everything they could to stay out of the next war. Adopted several policies of neutrality and unilateral disarmament. Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937
The U.S. was selling goods to France and Britain. But only on a “cash and carry” basis…to avoid the German U-boat sinking U.S. cargo ships.
By WW II beginning in September of 1939—The U.S. Army was almost non-existent with only 227,000. FDR saw what was coming though and increased the military budget to over $500 million as the war began.
October 11, 1939—World renowned physicist Albert Einstein delivers a letter from Leo Szilard to FDR. It tells FDR that the Germans are working on harnessing the atom for a “super bomb”
As a result, FDR creates the top secret program called The Manhattan Engineering District. (Manhattan Project)FDR Was to develop an atomic bomb to be dropped from a plane—before the Germans could develop the same.
Hungarian physicist Edward Teller, German Hans Bethe, American Phillip Morrison, American Glen Seaborg, worked on the Manhattan Project.
As the project moves forward, FDR still toes a cautious line toward war. 1940—FDR calls reserves and guardsmen to active duty and institutes the 1 st Peacetime Draft in U.S. history.U.S. Troops were only supposed to serve for one year, and in the Western Hemisphere. Hemispheric Defense Zone
November 1940—FDR runs for an unprecedented 3 rd term and wins. Told Americans that we would continue to aid Britain, but stay out of the War.
Democrats run FDR, while the Republicans run Wendell WillkieRepublicans FDR wins in a landslide
December 1940—FDR introduces the Lend-Lease to Britain. We will stay out of the war…. “…the great arsenal of democracy….”great arsenal of democracy FDR sent troops to Iceland, and began escorting British cargo ships across the Atlantic.
July 1941—The U.S. opens Lend-Lease to Russia to the tune of $1 billion.
Lend-Lease routes were carefully guarded to avoid losing U.S. sailors and citizens.
August 1941—FDR and Churchill meet in Newfoundland, here they create the Atlantic Charter. Outline the principals for which the war was being fought Outline
Principals of the Atlantic Charter. Freedom of the SeasA United Nations to keep the peace No country would seek new lands Right of self-determination…choose the form of gov’t.
September 1941—The U.S. Navy is now heavily engaged in an undeclared Atlantic War. Sinking of the Reuben James. By late fall, FDR was running out of option to keep the U.S. out of War.
The Japanese would solve the dilemma of how to get the U.S. fully into WW II. Japan had been marching steadily toward war since 1932.
FDR had ordered an embargo against the Japanese and had their assets in the U.S. frozen. Strategic materials—such as oil, scrap iron, iron ore Done to punish Japanese for their murder in China and expansionist views.
Military leaders in Japan (Tojo) wanted to conquer all of Southwest Asia.
From August-November 1941—The U.S. and Japan try to come to some agreement. All the while the Japanese military gets ready for a surprise military attack on the U.S.
The Japanese start with a secretive plan to bomb the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. Then take U.S. interests in the Philippines.
At the same time, the U.S. was rearming with $37 billion worth of new military hardware. This increase in production pulled the U.S. economy out the Great Depression.
By late 1941, the U.S. was ready for war, although it had not yet started from them. In December of 1941—U.S. military leaders believed the U.S. to be ready by 1943. The U.S. wouldn’t have that long to prepare.
Albert EinsteinLeo Szilard Manhattan ProjectHemispheric Defense Zone Cash and CarryLend-Lease Act Atlantic CharterSelf-determination U.S.S. Reuben James Strategic Materials TojoPearl Harbor