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Section 07

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Impedance treat all passive components as resistors but with complex resistances Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 2

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Impedance What is the impedance of a 10 F capacitor when operated at 60Hz? What is the impedance of a 2mH inductor when operated at 60Hz? Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 3

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Laplace Domain When Mixing AC and DC sources Multiple different frequencies use Laplace instead of Fourier jw s Initial conditions Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 4

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Complex AC Source AC Volt or Current has: Amplitude Frequency Phase Phase can be expressed in Complex Number Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 5

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Complex AC Source Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 6

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Example Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 7

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Solution Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 8

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Simulation Solution Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 9

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Section 08

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Contents Generators Square, Sine, Triangle, Pulse Generators Converters AC/DC Analog/Digital Protection Circuits Voltage/Current Limiter Reverse Polarity ESD Protection Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 11

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Contents Math Circuits General adders (mixers) Integrators, Differentiator Transfer Functions Filters Low/High Pass Filters Band Pass/Stop Filters Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 12

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Format 1. Circuits Schematic 2. Function 3. Usage 4. Design Equations Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 13

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Note!! Some are Conceptual Designs Consider Ready-Made IC’s available Or even PCBs Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 14

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Op-Amp Needs Dual Power Supply Multiple op-amps in one IC Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 15

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(1) Square Wave Generator Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 16

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Slide 17

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(2) Pulse Generator Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 18

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(3) AC/DC Converter Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 19 VDVD

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Example design an AC/DC converter to: Produce 8.4 VDC Ripples 1% Diodes available V D =0.6V Maximum load expected 2k Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 20

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Clipping Protection Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 21

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ESD Protection Simple Parallel Discharging Zener Diode Special Diodes for High speed Lines Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 22

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General Adder (Mixer) Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 23

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Slide 24 the integrator produces a voltage output proportional to the product (multiplication) of the input voltage and time the differentiator produces a voltage output proportional to the input voltage's rate of change.

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Integrator Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 25

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Differentiator Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 26

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Filters Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 27

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Slide 28 A differentiator circuit produce s a constant output voltage for a steadily changing input voltage. An integrator circuit produces a steadily changing output voltage for a constant input voltage.

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Process Check What circuits did you face in your field? Do you need more details? Where to find more Designs? Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 29

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Section 09

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Power Transmission Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 31

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Slide 32

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Transformer Slide 33 A transformer is an electrical device that transfers power from one electrical circuit to another by magnetic coupling It is most often used to convert between high and low voltages Must be AC current; a transformer does not convert DC Uses Faraday’s law and ferromagnetic properties

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Slide 34

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Ideal Transformer Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 35

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Example Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 36

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Example Electrical EngineeringUmm Al-Qura UniversitySlide 37 v1v1

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Activity Slide 38

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Section 010

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DC Machines Can we use the magnetic force to rotate something? Slide 40

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Basic Concept Slide 41 Source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/motdc.htmlhttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/motdc.html

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DC Machines Examples microwave fan hi-fi tape deck fridge mixer washing machine tumble dryer vacuum computers electric saw drill screwdriver leaf blower toothbrush hair dryer razor CD player video player clocks pond pumps toys Slide 42

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Electric Machine Parts Slide 43

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Electric Machine Parts Slide 44

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Two-Pole DC Machine Slide 45

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Four-Pole DC Machine Slide 46

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Commutator Slide 47

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Generated Voltage Slide 48

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DC Motor Variables Slide 49 E A (volt)is the back EMF V T (volt)is the applied voltage T dev (N.m)is the torque developed by DC Motor T load (N.m)is the opposing load torque m (rad/s)is the armature shaft speed = 2 rpm /60 R a ( )is the motor internal resistance I A (A)is the motor current

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DC Generator Variables Slide 50 E A (volt)is the generated voltage V T (volt)is the load voltage T pm (N.m)is the prime-mover generated torque T dev (N.m)is the opposing motor torque m (rad/s)is the armature shaft speed = 2 rpm /60 R a ( )is the motor internal resistance I A (A)is the motor current

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DC Machine Equations Slide 51 E A (volt)is the generated voltage T dev (N.m)is the motor torque m (rad/s)is the armature shaft speed = 2 rpm /60 I A (A)is the motor current Kis the machine constant (Wb)is the magnetic flux per pole

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Power Electric Power: Mechanical Power: Slide 52

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Ideal DC Machine Motor IN:Electric Power OUT:Mechanical Power Slide 53

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Ideal DC Machine Generator IN:Mechanical Power OUT:Electric Power Slide 54

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Motor Example A DC motor having R a = 0.2 , I A = 5A, V T = 220V, m = 1200 rpm What is: back EMF voltage? developed torque? developed power? Slide 55

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Generator Example A DC generator having P mech = 1kW, R a = 0.3 , R L = 10 What is: electric current drawn? terminal voltage? Slide 56

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