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WRITING TASK 1 © Khairul Sufi
Mohd. Khairul bin Abu Sufi English Language Division CELPAD International Islamic University Malaysia
Agenda 1. Introduction 2. Planning 3. Vocabulary Input 4. Sentence Patterns 5. Answering Task 1 6. Students’ Errors © Khairul Sufi
1INTRODUCTION © Khairul Sufi
BAND 6 © Khairul Sufi
Task 1 … how do I attempt it? When writing Task 1 bear these in mind: Task Fulfillment answer the question completely UNDERSTAND THE TASK! Coherence use sequencing words e.g. Firstly, Secondly, Finally Vocabulary use a wide range, appropriate and academic Sentence Structure be concise but not simplistic © Khairul Sufi
continued Language Input: Tenses used to describe charts Use present tense to describe the chart. Use past tense to describe things in the chart that have passed. Use present perfect to describe issues that have started in the past up until today. Use the future tense for information after today. © Khairul Sufi
2PLANNING YOUR ESSAY © Khairul Sufi
Preparation for Task 1 Identify the OVERALL trend (if any) REMEMBER THAT NOT ALL GRAPHS CONTAIN TRENDS Graph 1 Graph 2 Identify the main trends for each mode (if any) Identify any large increases or decreases. Group information, if possible! Graph © Khairul Sufi
Trend or no trend? The graph below illustrates the number of Roti Canai eaten for breakfast by Br. Martunis, Abdallah and Hakim on four different days last week. © Khairul Sufi
Trend or no trend? The following graph illustrates Sr. Sahara, Huda and Amel’s shopping expenditure for different personal items during this month’s “Mega Sale Carnival”. © Khairul Sufi
Grouping Information / Data © Khairul Sufi
Preparation for Task 1 Are there any clear and consistent directions? Are there any changes? Does anything seem particularly significant? Are there any clear relationships between modes or percentages? © Khairul Sufi
3VOCABULARY INPUT © Khairul Sufi
Useful Vocabulary Trend Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Comparatives and Superlatives Comparatives and Superlatives Approximations No Trends © Khairul Sufi
Trend Verbs increase decrease fluctuate incline decline unstable grow rocketed slump plunge © Khairul Sufi
Adjectives Describing the degree of change There was a slight increase in the value of the Ringgit. dramatic sharp huge enormous steep substantial considerable significant marked moderate slight small minimal Describing the speed of change There was a rapid increase in the value of the Ringgit. rapid quick swift sudden steady gradual slow © Khairul Sufi
Adverb Describing the degree of change dramatically sharply enormously steeply substantially considerably significantly markedly moderately slightly minimally Describing the speed of change rapidly quickly swiftly suddenly steadily gradually slowly © Khairul Sufi
Vocabulary for NO TREND(S) fell by halved a quartera thirddoubled rose by tripled © Khairul Sufi
A word of caution… When pairing trend verbs / nouns with either adverbs / adjectives, ensure that the pairing is suitable. dramatic plateau sharp slump plunged slightly rocketed swiftly marked fluctuation © Khairul Sufi
Comparatives and Superlatives the biggest larger more expensive worse the least better © Khairul Sufi
Approximations around one third about half more than 100 less than half approximately just under over slightly over © Khairul Sufi
Exercise © Khairul Sufi
(DESCRIBING TRENDS) 4SENTENCE PATTERN © Khairul Sufi
Verbs vs Nouns Verbs Actions Quantity is not involved Inflect based on TIME Nouns Things Countable / Uncountable Inflect based on QUANTITY © Khairul Sufi
Sentence Pattern 1 (describing trends) There + verb to be + article + adj + noun There was a slight decrease in the number of tourists to Penang. There was a slightly decreased in the number of tourists to Penang. verb adverb verb article © Khairul Sufi
Sentence Pattern 2 (describing trends) [subject] + transitive verb + article + adj + noun The number of tourists to Penang experienced a slight decrease. The number of tourists to Penang was a slight decrease. verb (to be) © Khairul Sufi
Sentence Pattern 3 (describing trends) verb + adverb The number of tourists to Penang decreased slightly in The number of tourists to Penang was a slight fluctuation in adjective noun verb (to be) © Khairul Sufi
Sentence Pattern 4 (describing trends) adverb + verb The number of tourists to Penang slightly decreased in The number of tourists to Penang slight fluctuated in adjective © Khairul Sufi
5ANSWERING TASK 1 © Khairul Sufi
Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The graph below shows the different modes of commuter transport used in London in 1960, 1980 and Commuter Transport in London Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown. You should write at least 150 words. © Khairul Sufi
Plan! 1. Read the question carefully. 2. Understand the visual presented to you. 1. Type of graph 2. Static or dynamic 3. Axis 4. MEASUREMENT 3. Group information together. © Khairul Sufi
Introduction The introductory paragraph states the main purpose of the chart, written in paraphrase using the writer's own words. © Khairul Sufi
Model answer for Introduction INTRODUCTION: The vertical bar graph shows the changing patterns in commuting by train, car, tube or bus for commuters in London in the years 1960, 1980 and Overall, it can be seen that commuter figures were erratic for all transport types throughout the 3 years. © Khairul Sufi
Analysis 1:train The second paragraph describes the data for the use of trains given in the chart, written in the writer's own words. © Khairul Sufi
Model answer for Analysis 1 BODY: Firstly, the number of people who used trains was somewhat unstable as it ranged from slightly under 20% to 30% in the three years with the highest percentage recorded in © Khairul Sufi
Analysis 2:the Tube The third paragraph describes the data for the use of the tube given in the chart, written in the writer's own words. © Khairul Sufi
Model answer for Analysis 2 BODY: Next, the usage of the tube was relatively stable, as it made up a total number of around 20% to 30% of commuters throughout the three stated years. © Khairul Sufi
Analysis 3:cars and buses The fourth paragraph describes the data for the use of cars and buses given in the chart, written in the writer's own words. © Khairul Sufi
Model answer for Analysis 3 BODY: To continue, the percentage of car commuters increased steadily from just over 5% in 1960 reaching almost 40% by 2000, whereas in contrast, those for buses declined since 1960, falling from just under 35% to a low of 15% in © Khairul Sufi
Conclusion The concluding paragraph summarizes the main findings of the chart, written in the writer's own words. © Khairul Sufi
Model answer for Conclusion Conclusion: In conclusion, the graph indicates that the usage of cars, for commuting to work, grew throughout the three stated years, as well as the corresponding decline in the usage of buses from the years 1960 to © Khairul Sufi
Answer analysis The text above given in the model answer consists of 161 words in a few paragraphs which describe the data in the chart. These paragraphs can be further analyzed as comprising: Introduction Figures on the use of trains Figures on the use of the tube Figures on the use of cars and buses Conclusion Body © Khairul Sufi
6STUDENTS’ ERRORS © Khairul Sufi
Common error 1 Not understanding the data presented Students do not correctly understand the data in the charts Look at the following example © Khairul Sufi
Example Error 1 “40 people were unemployed in Malaysia in 2010” © Khairul Sufi
Explanation: Students often do not carefully read the labels e.g. student writes ‘250 people were unemployed in Kuala Lumpur in 2010', when they should have written ‘250 thousand people were unemployed in Kuala Lumpur in 2010' © Khairul Sufi
Common error 2 Not ‘translating' note form to grammatical English Students often write the labels or titles directly as they appear in the chart. However, these are usually in ‘note form', so need to be changed into grammatically correct English in your writing. © Khairul Sufi
‘the average life-expectancy of Malaysia non-smoking in the year 1980 was around 70' © Khairul Sufi
In the previous chart describing the life expectancy of smokers and non- smokers, one label read ‘Non- Smoking' - meaning ‘non-smoking people © Khairul Sufi
We need to change the label to a grammatically correct form such as ‘the average life-expectancy of Malaysian non-smokers in the year 1980 was around72'. © Khairul Sufi
Common error 3 Using detailed figures when they can be approximated Firstly, x started at %. Then it increased to percent. Then it climbed to percent. After that it inclined again to percent. © Khairul Sufi
Common error 4 Fail to provide ‘measurement’ of data The unemployment rate in the UK rose by 2% between 2008 and 2009, whereas Canada decreased by about 1%. The USA was the highest, at just over 4 %. © Khairul Sufi
Common error 5 Describing every number in a chart or graph (unless there are only a few). A key skill in task 1 is being able to choose the key information and describe or compare it well. © Khairul Sufi
Firstly, at 6am, the number of people stood at 100, then at 7am, it increased to 200, after that it shot up to 400 in the next hour. In contrast, at 9am, it dropped slightly to 300 and at 10am, it continued to decrease until 200 people. © Khairul Sufi
Common error 6 Errors in pairing verbs/adverbs or adjectives/nouns when describing trends. The number of tourists abroad slightly plunged in In 2008, the number of tourists minimally rocketed to its highest point. There was a gradual boom in the number of tourists last year. © Khairul Sufi
Common error 7 Grammar In 2011, there is a decline in the imports of wheat. In 2020, Malaysia was a well developed country. There were an increased steadily in the number of tourists to Langkawi island. Last year, the numbers was declined for about 24. © Khairul Sufi
Do not forget! EDIT YOUR ESSAY! Spelling SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENTS Tenses Articles © Khairul Sufi
What you would have done … The main writing skills performed in Task 1 are: Describing numerical data Identifying differences and similarities Comparing and contrasting Identifying and describing trends © Khairul Sufi
QUESTIONS??? Feel free to ask!
Further Questions? You may contact me through at © Khairul Sufi
A word of wisdom “Remember that just the moment you say, ‘I give up,’ someone else seeing the same situation is saying, ‘My, what a great opportunity.’” H. Jackson Brown © Khairul Sufi
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION. © Khairul Sufi
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