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By Ogechi Nna 1. Infant Mortality Factors Infant Mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths under one year of age. Infant mortality rate is one.

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Presentation on theme: "By Ogechi Nna 1. Infant Mortality Factors Infant Mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths under one year of age. Infant mortality rate is one."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Ogechi Nna 1

2 Infant Mortality Factors Infant Mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths under one year of age. Infant mortality rate is one of the key indicators of a nation's health status.  Maternal health  Quality and access to medical care  Socioeconomic conditions  Public health practices. 2

3 What Is A Health Disparity: A Health Disparity is a health condition or disease that is higher for one group than the general population. I.e. Not equal. Ex. Diabetes, Lung Cancer, Mortality Rate, & Obesity 3

4 Why Infant Mortality is a Health Disparity The Infant Mortality rate for African-Americans is at a startling high compared to other races. Race Education Social Economic Status 4

5 Mortality Rate of Developed Nations (Figure 1) 5

6 Infant Mortality in the United States The United States is currently 176 th in the world in infant mortality with a rate of 6.06 deaths per 1000 lives. In 2006, the mortality rate among African-American infants was 13.8 deaths per 1,000 live births. This was 2 ½ times the rate among Caucasians (5.6 per 1,000) and Hispanic infants (5.5 per 1,000). 6

7 Causes Of Infant Mortality Causes Congenital Malformations Low Birth Rate Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 7

8 Low Birth Weight in the U.S. (Figure 2) 8

9 Infant Mortality In Massachusetts Although every race experiences infant mortality, African-Americans suffer from a higher infant mortality rate. In 2007, the infant morality rate for African-Americans in Massachusetts was 2.6 times higher than Caucasians. African-Americans suffered 10.2 deaths per 1,000 live births, while Caucasians experienced 3.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. 9

10 Infant Mortality by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity: Massachusetts Total Area IMR PercentState IMR Percent Caucasian4.0 African-American11.0 Hispanic7.1 Asian/Pacific Islander (Figure 3) From MassChip

11 11 (Figure 4) From Mass.gov ( )

12 Worcester’s Infant Death Rate  Worcester's infant mortality rate more than doubled from 2004 to 2005, reaching 13.9 deaths per 1,000 live births - the highest rate in the state.  The city's rate is up from 6.6 in 2004, with a three-year average of 8.2 deaths per 1,000 births. 12

13 Infant Mortality by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity: Worcester Area IMR PercentState IMR Percent Caucasian African-American Hispanic Asian/Pacific IslanderN/A (Figure 5) From MassChip

14 Factors Affecting Infant Mortality In Massachusetts and Worcester 1. Education:  Babies born to mothers with less education are more likely to die before reaching their first birthdays.  The Infant Mortality rate for mother s with years of education is 40% higher then those with 16 or more years of education. 14

15 Factors Affecting Infant Mortality In Worcester and Massachusetts Cultural and Language Barriers: Infertility: Massachusetts has the highest rate in vitro fertilization No Prenatal’sLow Birth Weight Other Factors: poverty, smoking, and other socioeconomic forces. 15

16 Reducing Infant Mortality in Massachusetts and the U.S. Worcester Healthy Start Initiative - Helps women get pre- and post- natal health services available for free to all pregnant women and families with babies. WIC - Provides nutritious foods, nutrition education, and referrals to health and other social services to participants at no charge. Prams– The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, collects state-specific, population- based data on maternal attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. 16

17 Conclusion Year African- American Infant Mortality Rate in the U.S N/A African- American Infant Mortality Rate in MA Since 2002, the infant mortality rate for African-Americans is steadily increasing. Programs such as WIC, Worcester Healthy Start Initiative, and Prams is working with the government to end the Infant Mortality disparity. Most importantly, receive prenatal care ! 17 (Figure 6) Source: Massachusetts Department of Public Health from & The CDC

18 References Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, February 16). PRAMS-Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System| CDC Reproductive Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 17, 2011, from Cooney, Elizabeth & Plourd, Kate (2007, January 24). Infant mortality rate doubles in Worcester; City's 13.9 deaths per 1,000 births leads state The Free Library. (2007). Retrieved July 17, 2011 from mortality rate doubles in Worcester; City's 13.9 deaths per...-a Department of Public Health. (2010, April 5). Race/Hispanic Ethnicity Report - Birth and Perinatal Indicators. Mass.Gov. Retrieved July 17, 2011, from (Figure 3 & 5) Department of Public Health. (June, 2007). Regional Health Status Indicators Boston Massachusetts. Mass.gov. Retrieved July 12, 2011, from f (Figure 4) 18

19 References MacDorman, M. F., Ph.D.., Mathews, T., & M.S.. (2009, November). Products - Data Briefs - Number 23 - November Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 13, 2011, from (Figure 1) Massachusetts Department of Public Health. (2010, April 5). MassCHIP Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile.Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Retrieved July 14, 2011, from endscity_townlawrence.rtf (Figure 6) Resources and Services Administration. (n.d.). Health Status, Infants - Child Health USA U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from (Figure 2) The Office Of Minority Health. (2007). Infant mortality disparities fact sheet - african americans. Retrieved from Umass Medical School. (n.d.). UMass Medical School - Worcester.Welcome to the University of Massachusetts Medical School - Worcester. Retrieved July 19, 2011, from 19


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