2Learning Objectives Gender-exclusive speech differences Gender-preferential speech featuresGender and social classExplanation of women’s linguistic behaviourAge-graded features of speechAge and social dialect dataAge grading and language change
3Gender-exclusive speech differences Example 1Amazonian men and women speak different languages.Example 2In Yana, a North American Indian language, men and women use forms of words.
4Gender-exclusive speech differences Example 3In Japanese, men and women use different words.Further exampleIn Bengali society, a wife is subordinate and is not permitted to use her husband’s name. A Bengali wife therefore addresses her husband whose name means ‘star’ as ‘heavenly body’.Exercise 14
5Gender-preferential speech features Instead of using completely different forms of language in highly structure communities, men and women in urban communities use different quantities or frequencies of the same forms.Example 4h-droppingFurther exampleIn Sydney, men use [f] in words like thing more often than women.
6Gender and social class The linguistic features which differ in the speech of women and men are usually features which also distinguish the speech of people from different social classes.Figure 7.1Vernacular [in] by sex and social group in Norwich
7Gender and social class In every social class, men use more vernacular forms than women.Women’s speech is closer to that of the men in the same group than to that of women in other groups. Therefore class membership seems to be more important than gender identity.7
8Gender and social class Across all social groups, women generally use more standard forms than men, who use more vernacular forms.8
9Pronunciation Norwich walking speaking Men vernacular [in] Women standard [iŋ]9
10Grammar Detroit multiple negation Men vernacular I don’t know nothing about it.Women standardI don’t know anything about it.
11Vocabulary Liverpool Men vernacular judies last rozzers Women standard girlshopelesspolice
12Activity 7.1Do the women and the men speak differently in your speech community?Do you see a difference in the use of standard and vernacular forms?
13Explanations for the difference in language use by gender The social status explanationWoman’s role as guardian of society’s valuesSubordinate groups must be politeVernacular forms express machismo
14The social status explanation Women use more standard speech forms than men because they want to claim social status, especially those who do not have paid employment.Counter-argumentIn an American study comparing the speech of women in service operations and that of women working in the home, women in paid occupations use more standard forms.
15Women’s role as guardian of society’s values Society tends to expect ‘better’ behaviour from women than from men. Therefore they serve as role models for children’s speech.Counter-argumentInteractions between a mother and her child are likely to be very relaxed and informal, and vernacular forms rather than standard forms are used.
16Subordinate groups must be polite Women as a subordinate group must speak carefully and politely, and therefore tend to use more standard forms.Counter-argumentPolite speech does not necessarily equate standard speech.Example 7
17Vernacular forms express machismo Men prefer vernacular forms because they carry macho connotations of masculinity and toughness.
18Some alternative explanations How women are categorised?The influence of the interviewer and the context
19How women are categorised? Researchers in early social dialect studies often used the women’s husband’s occupation as their major criterion. Therefore miscategorisation often occurred and that explained the speech behaviour of the women.Example 10
20The influence of the interviewer and the context The interviewer as a middle-class well-educated academicThe interviewer as manThe formal context
21Gender as the primary factor for speech variation Although gender interacts with other social factors, such as status, class, role of the speaker in an interaction, formality of the contexts, etc, there are cases in which gender is the primary factor accounting for speech variation.ExamplesTyneside study Figure 7.2Reading study
22Age-graded features of speech Use of swear words decreases after people begin to have childrenSlang is the linguistic prerogative of young people
23Activity 7.2Do you see differences in language use in different age groups?
24Language variation in Hong Kong MeaningStandard formVernacular form我Iŋo5o5你younei5lei5國countrygwok3gok3
25Age and social dialect data A common pattern shows that the use of vernacular forms is high in childhood and adolescence.The usage steadily reduces as people approach middle age when social pressures to conform are greatest.Vernacular usage gradually increases again in old age as social pressures reduce.Figure 7.3Figure 7.4 Detroit and Appalachian study
26Age grading and language change Stable variationLanguage change in progressBell-shaped patternSteady increase or steady decline