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Traumatic Brain Injury Module for DSHS Giles Gifford, EMT Monica S. Vavilala, MD 1 ALS & BLS provider course.

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Presentation on theme: "Traumatic Brain Injury Module for DSHS Giles Gifford, EMT Monica S. Vavilala, MD 1 ALS & BLS provider course."— Presentation transcript:

1 Traumatic Brain Injury Module for DSHS Giles Gifford, EMT Monica S. Vavilala, MD 1 ALS & BLS provider course

2 TBI Epidemiology: Nationally Yearly 1.7 million people sustain Traumatic Brain Injury,(TBI) ▫ ~1.36 million are treated in ED and discharged. ▫ 275,000 are hospitalized ▫ 80,000 to 90,000 are disabled ▫ 52,000 die Today, 5.3 million Americans (~ 2%) are living with TBI- related disability and ~1% of people with severe TBI survive in a persistent vegetative state In 2000, the estimated lifetime direct medical costs and indirect costs (such as loss of life long productivity) from TBI amounted to 60 billion dollars 2

3 TBI Epidemiology: WA State TBI ~ 10% of all injury related hospitalizations TBI deaths are about 29% of all injury related fatalities Nearly 123,750 residents with TBI related disabilities ~ 26,000 residents had TBI (2005–2009) ~ 5,500 hospitalizations and 1,300 deaths/year (2002–2006) ▫ You will see TBI patients in your career 3 Population; 6,664,195 - Jul 2009 Source: U.S. Census Bureau

4 WA Epidemiology: TBI Causes From , falls, being struck by an object, and motor vehicle related TBI injuries made about 90% of all TBI related hospitalizations and falls, firearms and motor vehicle related injuries made about 91% of TBI deaths. 4

5 WA Epidemiology: TBI Hospitalizations by Cause TBI Hospitalizations due to transport injuries of various types fell in the early years, and then plateaued. Falls increased since the late 1990’s, explaining the overall rise in TBI Hospitalizations. TBI hospitalizations by firearm injury remains low due to the low survival rate from the initial injury. 5

6 WA Epidemiology: Elderly Fall Related TBI TBI related hospitalizations and deaths will steadily increase over the next few decades as the baby-boom generation (those born from 1946 to 1964) steadily ages ▫ 1 in 3 adults age 65+ falls each year ▫ 1 in 2 adults age 80+ falls each year 1 out of 5 falls causes a serious injury such as a head trauma (TBI) or fracture Only 1 in 5 people who are hospitalized for falls ever return home 6

7 WA Epidemiology: TBI Hospitalizations by Age Who is at Risk ? Elderly Age years Male gender 7

8 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Injuries to the brain caused by physical trauma to the head. ▫ Can be penetrating or blunt force injury Two forms of injury ▫ Primary  Direct trauma to brain and vascular structures  Examples: contusions, hemorrhages, and other direct mechanical injury to brain contents (brain, CSF, blood). ▫ Secondary  Ongoing pathophysiologic processes continue to injure brain for weeks after TBI  Primary focus in TBI management is to identify and limit or stop secondary injury mechanisms 8

9 Secondary Injury After initial TBI, priorities are: ▫ Identification of secondary insults  Intracranial hypertension − from expanding intracranial hematoma / brain swelling results in elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and/or herniation  Hypoxia − from ventillatory/circulatory failure, airway obstruction, apnea, lung injury, aspiration  Hypotension − associated spinal cord injury, blood loss  Inadequate cerebral blood flow can cause inadequate oxygen and glucose delivery  Hypercarbia− from inadequate ventilation, apnea ▫ Rapid transport to a capable health care facility 9

10 Signs and Symptoms SignsSymptoms diminished consciousness convulsions or seizures dilation of one or both pupils slurred speech repeated vomiting or nausea increasing confusion, restlessness, or agitation headache blurred vision ringing in the ear bad taste in the mouth weakness or numbness in extremities loss of coordination dizziness/lightheadedness 10

11 Scene Awareness Include the following in the patient care report: Kinematics leading up to the injury ▫ MVC – speed, restraints, intrusion, helmet ▫ Assault – head vs. object, repeat assault? ▫ Sports related – body position, speed at impact Witness account of Patient Behavior after Injury ▫ LOC, slurred speech, inappropriate behavior, duration 11

12 Documentation Complete documentation could have a positive impact throughout a TBI patients life ▫ Diagnosis and Treatment after the injury may depend on thoroughness of PCR ▫ Include events occurring pre and post injury and before EMS arrival Ensure a successful hand off of the run sheet to the patient care providers in the ED. ▫ After obtaining signature, if possible ensure a copy of the PCR is included in the patient chart 12

13 Documentation Specific items to document include : ▫ Mechanism of Injury/ LOC? ▫ Primary symptoms/associated symptoms ▫ Serial vital signs – HR, BP, RR ▫ Component GCS and Pupils ▫ Procedures preformed ▫ Transportation decisions 13

14 Assessment: Overview Airway: Priorities Breathing: Oxygenation Hypoxemia Circulation: Hypotension Shock 14 Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS): Priorities Patient Interaction Components Motor Component Score Pupils: Value Pathophysiology Abnormalities Cerebral Herniation: Indicators

15 Airway: Priorities Determine that airway is open and maintain patency Assess need for artificial airway Reassess every 5 minutes and as needed Maintain cervical spine precautions ▫ Use cervical collar during transport 15

16 Breathing: Oxygenation Assess rate, rhythm, depth, quality, and effectiveness of ventilation (movement of air in and out of the lungs) every 5 minutes and as needed ▫ If possible use continuous SpO 2 monitoring ▫ Avoid inadvertent hyperventilation If no SpO 2 monitoring look for apnea and slow/irregular breathing to indicate adequate tissue oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal levels 16

17 Breathing: Hypoxemia Assess and monitor for hypoxemia (SpO 2 <90%) – ▫ Occurs in 40% of TBI cases If pulse oximetry not available, observe patient for indirect signs of hypoxia Potential Signs and Symptoms of Hypoxia: ▫ Blue or dusky mucus membranes ▫ Impaired judgment ▫ Confusion, delirium, agitation ▫ Decreased level of consciousness ▫ Tachycardia-heart rate > 100 beats per minute for adult ▫ Cyanosis of fingernails and lips ▫ Tachypnea - At or above 20 breaths per minute for adult 17

18 Circulation: Hypotension Monitor for hypotension - inadequate cerebral blood flow can cause inadequate oxygen and glucose delivery ▫ Adult hypotension, systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90mm Hg Monitor for hypertension - may indicate raised ICP when associated with bradycardia and irregular respiration Use correct cuff size to measure systolic and diastolic blood pressure ▫ Cuff too small (false high or normal), too large (false low) Assess SBP every 5 minutes ▫ Continuous monitoring if possible 18

19 Circulation: Shock It is very important to recognize the signs and symptoms of shock and it is something that every EMS provider can do Signs and Symptoms of Shock: ▫ Skin cyanosis, pallor ▫ Restlessness, anxiety, change in level of consciousness ▫ Tachycardia – rapid heart rate, greater than 100 beats per minuet ▫ Tachypnea – rapid, shallow respiratory rate ▫ Narrowed pulse pressure – reduction in the range between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure ▫ Cool extremities ▫ Hypotension – SBP < 90 mm Hg If spinal shock is associated patient may be hypotensive with bradycardia 19

20 If TBI patient takes anticoagulant medication/s this information must be communicated to the receiving facility and rapid transport should be initiated Anticoagulant medications include Warfarin - brand name Coumadin Tinzaparin - brand name Innohep Heparin Enoxoparin Dalteparin Bivalirudin Lepirudin Argatroban Desirudin Fondaparinux 20

21 Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS): Priorities GCS preferred method to determine level of consciousness ▫ AVPU (Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive) is too simple to determine LOC & not quantifiable Follow ABC’s before measuring GCS If possible, assess GCS prior to intubation Measure GCS before administering sedative or paralytic agents, or after these drugs have been metabolized Reassess and record GCS every 5 minutes 21

22 GCS: Patient Interaction GCS obtained by direct patient interaction Pre-hospital provider must ask direct questions and perform specific actions for accurate GCS score ▫ Do not simply say “squeeze my hands” (reflexive) ▫ Instead say “show me two fingers” ▫ The EMT needs to illicit a response that demonstrates cognition, or the ability of the patient to think If eye opening does not occur to voice, use axillary pinch or finger nail bed pressure 22

23 GCS: Components GCS should be measured by pre-hospital providers who are appropriately trained GCS 14-15: Mild TBIGCS 9-13: Moderate TBIGCS 3-8: Severe TBI 23

24 GCS: Motor Component Important part of GCS Motor response was designed to look a the best upper extremity response Spinal cord injury, chemical paralysis or excessive pain makes motor assessment impossible Abnormal posturing (decerebration & decortication) look similar in the lower extremities A: Abnormal flexion (decorticate rigidity)B: Extension posturing (decerebrate rigidity) Motor Response 6- Obeys 5- Localizes-(purposeful movements towards painful stimuli) 4-Withdraws from pain 3 Abnormal flexion - Image A 2-Abnormal extension - Image B 1-No response 24

25 GCS: Value GCS provides basis for determining the method of transport and the preferred receiving facility Compare to previous scores to identify trend over time ▫ A single field measurement cannot predict outcome ▫ Repeated GCS scores can be valuable to ED staff ▫ Deterioration of > 2 points is a bad sign GCS < 9 indicates a patient with a severe TBI and require tracheal intubation 25

26 Pupils: Value Pupillary size and their reaction to light should be used in the field as it can be helpful in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis A fixed and dilated pupil is a warning sign and can indicate and impending cerebral herniation Pupillary size should be measured after the patient has been stabilized 26

27 Pupils: Pathophysiology Why do pupils dilate? ▫ The presence of intracranial hematoma can cause downward displacement of the brain, until it puts pressure on the cranial nerve responsible for pupil dilation Other causes of abnormal pupils: Hypoxia Hypotension Drug use (opiates) Hypothermia Toxic Exposure Artificial eye Orbital trauma Congenital abnormality Pharmacological treatment, Cataract Surgery (e.g. Atropine) 27

28 Pupils: Abnormalities Unequal or dilated and unreactive - suspect brain herniation Unilateral or bilateral pupils - ▫ (asymmetric pupils differ > 1 mm) Dilated pupils - ▫ (dilation more than or equal to 4mm) Fixed pupils - ▫ (fixed pupil less than 1 mm change in response to bright light) Evidence of orbital trauma should be recorded 28

29 Cerebral Herniation: Indicators Unresponsive patient (no eye opening or verbal response) ▫ Unilaterally or bilaterally dilated or asymmetric pupils ▫ Abnormal extension (decerebrate posturing) ▫ No motor response to painful stimuli Deteriorating neurologic examination, bradycardia (heart rate < 60 bpm), and hypertension should be viewed as a part of Cushing’s response and implies impending herniation Cushing’s Triad (Reflex) is a LATE sign of herniation: ▫ Elevated systolic BP ▫ Bradycardia ▫ Irregular respirations 29

30 Additional Considerations 30 Patients with other illness/injury can have signs and symptoms similar to those of TBI ETOH / drug abuse Sports related injury / concussion Violence / domestic violence Has your partner hit or grabbed you are two questions EMT can ask to identify a possibly abusive situation Decreased mental status in the elderly These patients can also have a TBI!

31 Treatment: Overview Airway: Priorities When to intubate Capnography Ventilation: Priorities Hyperventilation End-tidal CO 2 Fluid Resuscitation: Priorities Vascular Access Cerebral Herniation: Signs and Symptoms Hyperventilation Additional Considerations Pharmacological concerns 31 Bullet point key: Normal Text For ALS & BLS providers Text in Blue For ALS providers only

32 Airway: Priorities Protect C-spine alignment with manual in-line stabilization, beware facial trauma Maintain airway patency Administer O 2 If possible monitor with SpO 2 Provide combitube or supraglottic airway if not certified to provide advanced airway adjuncts (according to county protocol) Indication for Intubation – GCS < 9 ▫ Rapid sequence intubation with manual inline stabilization of cervical spine. Intubation medications and doses per discretion of MPD 32

33 Airway: When to Intubate Secure airway (e.g. endotracheal tube, cricothyroidotomy) if: ▫ GCS < 9 in an unconscious and unresponsive patient ▫ Unable to maintain adequate airway ▫ Hypoxemia (SpO 2 < 90%) not corrected by supplemental oxygen ▫ Respiratory failure or apnea Intubate and normoventilate: (~12 breaths per min) ▫ If pupils are symmetric and reactive accompanied by localization, withdraw, or flexion responses Intubate and hyperventilate: (~20 breaths per min) ▫ If pupils are asymmetrical (differ more than 1 mm) ▫ If dilated (greater or equal to 4 mm) and fixed ▫ If accompanied by extensor posturing or flaccid motor response  Considered signs of herniation  The motor component of the GCS exam is used to determine signs of cerebral herniation. 33

34 Airway: Capnography EMS systems implementing endotracheal intubation protocols including RSI should monitor blood pressure, oxygenation, and when feasible end tidal CO 2 (ETCO 2 ) monitoring (monitoring modality for ventilation) After intubation confirm placement of tube with lung auscultation and ETCO 2 determination ▫ Maintain ETCO mm Hg Obtain multiple ETCO 2 readings 34

35 Ventilation: Priorities Assess and record rate, rhythm, depth, and quality to determine the effectiveness of respirations post intubation Assist ventilations as necessary with Bag Valve Mask and supplemental O 2 Adult – normal ventilation rates: breaths per minute Ventilate to maintain SpO 2 > 90% ▫ Patients with TBI normoventilate ▫ Patients with TBI who are unconscious and unresponsive: intubate and normoventilate ▫ Patients with TBI and suspected brain herniation: Hyperventilate 35

36 Ventilation: Hyperventilation Produces a rapid decrease in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide by increasing the pH or basicity of the blood. Causes: ▫ cerebral vasoconstriction ▫ Decreased cerebral blood flow ▫ decreased intracranial pressure (ICP) In normoventilated, normotensive, and well oxygenated patients still showing signs of cerebral herniation, hyperventilation should be used as a temporizing measure and should be discontinued when clinical signs of herniation resolve Prophylactic hyperventilation (PaCO 2 < 35 mm Hg) should be avoided unless signs of cerebral herniation 36

37 Ventilation: End-tidal CO 2 Use ETCO 2 to: ▫ Confirm endotracheal tube placement ▫ Measure the adequacy of ventilation.  Target range: 35 – 40 mm Hg ▫ Guide hyperventilation therapy  Hyperventilation: 30 – 34 mm Hg  RR 20 BPM > 9 years (every 3 seconds)  Severe hyperventilation: < 30 mm Hg  ETCO 2 < 25 mm Hg is not recommended  Avoid inadvertent Hypocarbia 37

38 Fluid Resuscitation: Priorities Avoid hypotension and inadequate volume resuscitation to maintain normotension and adequate tissue perfusion ▫ Hypotension (SBP < 90 mm Hg) doubles mortality Administer isotonic crystalloid solutions to maintain SBP in normal range ▫ Use dextrose free isotonic fluid  (0.9% NaCl or Lactated Ringers) ▫ Administer isotonic fluids to maintain >SBP 90 mm Hg Treat for shock as opposed to restricting fluids ▫ ETCO 2 values may be low due to poor perfusion 38

39 Fluid Resuscitation: Vascular Access Preferred percutaneous access site is forearm Intraosseous can be alternative route for vascular access ▫ For failed peripheral IV access ▫ For delayed or prolonged transport Transport should never be delayed to initiate IV lines ▫ Focus should remain on rapid transport 39

40 Cerebral Herniation: Additional Considerations Agitation and combativeness can increase intracranial pressure. Optimize patient transport by using short acting sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blocks, that are concurrent with local protocol and medical direction Some of these treatments cause hypotension, consider patients hemodynamic state and avoid hypotension Rule out decreased level of consciousness due to hypoglycemia ▫ Hypoglycemia - blood sugar below 70 mg/dL ▫ Perform rapid blood glucose determination  If necessary, give IV glucose 40

41 Cerebral Herniation: Signs & Symptoms Signs Symptoms ▫ Dilated or unreactive pupils ▫ Asymmetric pupils ▫ A motor exam that identifies either extensor posturing or no response ▫ Progressive neurologic deterioration, decrease in GCS score more than 2 points from patients prior best score - in patients with initial GCS < 9 Other factors increasing ICP ▫ Fear and anxiety ▫ Pain ▫ Vomiting ▫ Straining ▫ Environmental stimuli ▫ Endotracheal intubation ▫ Airway suctioning Frequently re-evaluate patient neurologic status 41

42 Cerebral Herniation: Pharmacological concerns Controversial brain targeted therapy Mannitol ▫ The pre-hospital use of Mannitol currently cannot be recommended Hypertonic Saline ▫ This investigational therapy, while showing promise in hospital, is not yet recommended for prehospital use Lidocaine ▫ No literature to support use of lidocaine as a single agent prior to intubation 42

43 Transport: Overview Transport decisions: Priorities Receiving facilities 43

44 Transport Decisions: Prioriti es Minimize prehospital time by selecting appropriate mode of transportation Patient may require emergent surgery for hematoma evacuation, early transport must be the priority while resuscitation is ongoing If necessary, rendezvous with air medical service to decrease en route times 44

45 Transport Decisions: Priorities All regions should have an organized trauma care system Protocols are recommended to direct EMS regarding destination decisions for patients with severe TBI Improved success attributed to integration of prehospital and hospital care and access to expedious surgery 45

46 Transport Decisions: Receiving facilities Transport to appropriate receiving facility based on GCS ▫ GCS 14 – 15: Hospital Emergency Room ▫ GCS 9 – 13: Trauma Center ▫ GCS < 9: Trauma Center with severe TBI capabilities Patients with severe TBI should be transported to a facility with immediately available: ▫ CT scanning ▫ Prompt neurosurgical care ▫ The ability to monitor ICP ▫ The ability to treat intracranial hypertension 46

47 References [author last name, first name], Guidelines for Prehospital Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, second edition, Brain Trauma Foundation,. National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT), PHTLS: Prehospital Trauma Life Support, 7th ed., Elsevier Health Sciences, Chap 9. Shorter, Zeynep, Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence, External Causes, and Associated Risk Factors, Washington State Department of Health, (April 1, 2011) U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Injury Prevention & Control: Traumatic Brain Injury, (May 1, 2011) 47

48 Acknowledgements 48 Mike Lopez, EMS/Trauma Supervisor; Washington State Dept. of Health Mike Routley, EMS Specialist/Liaison, Washington State Dept. of Health Deborah Crawley, Executive Director and staff, ▫ Brain Injury Association of Washington Washington State EMT’s participating in focus groups and phone interviews. Peer review: Andreas Grabinsky, MD, Armagan Dagal, MD, Deepak Sharma, MD, Eric Smith EMT-P, Dave Skolnick EMT-B, Richard Visser EMT-B

49 Hyperventilation causes hypocapnia; –important in reducing TBI morbidity/mortality As your RR  the expulsion of CO 2 from the body also  This  in dissolved CO 2 levels in the blood also  the pH level of the blood 2H 2 O + CO 2  H 2 CO 3 + H 2 O  HCO H 3 O + An increase in the reactants (CO 2 ) will lead to an increase in the products (H + ) increasing the acidity of the blood Chemo receptors will detect decrease in blood pH The bodies automatic response is to dialate the blood vessels in order to discharge CO 2 faster and regain pH equilibrium Volumetric flow rate (Q = v A) Increasing M/M from intracranial bleeding 49

50 Audit Tool Indicators Thorough Documentation Of: MOI Events leading up to injury Kinematics Witness accounts Initial Impression of Pt. TBI signs and symptoms Loss of Consciousness Serial VS - Q5 Serial GCS scores – Q5 Pupillary exam – Q5 ETOH/ drug use C-Spine precautions Hypoxia Prevention o Intubation indicators o Serial Capnography values o Post intubation RR o Supported ventilation rate o IV fluid initiation Glucose value Transport decisions 50

51 BLS to ALS Handoff First priority is to identify secondary insult ▫ Request medic eval. if TBI Pt is Showing S & S of:  Intracranial Hypertension  Hypoxia  Hypotension 51 Check all of the following prior to ALS intervention: Blood Pressure Heart rate Respiratory rate & effectiveness O 2 saturation TBI associated S & S Level Of Consciousness GCS - component parts Pupils – component parts Glucose

52 BLS to ALS Handoff – Intracranial HTN Causes: ▫ Ruptured blood vessel ▫ Expanding Brain Bleed ▫ Brain Herniation – Mass Effect Signs and Symptoms: ▫ HTN, N/V, HA Px, fixed & dilated pupil, ▫  GCS score, Agitiation or Combativness Cushings Triad ▫  SBP,  HR, Irreg. Resps. 52 ALS Interventions: Intubation & SpO 2 monitoring ETCO 2 monitoring Hyperventilation therapy IV therapy

53 BLS to ALS Handoff - Hypoxia Causes: ▫ Vent or Circulatory failure ▫ Airway Obstruction ▫ Aspiration ▫ Apnea with lung Injury Signs & Symptoms ▫  GCS score/  LOC ▫ Confusion, delirium, agitation ▫ Cyanosis ▫ Tachycardia > 100 BPM ▫ Tachypnea - rapid, shallow RR ▫ Blue/ dusky mucus membranes ▫ Abnormal pupils 53 ALS Interventions: Intubation & SpO 2 monitoring ETCO 2 monitoring

54 BLS to ALS Handoff - Hypotension Causes: ▫ Spinal cord injury ▫ Blood loss Signs & Symptoms ▫ Tachycardia > 100 BPM  If spinal cord inj. Pt. may have  HR ▫ Tachypnea – rapid shallow breathing ▫ Hypotension < 90mm Hg ▫ Narrowed pulse pressure ▫ Abnormal Pupils ▫ Change in mentation ▫ Restlessness/ anxiety ▫ Cyanosis 54 ALS Interventions: Fluid Resuscitation SpO 2 & ETCO 2 monitoring

55 Questions: Topics: 1.Signs & Symptoms 2.Hypoxia & Hypotension 3.Hypoxia & Hypotension 4.Glasgow Coma Scale 5.Glasgow Coma Scale 6.Glasgow Coma Scale 7.Hyperventilation 8.Hyperventilation 9.Cerebral Herniation 10.Transport 55

56 Questions: Signs & Symptoms 1. The following are signs and symptoms of ETOH and not Traumatic Brain Injury ▫ A) Slurred speech, vomiting, loss of coordination ▫ B) Dialated pupils, convulsions, diminished conciouness ▫ C) Lower extremity weakness, blurred vision, agitation ▫ D) All of the above ▫ E) None of the above 56

57 Questions: Hypoxia & Hypotension 2. (True/False) Hypoxia and hypotension are recognizable and preventable causes of secondary brain injury? 3. (T/F) Tachypnea, tachycardia, change in level of conciousness, and cyanosis are all signs of shock, but not hypoxia? 57

58 Questions: GCS 4. (True/False) – The motor component of the GCS focuses only on the upper extremities? 5. What is the GCS score for a patient whose eyes open to pain, withdraws from painful stimuli, and makes inappropriate sounds? ▫ A) = GCS of 10 (moderate TBI) ▫ B) = GCS of 9 (moderate TBI) ▫ C) = GCS of 8 (severe TBI) 58

59 Questions: GCS 6. To induce eye opening, prehospital providers may ▫ A) Give patient a sternal rub ▫ B) Give patient an axillary pinch ▫ C) Use nail bed pressure ▫ D) All of the above ▫ E) B and C only 59

60 Questions: Hyperventilation 7. (True/False) Prophylactic hyperventilation - (PaCO 2 < 35 mm Hg) should be initiated for every severe TBI patient? 8. Patient presents with extensor posturing, fixed dilated pupils, and SpO 2 at 90%, EMT should - ▫ A) Intubate and hyperventilate ▫ B) Intubate and normoventilate ▫ C) Administer 25 Liters/min non-rebreather mask 60

61 Questions: Cerebral Herniation 9. All of the following are signs/symptoms of cerebral herniation except: ▫ A) Dilated pupils ▫ B) Extensor posturing ▫ C) Cyanosis of fingernails and lips ▫ D) Cushing’s Triad 61

62 Questions: Transport 10. Patients with severe TBI should be transported to a facility with immediately available: ▫ A) CT scanning ▫ B) Prompt neurosurgical care ▫ C) The ability to monitor ICP ▫ D) Two of the above ▫ E) All of the above 62

63 Answers: 1. E) None of the above. Patients with other illness/injury can have signs and symptoms similar to those of TBI 2. True - After initial TBI, priorities are Identification of secondary insults including hypoxia and hypotension ▫ Perhaps the most important way a prehospital provider can impact TBI outcome is the aggressive identification and treatment of hypoxia and hypotension 3. False – Shock and hypoxia can have similar signs and symptoms including all those listed 4. True – motor response was designed to look at the best upper extremity response 5. (C) = GCS of 8 (severe TBI) 63

64 Answers: 6. E) B and C only. If eye opening does not occur to voice, use axillary pinch or nail bed pressure 7. False - Hyperventilation is a temporary treatment used only in patients showing signs of herniation until definitive diagnostic or therapeutic interventions can be initiated 8. A) Intubate and hyperventilate 9. C) Cyanosis of fingernails and lips is a sign of hypoxia 10. E) All of the above 64

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