Presentation on theme: "Bridget Dillon and Rachel Pryor EPID 691 January 28, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Bridget Dillon and Rachel Pryor EPID 691 January 28, 2013
Incidence of Diabetes Type 2 remained relatively steady during the 1980’s, but has steadily increased since 1990 Incidence in 2010 was 1,735,000 people in the United States Incidence in 1980 was 493,000
Source: 2007–2009 National Health Interview Survey estimates projected to the year 2010.
“From 1980 to 2011, the crude incidence of diagnosed diabetes increased 133% from 3.3 to 7.7 per 1,000 population. Similarly, the age–adjusted incidence increased 117% from 3.5 to 7.6 per 1,000 population, suggesting that the majority of the change was not due to the aging of the population. ”
Source: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study NHW=non-Hispanic whites; NHB=non-Hispanic blacks; H=Hispanics; API=Asians/Pacific Islanders; AI=American Indians <10 years10–19 years
20.9 million Americans currently have Diabetes (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/prev/national/figpersons.htm)http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/prev/national/figpersons.htm 20.7 million of the population who have Diabetes are adults aged 18 and older (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/prev/national/figadults.htm)http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/prev/national/figadults.htm 8.3% of the US population
a&cat=prevalence&Data=data&view=TO&trend=prevalence&id=1 a&cat=prevalence&Data=data&view=TO&trend=prevalence&id=1 508,000 Virginians were living with Diabetes in 2010
People with diabetes are 2-4 times more likely to die from heart disease or suffer a stroke. 70% of people with diabetes have high blood pressure. Diabetes can also lead to kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage in extremities.
On average, people with diabetes spend $6,000 annually to treat their condition. As of 2008, the estimate cost of diabetes in the United States was $218 billion. This included costs for those with diagnosed diabetes ($174.4 billion), undiagnosed ($18 billion), gestational diabetes ($636 million) and pre-diabetes ($25 million).
Diabetes Type 2 used to be unheard of in children. Now that the incidence is ever- increasing, when is it appropriate to screen at risk (ie, obese) children? (Zeitler, Phil. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Challenges in Diagnoses and Treatment. Contemporary Pediatrics, 2012 Jul; 29(7): 16-23)
Diabetes and Self-Management Education (DSME). There is an association between women who have had DSME and better health outcomes related to Diabetes. (Gumbs, Jean Maydalyne. Relationship between diabetes self-management and education and self-care behaviors among African-American women with Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 2012 Spring; 19(1):
There is an increased risk of mortality for post-MI patients with diabetes and depression. (Bot, M; Pouwer, F; Zuidersma, M; van Melle, JP; de Jonge, P. Association of coexisting diabetes and depression with mortality after myocardial infarction. Diabetes Care March; 35(3): 503-9)
Research continued The FDA is currently considering the approval of a new class of drugs to treat diabetes. The SGLT2 inhibitors target glucose uptake in the kidneys to prevent the absorption of glucose. This treatment takes a new approach from insulin injections. There are concerns about its efficacy in patients with renal impairment.
Islet transplantation No need for insulin a year after surgery. Episodes of low blood sugar reduced for five years. Effects are not permanent. DCCT/EDIC Large scale study conducted from 1983 to Demonstrated that keeping blood glucose close to normal slowed progression of eye, kidney and nerve damage.