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การออกแบบเกม (Game Design) ประวัติของเกม และ วีดีโอเกม ฮาร์ดแวร์สำหรับเกม และข้อจำกัด ดร. ยอดธง รอดแก้ว สาขาวิชาคอมพิวเตอร์แอนิเมชั่น คณะ วิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยหอการค้า.

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Presentation on theme: "การออกแบบเกม (Game Design) ประวัติของเกม และ วีดีโอเกม ฮาร์ดแวร์สำหรับเกม และข้อจำกัด ดร. ยอดธง รอดแก้ว สาขาวิชาคอมพิวเตอร์แอนิเมชั่น คณะ วิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยหอการค้า."— Presentation transcript:

1 การออกแบบเกม (Game Design) ประวัติของเกม และ วีดีโอเกม ฮาร์ดแวร์สำหรับเกม และข้อจำกัด ดร. ยอดธง รอดแก้ว สาขาวิชาคอมพิวเตอร์แอนิเมชั่น คณะ วิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยหอการค้า ไทย

2 Playing is older than games Playing done in many animal species –Training Passing knowledge –Determining social rang –First way to negate Possible between species ref: Staffan Bjork

3 First Games? - First suspect: Sport Ritualized forms of other activities Running Wrestling Archery Gameplay features –Produce a measure of physical skill by competition against other person

4 First Games? - Second suspect: “ Dice ” Games Randomizers –Objects used for divination Evidence –Staves found in Tutankhamen ’ s tomb (~1323 BC) together with gameboard –Similar staves found in the royal tombs at Ur together with another gameboard –Mentioned in the Rig Veda (~1500 BC) Gameplay features –Produce a random outcome within well-defined limits and clear states Source: Parlett, David, The Oxford History of Board Games, Oxford University Press, 1999

5 First Organized Games Funerals –Gladiators Religious festivals Olympic Games, 776 BC –Judges –Truces between countries, –Participants status as religious pilgrims Gladiator Games –Celebrate battles at funeral –Changed when Julius Caesar organized one in honor of his dead daughter

6 Computer Games

7 Spacewar! Stephen "Slug" Russell, MIT DEC PDP-1 assembler in 1962 Demonstrate the Type 30 Precision CRT Display –“ It should demonstrate as many of the computer's resources as possible, and tax those resources to the limit; –Within a consistent framework, it should be interesting, which means every run should be different; –It should involve the onlooker in a pleasurable and active way -- in short, it should be a game. ”

8 Tennis for Two William Higinbotham Demonstrate system –Analog computer –Real-time game

9 A.S. Douglas Part of Ph.D. thesis in Human-Computer Interaction –Tic-Tac-Toe –Play by dialing numbers –Computer opponent Emulator –http://www.dcs.warwic k.ac.uk/~edsac/

10 Ralph Baer Asked to Build the best television set in the world. Built in several prototypes between Hand controller and light gun –Use of sensor Magnavox signed an agreement in 1971 and the first video game system got released in May 1972: Odyssey

11 Computer Space – 1970 Back to Spacewar Nolan Bushnell decided to commercialize Spacewar Stand-alone machine

12 Nolan Bushell Atari –syzygy Pong –Arcade version, 1972 –TV-console, 1975 Difficulties getting bank loans due to association with pinball and mafia

13 Pong vs. Pong? In 1972, Magnavox sued Atari –Patents on electronic games & electronic ping- pong Settled out of court –$700,000 paid-up license –Other later companies had to pay royalties

14 Coin-eaters 1974 to 1975 –57 games are released –53 videogames by 15 companies First controversy –Death Race 2000

15 Vector Graphics Space Wars, 1977 –Cinematronics –pong clone maker Speed Freak, D

16 Coin shortage Taito, known for pachinko games Space Invaders, 1978

17 Improvements & Variants Atari Football, Atari, 1978 –Screen down Asteroids, Atari, 1978 –Initials and High Score Galaxian, Namco, 1979 –8-bit color Stratovox, Taito, 1980 –Speech sound

18 Platform Games Pac-Man, Namco, 1981 –Moru Iwatani Donkey Kong, Nintendo, 1981 –Shigeru Miyamoto –Introduced Mario & Donkey Kong

19 Game Brains & Cartridges Fairchild –Fairchild VES, 1976 Atari VCS –Simple Hardware –No screen buffer Third Party Developers –Activision, 1979 –Sued by Atari

20 Atari Atari 2600 Video Computer System (VCS) MOS Technology 6502 Newer call 6507, 6532

21 Home Computers Commodore –Commodore PET, 1977 –VIC 20, 1980 –Commodore 64, 1982 –Commodore Amiga, 1985 –Amiga 500, 1987 –Amiga 2000, 1987 Sinclair –ZX80, 1980 –ZX81, 1981 –ZX Spectrum, 1982 Etc. etc. etc.

22 Rom Cartridge Most of Home Computers support Rom Cartridge Floppy Disk Drives is too expensive Use Tape Recorder to save data (Cassette Tape)

23 Video Game Generation First generation (1972 – 1977) lab computer/ hw specific / pong / spacewars / arcade game Second generation (1976 – 1984) console w cartridge / home computer Video game crash of 1983 !!  Third generation (1983 – 1992) Fourth generation (1987 – 1996) Fifth generation (1993 – 2002) Sixth generation (1998 – 2006) Seventh generation (2004 – ) "next gen"

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25 The North American video game crash of _crash_of_1983 It almost destroyed the fledgling industry and led to the bankruptcy of several companies producing home computers and video game consoles in North America. The video game industry was revitalized a few years later, mostly due to the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which was released in North America in 1985 and became extremely popular by 1987.

26 Investigation of the Crash of Arcade Games Transition Cycles –6-8 years Atari Hubris –E.T. games buried? Oversupply –50+ companies Home Consoles Lack of Faith –Video games fad Over supply! Exception exist –Paperboy, Atari, 1984 –Gauntlet, 1985

27 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (Atari, 1982) E.T. Phone Home! (Atari 1983) -need to escape from Scientist, FBI -Meet Elliot -find items (phone piece/extra life/candy) in a well and to levitate out -E.T.'s energy supply steadily drains

28 Home Computers 1970s-1980s Home Computer 8-bit era -> Play Games & Do (own) Program (Games) 1977: Apple II 1982: Commodore : Sinclair ZX Spectrum Z Mhz MOS Tech Mhz

29 IBM PC IBM Personal Computer 8-bit (intel PC Compatible (multi-brands) Monochrome/Green/Amber Beep PC Speaker 1987 ADLib card 1989 Creative's Lab Sound Blaster 1981 CGA (4 Colors) 640x200 40x25, 80x25 Chars Textmode

30 CGA text mode / CGA Graphics mode 1981 CGA (4 Colors) 640x200 40x25, 80x25 Chars Textmode

31 Apple Macintosh 1984 new mouse & graphical user interface (GUI) Grey level display (Blue/White)

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34 Video Game Generation Third generation (1983 – 1992) Fourth generation (1987 – 1996) Fifth generation (1993 – 2002) Sixth generation (1998 – 2006) Seventh generation (2004 – ) "next gen"

35 1990 Intel 80386, 16-bits, 1-4MB Ram, VGA display, 5 ¼ " -> 3.5" FloppyDisk Media 3D Graphics (Software Based), Sound Cards, CD-ROM == Multi-Media Era ; Shareware Era 1990 SimCity (Simulation) 1992 Dune II, WarCraft (RTS), Alone In the Dark 3D (Survival Horror), Wolfenstein 3D (FPS)

36 1980, Nintendo Game&Watch (handheld) 1983(JP) 85(US) EU(86) Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) 8bits "FAMICOM" MOS6502 Core 1989 Nintendo GameBoy (hh), 1988/1989 Sega Mega Drive (16bits) 1990 Sega Game Gear (handheld), NEOGEO AES (24bits) 1991 Super NES (16bits)

37 About Super NES An expensive CPU [Ricoh 5A22, based on a 16-bit 65c816 core] Multi-out connector: RF, RGB, S-Video Can interface special coprocessor chips to the console Super FX RISC CPU, Create 3D games worlds made with polygons, texture mapping and light source. fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP) chip allowed for fast vector-based calculation, 3D coordinate transformations. Flash memory, Can save or download a new game from Nintendo Power kiosks

38 Fifth generation (1994 – 1999) 1994JP/95EU Sony PlayStation (PS/PSX) 32 Bits MIPS R3000A 33Mhz Memory Card CD-ROM

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40 Nintendo64 64-bit June23,1996JP 1997EU CPU 93.75Mhz NEC VR4300 GPU SGI 62.5

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42 PlayStation 2 [PS2] Sixth generation era March 4, 2000JP/NOV 2000EU Memory Card, DVD drive, Network, Harddrive CPU 128 bit Emotion Engine 294Mhz + GPU 147Mhz 120 million units shipped at 20 September 2007

43 PlayStation 3 [PS3] Seventh generation era November 11, 2006JP / March 2007EU DVD, CD, Blu-ray Disc, 2.5" SATA (20/40/60/80GB) Harddisk CPU Cell Broadband Engine 3.2Ghz + GPU 500Mhz nVidia/SCEI "RSX" million units shipped at 31 March 2008

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46 1996 3DFX (VooDoo, 3D accelerator cards), Quake

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48 Pirate of Silicon Valley Pirates of Silicon Valley is a 1999 film based on the book Fire in the Valley: The Making of The Personal Computer by Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine. It is an unauthorized made-for- television docudrama written and directed by Martyn Burke which documents the rise of the home computer (personal computer) through the rivalry between Apple Computer and Microsoft.

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