Presentation on theme: "Imperialism: Scramble for Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1Imperialism: Scramble for Africa Imperialism = the seizing of countries to create an empire
2Africa Before Imperialism Cultural DiversityMany different ethnic groups & languagesVarious religious beliefsVarying GovernmentsAfrica controlled their own specialized trade networksEuropeans had been in Africa since 1450s but only along coastTraveling to interior was difficult, disease discouraged exploration
3Why Imperialism? Economic factors Political factors Industrialization need to find more resources for productionCompetition between countries (for wealth)Political factorsNationalismCompetition between countries (for power)
4Why Imperialism? Cultural factors Belief in European superiority Social Darwinism = those fittest for survival enjoyed wealth & success, were superior to others“Civilize” or “Westernize” nativesReligious motivesSpreading Christianity justification?
5Britain Led in Colonization – Why? In the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world- Factories produced more goods- British Navy guarded the oceans to transport their goods- British banks loaned $ to fund colonizationOther countries followed Britain’s lead & came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well-beingCountries that had no colonies set out to acquire them
8Belgium & the Congo King Leopold II of Belgium Commissioned Henry Stanley to get land in CongoSigned treaties w/local chiefs to get Congo River ValleyAbolish slave trade? Promote Christianity?Brutally exploited AfricansLand taken away from Leopold II NO!
9Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith, 1877 “I contend that we [Britain] are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race…It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.”
10How did Imperialism Develop? I.R. led to superior technologyBetter weaponsBetter communication w/distant coloniesEurope’s strong governmentsAbility to manage overseas territoriesAfrica was…Disunified (local tribal conflicts)New drug quinine protected Europeans from malaria
11How did Imperialism Develop? Berlin ConferenceEuro countries met to divide AfricaAfrican rulers not invited!
13Demand for Raw Materials Few Africans bought Euro goodsEuro businesses needed Africa’s materials & resourcesCongo had copper, tinS. Africa had gold, diamondsBusinesses developed cash-crop plantations displaced food crops grown by local farmers to feed families
14Resistance & Conflict Zulus in South Africa Zulus were highly disciplined warriorsZulus v. British in 1879British won
15Boers in South Africa Boers (Dutch settlers) v. British 1st Europeans to settle S. Africa were Dutch farmers known as “Boers” (aka Afrikaners)Took African’s land & established large farmsBritish clashed w/Boers over policies
16The Boer War Boer War (South African War) British defeated the Boers 1st modern “total war” – commando raids, guerrilla tacticsBritish defeated the BoersBoer republics joined into self-governing Union of South Africa (controlled by Britain)
17A New Period of Imperialism Control TechniquesManagement TechniquesColony – governed internally by foreign powerProtectorate – own internal gov’t but under authority of foreign powerSphere of influence – outside power claims exclusive investmentEconomic imperialism – independent but less developed country is controlled by private business interestsIndirect control – gov’t officials are local (not foreign) self-ruleDirect control – foreign gov’t officials (out of country)Paternalism – provided their needs but did not give them rightsAssimilation – adopt European culture
18African Resistance“Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament.Thus, the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalist exploitation, and militarism.”~ Edward Morel, The Black Man’s Burden
19African Resistance Many attempts were unsuccessful Inferior weapons, no unitySuccessful resistance in EthiopiaEmperor Menelik II played Euro countries against one anotherEthiopia built up weaponryRemained independent from Europe
20Positive Effects of Colonial Rule Reduced local warfareHumanitarian efforts = better sanitation, hospitals & schoolsLife-spans & literacy increasedBrought new technologies to AfricaBUT….Mostly benefited European businesses, not Africans’ lives
21Negative Effects of Colonial Rule Died from new diseases (smallpox) & faminesBreakdown of traditional culturesDivision of tribes, kinship groups, chiefdoms