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Imperialism: Scramble for Africa

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism: Scramble for Africa"— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism: Scramble for Africa
Imperialism = the seizing of countries to create an empire

2 Africa Before Imperialism
Cultural Diversity Many different ethnic groups & languages Various religious beliefs Varying Governments Africa controlled their own specialized trade networks Europeans had been in Africa since 1450s but only along coast Traveling to interior was difficult, disease discouraged exploration

3 Why Imperialism? Economic factors Political factors
Industrialization  need to find more resources for production Competition between countries (for wealth) Political factors Nationalism Competition between countries (for power)

4 Why Imperialism? Cultural factors  Belief in European superiority
Social Darwinism = those fittest for survival enjoyed wealth & success, were superior to others “Civilize” or “Westernize” natives Religious motives Spreading Christianity  justification?

5 Britain Led in Colonization – Why?
In the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world - Factories produced more goods - British Navy guarded the oceans to transport their goods - British banks loaned $ to fund colonization Other countries followed Britain’s lead & came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well-being Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire them

6 European Interest in Africa

7 “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

8 Belgium & the Congo King Leopold II of Belgium
Commissioned Henry Stanley to get land in Congo Signed treaties w/local chiefs to get Congo River Valley Abolish slave trade? Promote Christianity? Brutally exploited Africans Land taken away from Leopold II  NO!

9 Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith, 1877
“I contend that we [Britain] are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race…It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.”

10 How did Imperialism Develop?
I.R. led to superior technology Better weapons Better communication w/distant colonies Europe’s strong governments Ability to manage overseas territories Africa was… Disunified (local tribal conflicts) New drug quinine protected Europeans from malaria

11 How did Imperialism Develop?
Berlin Conference Euro countries met to divide Africa African rulers not invited!


13 Demand for Raw Materials
Few Africans bought Euro goods Euro businesses needed Africa’s materials & resources Congo had copper, tin S. Africa had gold, diamonds Businesses developed cash-crop plantations  displaced food crops grown by local farmers to feed families

14 Resistance & Conflict Zulus in South Africa
Zulus were highly disciplined warriors Zulus v. British in 1879 British won

15 Boers in South Africa Boers (Dutch settlers) v. British
1st Europeans to settle S. Africa were Dutch farmers known as “Boers” (aka Afrikaners) Took African’s land & established large farms British clashed w/Boers over policies

16 The Boer War Boer War (South African War) British defeated the Boers
1st modern “total war” – commando raids, guerrilla tactics British defeated the Boers Boer republics joined into self-governing Union of South Africa (controlled by Britain)

17 A New Period of Imperialism
Control Techniques Management Techniques Colony – governed internally by foreign power Protectorate – own internal gov’t but under authority of foreign power Sphere of influence – outside power claims exclusive investment Economic imperialism – independent but less developed country is controlled by private business interests Indirect control – gov’t officials are local (not foreign)  self-rule Direct control – foreign gov’t officials (out of country) Paternalism – provided their needs but did not give them rights Assimilation – adopt European culture

18 African Resistance “Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament. Thus, the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalist exploitation, and militarism.” ~ Edward Morel, The Black Man’s Burden

19 African Resistance Many attempts were unsuccessful
Inferior weapons, no unity Successful resistance in Ethiopia Emperor Menelik II played Euro countries against one another Ethiopia built up weaponry Remained independent from Europe

20 Positive Effects of Colonial Rule
Reduced local warfare Humanitarian efforts = better sanitation, hospitals & schools Life-spans & literacy increased Brought new technologies to Africa BUT…. Mostly benefited European businesses, not Africans’ lives

21 Negative Effects of Colonial Rule
Died from new diseases (smallpox) & famines Breakdown of traditional cultures Division of tribes, kinship groups, chiefdoms

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