Presentation on theme: "Imperialism: Scramble for Africa Imperialism = the seizing of countries to create an empire."— Presentation transcript:
Imperialism: Scramble for Africa Imperialism = the seizing of countries to create an empire
Africa Before Imperialism Cultural DiversityCultural Diversity –Many different ethnic groups & languages –Various religious beliefs Varying GovernmentsVarying Governments Africa controlled their own specialized trade networksAfrica controlled their own specialized trade networks Europeans had been in Africa since 1450s but only along coastEuropeans had been in Africa since 1450s but only along coast –Traveling to interior was difficult, disease discouraged exploration
Why Imperialism? Economic factorsEconomic factors –Industrialization need to find more resources for production –Competition between countries (for wealth) Political factorsPolitical factors –Nationalism –Competition between countries (for power)
Why Imperialism? Cultural factors Belief in European superiorityCultural factors Belief in European superiority –Social Darwinism = those fittest for survival enjoyed wealth & success, were superior to others –“Civilize” or “Westernize” natives –Religious motives Spreading Christianity justification?Spreading Christianity justification?
Britain Led in Colonization – Why? In the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the worldIn the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world - Factories produced more goods - British Navy guarded the oceans to transport their goods - British banks loaned $ to fund colonization Other countries followed Britain’s lead & came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well-beingOther countries followed Britain’s lead & came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well-being Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire themCountries that had no colonies set out to acquire them
European Interest in Africa
“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
Belgium & the Congo King Leopold II of BelgiumKing Leopold II of Belgium Commissioned Henry Stanley to get land in CongoCommissioned Henry Stanley to get land in Congo –Signed treaties w/local chiefs to get Congo River Valley Abolish slave trade? Promote Christianity?Abolish slave trade? Promote Christianity? –Brutally exploited Africans Land taken away from Leopold IILand taken away from Leopold II NO!
Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith, 1877 “I contend that we [Britain] are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race…It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.” “I contend that we [Britain] are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race…It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.”
How did Imperialism Develop? I.R. led to superior technologyI.R. led to superior technology –Better weapons –Better communication w/distant colonies Europe’s strong governmentsEurope’s strong governments –Ability to manage overseas territories Africa was…Africa was… –Disunified (local tribal conflicts) New drug quinine protected Europeans from malariaNew drug quinine protected Europeans from malaria
How did Imperialism Develop? Berlin ConferenceBerlin Conference –Euro countries met to divide Africa –African rulers not invited!
Demand for Raw Materials Few Africans bought Euro goodsFew Africans bought Euro goods Euro businesses needed Africa’s materials & resourcesEuro businesses needed Africa’s materials & resources –Congo had copper, tin –S. Africa had gold, diamonds Businesses developed cash-crop plantations displaced food crops grown by local farmers to feed familiesBusinesses developed cash-crop plantations displaced food crops grown by local farmers to feed families
Resistance & Conflict Zulus in South Africa –Zulus were highly disciplined warriors –Zulus v. British in 1879 British wonBritish won
Boers in South Africa Boers (Dutch settlers) v. British 1 st Europeans to settle S. Africa were Dutch farmers known as “Boers” (aka Afrikaners)1 st Europeans to settle S. Africa were Dutch farmers known as “Boers” (aka Afrikaners) –Took African’s land & established large farms British clashed w/Boers over policiesBritish clashed w/Boers over policies
The Boer War Boer War (South African War)Boer War (South African War) –1 st modern “total war” – commando raids, guerrilla tactics British defeated the BoersBritish defeated the Boers –Boer republics joined into self- governing Union of South Africa (controlled by Britain)
A New Period of Imperialism Control Techniques Colony – governed internally by foreign power Protectorate – own internal gov’t but under authority of foreign power Sphere of influence – outside power claims exclusive investment Economic imperialism – independent but less developed country is controlled by private business interests Management Techniques Indirect control – gov’t officials are local (not foreign) self-rule Direct control – foreign gov’t officials (out of country) – Paternalism – provided their needs but did not give them rights – Assimilation – adopt European culture
African Resistance “ Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament. Thus, the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalist exploitation, and militarism.” ~ Edward Morel, The Black Man’s Burden
African Resistance Many attempts were unsuccessfulMany attempts were unsuccessful –Inferior weapons, no unity Successful resistance in EthiopiaSuccessful resistance in Ethiopia –Emperor Menelik II played Euro countries against one another –Ethiopia built up weaponry –Remained independent from Europe
Positive Effects of Colonial Rule Reduced local warfareReduced local warfare Humanitarian efforts = better sanitation, hospitals & schoolsHumanitarian efforts = better sanitation, hospitals & schools –Life-spans & literacy increased Brought new technologies to AfricaBrought new technologies to AfricaBUT…. Mostly benefited European businesses, not Africans’ livesMostly benefited European businesses, not Africans’ lives
Negative Effects of Colonial Rule Died from new diseases (smallpox) & faminesDied from new diseases (smallpox) & famines Breakdown of traditional culturesBreakdown of traditional cultures Division of tribes, kinship groups, chiefdomsDivision of tribes, kinship groups, chiefdoms