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1 Combined Heat and Power https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

2 Carbon footprint - Of heat and various combined heat and power schemes, heat pumps, etc. 1 The previous table gives the carbon footprint per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated, which is about half the world's man-made CO2 output. The CO2 footprint for heat is equally significant and research shows that using waste heat from power generation in combined heat and power district heating, chp/dh has the lowest carbon footprint. much lower than micro- power or heat pumps. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

3 District heating - District heat from combined heat and power or simple combustion 1 Additionally a cogeneration plant (also called combined heat and power, CHP) is often added in parallel with the boilers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

4 District heating - District heat from combined heat and power or simple combustion 1 In the case of a fossil fueled cogeneration plant, the heat output is typically sized to meet half of the peak heat load but over the year will provide 90% of the heat supplied. The boiler capacity will be able to meet the entire heat demand unaided and can cover for breakdowns in the cogeneration plant. It is not economic to size the cogeneration plant alone to be able to meet the full heat load. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

5 District heating - District heat from combined heat and power or simple combustion 1 The combination of cogeneration and district heating is very efficient energy use|energy efficient. A simple thermal power station can be 20–35% efficient, whereas a more advanced facility with the ability to recover waste heat can reach total energy efficiency of nearly 80%. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

6 District heating - District heat from combined heat and power or simple combustion 1 Waste heat from nuclear power plants is sometimes used for district heating. The principles for a conventional combination of cogeneration and district heating applies the same for nuclear as it does for a thermal power station. Russia has several cogeneration nuclear plants which together provided 11.4 PJ of district heat in Russian nuclear district heating is planned to nearly triple within a decade as new plants are built. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

7 District heating - District heat from combined heat and power or simple combustion 1 Other nuclear-powered heating from cogeneration plants are in the Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Switzerland, producing up to about 100MW per power station. One use of nuclear heat generation was with the Ågesta Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden closed in https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

8 District heating - District heat from combined heat and power or simple combustion 1 In Switzerland, the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant provides heat to about 20,000 people.SUGIYAMA KEN'ICHIRO (Hokkaido Univ.) et al. [http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/ / A php Nuclear District Heating: The Swiss Experience] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

9 Micro combined heat and power 1 'Micro combined heat and power' or 'micro-CHP' is an extension of the now well established idea of cogeneration to the single/multi family home or small office building. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

10 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 A micro-CHP system is a small heat engine (power plant) which provides all the power for an individual building; HVAC|heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, mechanical energy and electric power https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

11 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 However, it is not practical to transport heat long distances, due to heat loss from the pipes. Since electricity can be transported practically, it is more efficient to generate the electricity near where the waste heat can be used. So in a micro-combined heat and power system (micro-CHP), small power plants are instead located where the secondary heat can be used, in individual buildings. Micro-CHP are defined by the EC as being of less than 50kW electrical power output. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

12 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 In a central power plant, the supply of waste heat may exceed the local heat demand. In such cases, if it is not desirable to reduce the power production, the excess waste heat must be disposed in e.g. cooling towers or sea cooling without being used. A way to avoid excess waste heat is to reduce the fuel input to the CHP plant, reducing both the heat and power output to balance the heat demand. In doing this, the power production is limited by the heat demand. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

13 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 CHP systems are able to increase the total energy utilization of primary energy sources, such as fuel and concentrated solar thermal energy. Thus CHP has been steadily gaining popularity in all sectors of the energy economy, due to the increased costs of fuels, particularly oil-based fuels, and due to environmental concerns, particularly climate change. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

14 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 In a traditional power plant delivering electricity to consumers, about 30% of the heat content of the primary heat energy source, such as biomass, coal, solar thermal, natural gas, petroleum or nuclear power|uranium, reaches the consumer, although the efficiency can be 20% for very old plants and 45% for newer gas plants https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

15 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 CHP systems have benefited the industrial sector since the beginning of the industrial revolution https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

16 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 Delta-ee consultants stated in 2013 that with 64% of global sales the fuel cell micro-combined heat and power passed the conventional systems in sales in 2012.[http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/media/ /fct_review_2013.pdf The fuel cell industry review 2013] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

17 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 PEMFC fuel cell mCHP operates at low temperature (50 to 100 °C) and needs high purity hydrogen, its prone to contamination, changes are made to operate at higher temperatures and improvements on the fuel reformer https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

18 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 CHP systems linked to absorption chillers can use waste heat for refrigeration.[http://www.fchea.org/core/im port/PDFs/CHP%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf Fuel Cells and CHP] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

19 Micro combined heat and power - Micro-CHP systems 1 In many cases industrial CHP systems primarily electricity generation|generate electricity and heat is a by-product; micro- CHP systems in homes or small commercial buildings are controlled by heat-demand, delivering electricity as the by-product. When used primarily for heat in circumstances of fluctuating electrical demand, micro-CHP systems will often generate more electricity than is instantly being demanded. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

20 Micro combined heat and power - Micro-CHP systems 1 To date, micro-CHP systems achieve much of their savings, and thus attractiveness to consumers, through a generate-and-resell or net metering model wherein home-generated power exceeding the instantaneous in-home needs is sold back to the electrical utility https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

21 Micro combined heat and power - Micro-CHP systems 1 Another positive to net-metering is the fact that it is fairly easy to configure https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

22 Micro combined heat and power - Micro-CHP systems 1 While net-metering is a very efficient mechanism for using excess energy generated by a micro-CHP system, it does have detractors https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

23 Micro combined heat and power - Micro-CHP systems 1 In an evaluation from 2008 by Claverton Energy Group, Stirling engined micro CHP was deemed the most cost effective of the various microgeneration technologies in abating carbon in the UK.[http://www.claverton- energy.com/what-is-microgeneration.html What is microgeneration? Jeremy Harrison, Claverton Energy Group Conference, Bath, Oct 24th 2008] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

24 Micro combined heat and power - Micro-CHP systems 1 A 2013 UK report from Ecuity Consulting stated that MCHP is the most cost-effective method of utilising gas to generate energy at the domestic level.[http://www.ecuity.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/03/The-role-of-micro- CHP-in-a-smart-energy-world.pdf The role of micro CHP in a smart energy world][http://www.renewableenergyfocus.com /view/31489/micro-chp-report-powers-heated- discussion-about-uk-energy-future/ Micro CHP report powers heated discussion about UK energy future] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

25 Micro combined heat and power - Engine types and technologies 1 Micro-CHP engine systems are currently based on several different technologies: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

26 Micro combined heat and power - Engine types and technologies 1 * Internal combustion engines https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

27 Micro combined heat and power - Engine types and technologies 1 * Steam engines (using either the traditional water or Organic Rankine cycle|organic chemicals such as refrigerants) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

28 Micro combined heat and power - Fuels and engine types 1 The majority of cogeneration systems use natural gas for fuel, because natural gas burns easily and cleanly, it can be inexpensive, it is available in most areas and is easily transported through pipelines, which already exist for many homes https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

29 Micro combined heat and power - Fuels and engine types 1 The future of combined heat and power, particularly for homes and small businesses, will continue to be affected by the price of fuel, including natural gas. As fuel prices continue to climb, this will make the economics more favorable for energy conservation measures, and more efficient energy use, including CHP and micro- CHP. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

30 Micro combined heat and power - Fuels 1 There are many types of fuels and sources of heat that may be considered for micro-CHP https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

31 Micro combined heat and power - Engines 1 External combustion engines can run on any high-temperature heat source. These engines include the Stirling engine, hot gas turbocharger, steam engine. Both range from 10%-20% efficiency, and as of 2008, small quantities are in production for micro-CHP products. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

32 Micro combined heat and power - Engines 1 Other possibilities include the Organic Rankine cycle, which operates at lower temperatures and pressures using low- grade heat sources https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

33 Micro combined heat and power - Thermoelectrics 1 Thermoelectric generators operating on the Seebeck Effect show promise due to their total absence of moving parts. Efficiency, however, is the major concern as most thermoelectric devices fail to achieve 5% efficiency even with high temperature differences. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

34 Micro combined heat and power - CPVT 1 This can be achieved by Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector, another option is 'Concentrated photovoltaics and thermal' ('CPVT'), also sometimes called 'combined heat and power solar' ('CHAPS'), is a cogeneration technology used in concentrated photovoltaics that produce both electricity and heat in the same module. The heat may be employed in district heating, water heating and solar cooling|air conditioning, desalination or process heat. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

35 Micro combined heat and power - CPVT 1 CPVT systems are currently in production in Europe, with Zenith Solar developing CPVT systems with a claimed efficiency of 72%. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

36 Micro combined heat and power - CPVT 1 Sopogy produces a micro CSP|Concentrated solar system (microCSP) system based on parabolic trough which can be installed above building or homes, the heat can be used for water heating or solar air conditioning, a steam turbine can also be installed to produce electricity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

37 Micro combined heat and power - CHP+PV 1 The recent development of small scale CHP systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential- scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays.J. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

38 Micro combined heat and power - CHP+PV 1 Pearce, “Expanding Photovoltaic Penetration with Residential Distributed Generation from Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic + Combined Heat and Power Systems”, Energy '34', pp https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

39 Micro combined heat and power - CHP+PV 1 In some regions, in order to reduce waste from excess heat, an absorption chiller has been proposed to utilize the CHP- produced thermal energy for cooling of PV-CHP system.A. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

40 Micro combined heat and power - Japan 1 The largest deployment of micro-CHP is in Japan in 2009 where over 90,000 units in place, with the vast majority being of Hondas ECO-WILL type.[ ocs/wgcFinal00801.pdf Micro CHP in Japan] Six Japanese energy companies launched the 300W–1kW PEMFC/SOFC ENE FARM [ Tokyo%20Gas- Performance%20of%20residential%20Stat ionary%20PEM%20FC%20in%20actual% 20and%20daily%20use%20for%20years.p df Japan mchp][ ets/FCgen-1030V3_docmetrics.pdf FCgen-1030V3] product in 2009, with 3,000 installed units in 2008, a production target of 150,000 units for 2009–2010 and a target of 2,500,000 units in 2030.[ gas.co.jp/tgminutes/64.pdf ENE FARM residential fuel cells launched] Per December 2012 Panasonic and Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

41 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 In South Korea subsidies will start at 80 percent of the cost of a domestic fuel cell.,.[http://www.businessgreen.com/busin ess-green/news/ /south-korea- unveils-80-per-cent South Korea unveils 80 per cent subsidy for domestic fuel cells] The Renewable portfolio standard program with Renewable Energy Certificate (United States)|renewable energy certificates runs from 2012 to 2022.[http://www.fuelcellseminar.com/medi a/5505/kim_10_19_2010.pdf RD status and prospects on fuel cells in Korea] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

42 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 Quota systems favor large, vertically integrated generators and multinational electric utilities, if only because certificates are generally denominated in units of one megawatt-hour https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

43 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 Ljubljana Conference on the Future of GHG Emissions Trading in the EU, March Salzburg, Austria: University of Salzburg. Retrieved 16 March 2009 at: salzburg.at/politikwissenschaft/lauber https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

44 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 Around 350 residential mCHP units where installed in 2012.[http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/media/ /fct_review_2012.pdf The fuel cell industry review 2012] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

45 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 PEMFC by GS Group|GS FuelCell,[http://gsfc.en.ec21.com/Small_St ationary_Fuel_Cell_System html GS Fuelcell Co., Ltd] FuelCell Powers CellVille,[http://www.fuelcellpower.co.kr/en g/index.php FuelCell Power] Hyundai Hysco, IHI Corporation|IHI and Hyosung,[http://www.hyosungpni.com/eng/ product/GreenEnergy/FuelCellSystem/RN D1kWLowTemperaturePEMFCSystem.jsp Hyosung’s 1kW low temperature PEMFC System] SOFC by KEPRI,[http://www.kepri.re.kr/ Kepri] LS Group|LS Industrial Systems (from ClearEdge Power), Samsung Everland (ClearEdge Power), Molten carbonate fuel cell|MCFC by POSCO Energy (FuelCell Energy) [http://www.iphe.net/docs/Events/Japan_3- 11/2%20Park_KOGAS.pdf 2009-Initial stage of commercialization of residential fuel cells in Korea] and Doosan Heavy Industries Construction|Doosan. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

46 Micro combined heat and power - Europe 1 The European public–private partnership Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative|Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development|Seventh Framework Programme project ene.field deploys in 2017[http://www.fch- ju.eu/sites/default/files/documents/sga2012/P resentation%20Fiona%20Riddoch- %20Session%20II.pdf 5th stakeholders general assembly of the FCH JU] up 1,000 residential fuel cell Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) installations in 12 states https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

47 Micro combined heat and power - Germany 1 In Germany, 3,000 ecopower micro-CHP units have been installed, using the U.S https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

48 Micro combined heat and power - The Netherlands 1 The micro-CHP subsidy was ended in To test the effects of mCHP on a smart grid, 45 natural gas SOFC units (each 1,5 kWh) from Republiq Power (Ceramic Fuel Cells) will be placed on Ameland in 2013 to function as a virtual power plant. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

49 Micro combined heat and power - UK 1 It is estimated that about 1,000 micro-CHP systems were in operation in the UK as of 2002 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

50 Micro combined heat and power - UK 1 The market is supported by the government through regulatory work, and some government research money expended through the Energy Saving Trust and The Carbon Trust|Carbon Trust, which are public bodies supporting energy efficiency in the UK.[http://www.chpa.co.uk/events/2006/na tional_conference/presentations/1400%20I an%20Stares.pdf CHP–The microgeneration boom?] Effective as of 7 April 2005, the UK government has cut the VAT from 20% to 5% for micro-CHP systems, in order to support demand for this emerging technology at the expense of existing, less environmentally friendly technology https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

51 Micro combined heat and power - UK 1 Two fuel cell varieties of mCHP co- generation units are almost ready for mainstream production and are planned for release to commercial markets in early in With the UK Government's Feed- In-Tariff available for a 10 year period, a wide uptake of the technology is anticipated.[http://www.ecolocker.co.uk/mi cro-combined-heat-and-power-mchp.html] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

52 Micro combined heat and power - United States 1 In 2007, the United States company Climate Energy of Massachusetts introduced the Freewatt,[http://www.cdhenergy.com/prese ntations/Freewatt%20Report%20- %20October2011.pdf ANnalysis of data collected for the Freewatt microCHP system in Syracuse, NY] a micro-CHP system based on a Honda MCHP engine bundled with a gas furnace (for warm air systems) or boiler (for hydronic or forced hot water heating systems) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

53 Micro combined heat and power - United States 1 Trenergi Corp, Massachusetts, an early stage company, in June 2010, announced its Trion residential, high-temperature (300 F) micro-CHP that operates on both gas and oil, demonstrating combined heat and electrical power efficiencies of up to 90%. Their first products will be 1, 3, and 5kW units.[http://www.businesswire.com/news/h ome/ /en/Trenergi- Completes-Cleantech-Residential-CHP- Solution-Proof Trenergi completes Cleantech residential CHP solution proof of concept] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

54 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 Testing is underway in Ameland, the Netherlands for a three year field testing until 2010 of HCNG were 20% hydrogen is added to the local Compressed natural gas|CNG distribution net, the appliances involved are kitchen stoves condensing boilers and micro-CHP boilers.[http://corporateuk.eneco.nl/outlook _and_strategy/innovation/Pages/ThenewH Reboiler.aspx Micro- CHP][http://translate.google.com/translate ?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.waterstofvereni ging.nl%2Fnieuws%2Fopinie- ameland.htmlsl=nltl=enhl=enie=UTF-8 Ameland Field testing] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

55 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 Micro-CHP Accelerator, a field trial performed between 2005 and 2008, studied the performance of 87 Stirling engine and internal combustion engine devices in residential houses in the UK. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

56 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 This study found that the devices resulted in average carbon savings of 9% for houses with heat demand over 54 GJ/year. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

57 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 An ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) paper fully describes the performance and operating https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

58 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 and Power units which were in operation from 1979 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

59 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 The first unit was an automatic coal fired steam electric https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

60 Micro combined heat and power - Research , operating with a steam turbine- generator for two https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

61 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 years, and was modified with a reciprocating uniflow expander https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

62 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 functioned reliably, with only four forced outages during https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

63 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 the four years of operation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

64 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 EXPERIENCE WITH EARLY DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SYSTEMS https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

65 Fossil-fuel power station - Combined heat and power 1 Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is the use of a power station to provide both electric power and process heat or district heating https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

66 Vegetable oil fuel - Combined heat and power 1 A number of companies offer diesel engines|compressed ignition engine generators optimized to run on plant oils where the waste engine heat is recovered for heating. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

67 Low-carbon economy - Combined Heat and Power 1 Cogeneration|Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a technology which by allowing the more efficient use of fuel will at least reduce carbon emissions; should the fuel be biomass or biogas or hydrogen used as an energy store then in principle it can be a zero carbon option. CHP can also be used with a nuclear reactor as the energy source, there are examples of such installations in the far North of the Russian Federation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

68 Biomass heating system - Combined heat and power 1 Combined heat and power systems are very useful systems in which wood waste, such as wood chips, is used to generate power, and heat is created as a byproduct of the power generation system https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

69 Biomass heating system - Combined heat and power 1 There are certain situations where CHP is a good option. Wood product manufacturers would use a combined heat and power system because they have a large supply of waste wood, and a need for both heat and power. Other places where these systems would be optimal are hospitals and prisons, which need energy, and heat for hot water. These systems are sized so that they will produce enough heat to match the average heat load so that no additional heat is needed, and a cooling tower is not needed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

70 Stationary fuel cell applications - Micro combined heat and power 1 Micro combined heat and power, 'mCHP' or 'Micro cogeneration is a so-called Distributed Energy Resource|distributed energy resource (DER) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

71 Stationary fuel cell applications - Micro combined heat and power 1 Delta-ee consultants stated in 2013 that with 64% of global sales the fuel cell micro-combined heat and power passed the conventional systems in sales in 2012.[ 44/fct_review_2013.pdf The fuel cell industry review 2013] units where sold in Japan in 2012 overall within the Ene Farm project https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

72 Refrigeration cycle - Comparison with Combined Heat and Power (CHP) 1 A heat pump may be compared with a CHP unit, in that for a condensing steam plant, as it switches to produced heat, then electrical power is lost or becomes unavailable, just as the power used in a heat pump becomes unavailable https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

73 District heating - District heat from combined heat and power or simple combustion 1 Additionally a cogeneration plant (also called combined heat and power, CHP) is often added in parallel with the boilers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

74 Micro combined heat and power 1 'Micro combined heat and power' or 'micro-CHP' is an extension of the idea of cogeneration to the single/multi family home or small office building. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

75 Micro combined heat and power - CHP+PV 1 Pearce, “Expanding Photovoltaic Penetration with Residential Distributed Generation from Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic + Combined Heat and Power Systems”, Energy '34', pp https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

76 Micro combined heat and power - Japan 1 The largest deployment of micro-CHP is in Japan in 2009 where over 90,000 units in place, with the vast majority being of Hondas ECO-WILL type.[http://www.igu.org/html/wgc2009/papers/docs/wgcFinal pdf Micro CHP in Japan] Six Japanese energy companies launched the 300W–1kW PEMFC/SOFC ENE FARM [http://www.jemmytex.com.tw/d_pdf/3-Tokyo%20Gas- Performance%20of%20residential%20Stationary%20PEM%2 0FC%20in%20actual%20and%20daily%20use%20for%20yea rs.pdf Japan mchp][http://www.ballard.com/files/pdf/Spec_Sheets/FCgen- 1030V3_docmetrics.pdf FCgen-1030V3] product in 2009, with 3,000 installed units in 2008, a production target of 150,000 units for 2009–2010 and a target of 2,500,000 units in 2030.[http://www.tokyo-gas.co.jp/tgminutes/64.pdf ENE FARM residential fuel cells launched] Per December 2012 Panasonic and Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

77 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 PEMFC by GS Group|GS FuelCell,[http://gsfc.en.ec21.com/Small_Stationary_Fuel_Cell _System html GS Fuelcell Co., Ltd] FuelCell Power (now Doosan),[http://www.fuelcellpower.co.kr/eng/index.php FuelCell Power] Hyundai Hysco, IHI Corporation|IHI and Hyosung,[http://www.hyosungpni.com/eng/product/GreenEner gy/FuelCellSystem/RND1kWLowTemperaturePEMFCSystem. jsp Hyosung’s 1kW low temperature PEMFC System] SOFC by KEPRI,[http://www.kepri.re.kr/ Kepri] LS Group|LS Industrial Systems (from ClearEdge Power), Samsung Everland (ClearEdge Power), Molten carbonate fuel cell|MCFC by POSCO Energy (FuelCell Energy) [http://www.iphe.net/docs/Events/Japan_3- 11/2%20Park_KOGAS.pdf 2009-Initial stage of commercialization of residential fuel cells in Korea] and Doosan Heavy Industries Construction|Doosan. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

78 Micro combined heat and power - Germany 1 In Germany, 3,000 ecopower micro-CHP units have been installed, using the U.S https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

79 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 for an additional two years operation. The unit https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

80 Woodchips - Micro Combined heat and power 1 Wood is occasionally used to power engines, such as steam engines, Stirling engines, and Otto engines running on woodgas https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

81 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 PEMFC fuel cell mCHP operates at low temperature (50 to 100°C) and needs high purity hydrogen, its prone to contamination, changes are made to operate at higher temperatures and improvements on the fuel reformer https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

82 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *Per December 2012 Panasonic and Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. sold about 21,000 PEM Ene-Farm units in Japan for a price of $22,600 before installation.[http://panasonic.co.jp/corp/ne ws/official.data/data.dir/2013/01/en /en html Launch of new 'Ene- Farm' home fuel cell product more affordable and easier to install][http://panasonic.co.jp/ap/FC/en_do c03_02.html Features of the Panasonic household fuel cell] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

83 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *Toshiba and Osaka Gas Co Ltd / Nichigas[http://www.nichigas.co.jp/en/applian ces/enefarm.html Nichigas Ene Farm] installed 6,500 PEM ENE FARM units (manufactured by Chofu Seisakusho Co Ltd[http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEWS _EN/ /202951/?ST=english_PRINT Toshiba revamps 'Ene Farm' residential fuel cell] ) per nov 2011.[http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NE WS_EN/ /202951/ Toshiba revamps 'Ene Farm' residential fuel cell] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

84 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *In the middle of 2012 JX Nippon Oil Co.Sanyo and Seibu Gas Energy Co sold around 4000 SOFC Ene Farm units.[http://www.fcdic.com/eng/news/ pdf The latest news number 196, 2012 FCDIC ] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

85 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *Aisin Seiki in combination with Osaka Gas, Kyocera, Toyota and Chofu Seisakusho started in April 2012 with the sales of the SOFC ENE-FARM Type S for around $33,500 before installation.[http://www.robaid.com/tech/en e-farm-type-s-most-efficient-residential- use-solid-oxide-fuel-cell.htm ENE-FARM Type S] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

86 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 *PEMFC by GS Group|GS FuelCell,[http://gsfc.en.ec21.com/Small_Stati onary_Fuel_Cell_System html GS Fuelcell Co., Ltd] FuelCell Power, [http://www.fuelcellpower.co.kr/eng/index.php FuelCell Power] Hyundai Hysco, IHI Corporation|IHI and Hyosung,[http://www.hyosungpni.com/eng/pr oduct/GreenEnergy/FuelCellSystem/RND1k WLowTemperaturePEMFCSystem.jsp Hyosung’s 1kW low temperature PEMFC System] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

87 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 *SOFC by KEPRI,[http://www.kepri.re.kr/ Kepri] LS Group|LS Industrial Systems (from ClearEdge Power), Samsung Everland (ClearEdge Power). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

88 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 *Molten carbonate fuel cell|MCFC by POSCO Energy (FuelCell Energy) [http://www.iphe.net/docs/Events/Japan_3- 11/2%20Park_KOGAS.pdf 2009-Initial stage of commercialization of residential fuel cells in Korea] and Doosan Heavy Industries Construction|Doosan. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

89 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 *PAFC Doosan Fuel Cell America https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

90 Micro combined heat and power - Germany 1 In Germany, 3,000 ecopower micro-CHP units have been installed, using the U.S https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

91 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *Ceramic Fuel Cells installs until 2014 up to 100 SOFC units under the SOFT- PACT[http://www.fch-ju.eu/project/solid- oxide-fuel-cell-micro-chp-field-trials Solid oxide fuel cell micro-CHP field trials] project with E.ON in Germany and the UK. A factory in Heinsberg, Germany for the production of SOFC based micro-CHP units started in June 2009 to produce 10,000 two-kilowatt units per year.[http://peakenergy.blogspot.com/2008 /03/cogeneration-at-home-ceramic-fuel- cells.html Ceramic fuel cells] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

92 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *Vaillant Group|Vaillant (Sunfire SOFC[http://www.sunfir e.de/en Sunfire]) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

93 Micro combined heat and power - UK 1 It is estimated that about 1,000 micro-CHP systems were in operation in the UK as of 2002 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

94 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 In early 2012 less than kWe Baxi- Innotech [http://www.baxi-innotech.de/ BAXI-Innotech] PEM micro-CHP units from BDR Thermea where installed [http://www.cospp.com/articles/print/volum e-13/issue-3/features/micro-chp-japan- continues-to-lead-as-fuel-cells-units- emerge.html Micro-CHP Japan continues to lead as fuel cell units emerge] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

95 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *A Ceres Power factory in Horsham UK for the production of SOFC based micro-CHP units is expected to start low-volume production in the second half of 2009.[http://www.renewableenergyfocus.c om/view/4212/ceres-power-signs-fuel-cell- chp-assembly-deal-with-daalderop/ Ceres Power signs fuel cell CHP assembly deal with Daalderop] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

96 NGK - Micro combined heat and power 1 NKG is a manufacturer of SOFC fuel cell micro combined heat and power units in the range 700W - 1 Kw.[http://www.fuelcellseminar.com/media/ 5101/hrd34-3_nishijima.pdf Development of SOFC for residential use] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

97 Combined Heat and Power Association 1 The 'Combined Heat and Power Association' is an energy organisation based in the United Kingdom. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

98 Combined Heat and Power Association - Structure 1 It is situated on Dean Farrar Street, near St. James Park Underground station. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

99 Combined Heat and Power Association - Members 1 Members of the CHPA include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

100 Combined Heat and Power Association - Members 1 * University of Warwick https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

101 Combined Heat and Power Association - Function 1 It supports companies involved in cogeneration, which is sometimes referred to as district heating, whereby waste heat from power generation is used for heating. Smaller units are referred to as Micro combined heat and power|MicroCHP. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

102 Combined Heat and Power Association - Function 1 Many CHP schemes in the UK are found in hotels, hospitals, universities and leisure centres. The largest CHP plant in Europe is the Immingham Power Station. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

103 Combined Heat and Power Association - History 1 It was founded in 1967 as the District Heating Association. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

104 Micro combined heat and power 1 'Micro combined heat and power' or 'micro- CHP' is an extension of the idea of cogeneration to the single/multi family home or small office building in the range 0, Kilowatt|kW. Local generation has a higher efficiency as it lacks the 8-10 % energy losses when transporting electricity over long distances and the % energy losses on long distance heat transfer due to the difference between the hot energy carrier (water) and the colder external environment. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

105 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 In many cases CHP systems primarily electricity generation|generate electricity and heat is a by-product; micro-CHP systems in homes or small commercial buildings are controlled by heat-demand, delivering electricity as the by-product. When used primarily for heat in circumstances of fluctuating electrical demand, micro-CHP systems will often generate more electricity than is instantly being demanded. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

106 Micro combined heat and power - Overview 1 CHP systems linked to absorption chillers can use waste heat for refrigeration.[https://www1.eere.energy.go v/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/tri- generation_fountainvalley.pdf Tri- Generation success story] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

107 Micro combined heat and power - Technologies 1 * Steam engine/Steam motor (using either the traditional water or Organic Rankine cycle|organic chemicals such as refrigerants) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

108 Micro combined heat and power - Fuel cell micro-CHP 1 Fuel cells generate electricity and heat as a by product. The advantages for a stationary fuel cell applications|stationary fuel cell application over stirling CHP are no moving parts, less maintenance, and quieter operation. The surplus electricity can be delivered back to the grid.[http://www.orbit.dtu.dk/files/ /FCCHP_LV.pdf Integration of fuel cell micro-CHPs on low voltage grid: A Danish case study] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

109 Micro combined heat and power - Fuel cell micro-CHP 1 As an example, a PEMFC fuel cell based micro-CHP has an electrical efficiency of 37% Lower heating value|LHV and 33% Higher heating value|HHV and a heat recovery efficiency of 52% LHV and 47% HHV with a service life of 40,000 hours or 4000 start/stop cycles which is equal to 10 year use. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

110 Micro combined heat and power - Fuel cell micro-CHP 1 In 2013 Service life|Lifetime is around 60,000 hours. For PEM fuel cell units, which shut down at night, this equates to an estimated lifetime of between ten and fifteen years.[http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/analysi s/analyst-views/2013/ latest- developments-in-the-ene-farm-scheme Latest developments in the Ene-Farm scheme] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

111 Micro combined heat and power - Fuel cell micro-CHP 1 United States Department of Energy|United States Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Targets: 1–10kW residential combined heat and power fuel cells operating on natural gas.[http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/distrib utedstationary-fuel-cell-systems DOE Distributed/Stationary fuel cell systems] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

112 Micro combined heat and power - Fuel cell micro-CHP 1 |Start-up time from 20°C ambient temperature||60 min ||45 min ||30 min ||20 min https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

113 Micro combined heat and power - CPVT 1 CPVT systems are currently in production in Europe,[http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2008/11/researchers -explore-hybrid-concentrated-solar- energy-system Renewable Energy World-Researchers explore hybrid concentrated solar energy system] with Zenith Solar developing CPVT systems with a claimed efficiency of 72%. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

114 Micro combined heat and power - Japan 1 The largest deployment of micro-CHP is in Japan in 2009 where over 90,000 units in place, with the vast majority being of Honda's ECO-WILL type.[http://www.kgu.or.kr/download.php?t b=bbs_017fn=wgcFinal00305.pdfrn=wgcFi nal00305.pdf Micro CHP in Japan] Six Japanese energy companies launched the 300W–1kW PEMFC/SOFC ENE FARM [http://www.jemmytex.com.tw/d_pdf/3- Tokyo%20Gas- Performance%20of%20residential%20Stat ionary%20PEM%20FC%20in%20actual% 20and%20daily%20use%20for%20years.p df Japan mchp][http://www.ballard.com/files/pdf/Spe c_Sheets/FCgen-1030V3_docmetrics.pdf FCgen-1030V3] product in 2009, with 3,000 installed units in 2008, a production target of 150,000 units for 2009–2010 and a target of 2,500,000 units in 2030.[http://www.tokyo- gas.co.jp/tgminutes/64.pdf ENE FARM residential fuel cells launched] 20,000 units where sold in 2012 overall within the Ene Farm project making an estimated total of 50,000 PEMFC and up to 5,000 SOFC installations.[http://www.iea.org/publication s/insights/insightpublications/IEAJapanSco recardMASTERFINALdraft_060913_AF.pd f The IEA CHP and DHC Collaborative] For 2013 a state subsidy for 50,000 units is in place https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

115 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *Per December 2012, Panasonic and Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. sold about 21,000 PEM Ene-Farm units in Japan for a price of $22,600 before installation.[http://panasonic.co.jp/corp/ne ws/official.data/data.dir/2013/01/en /en html Launch of new 'Ene- Farm' home fuel cell product more affordable and easier to install][http://panasonic.co.jp/ap/FC/en_do c03_02.html Features of the Panasonic household fuel cell] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

116 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *Toshiba and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd./Nichigas[http://www.nichigas.co.jp/en/ap pliances/enefarm.html Nichigas Ene Farm] installed 6,500 PEM ENE FARM units (manufactured by Chofu Seisakusho Co., Ltd,[http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEW S_EN/ /202951/?ST=english_PRINT Toshiba revamps 'Ene Farm' residential fuel cell] ) per November 2011.[http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NE WS_EN/ /202951/ Toshiba revamps 'Ene Farm' residential fuel cell] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

117 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *In the middle of 2012, Nippon Oil|JX Nippon Oil Co. Sanyo and Seibu Gas Energy Co. sold around 4,000 SOFC Ene Farm units.[http://www.fcdic.com/eng/news/ pdf The latest news number 196, 2012 FCDIC ] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

118 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *NGK is a manufacturer of 700W-1 Kw mCHP units.[http://www.fuelcellseminar.com/medi a/5101/hrd34-3_nishijima.pdf Development of SOFC for residential use] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

119 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *Miura Kogyo[http://www.miuraz.co.jp/en/ Miura] and Sumitomo Precision Products with a 4.2 Kw unit. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

120 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *Toto Ltd.[http://www.fuelcellseminar.com/ media/9333/a399_1.pdf Toto Ltd] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

121 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 In South Korea, subsidies will start at 80 percent of the cost of a domestic fuel cell.[http://www.businessgreen.com/busine ss-green/news/ /south-korea- unveils-80-per-cent South Korea unveils 80 per cent subsidy for domestic fuel cells] The Renewable portfolio standard|Renewable Portfolio Standard program with Renewable Energy Certificate (United States)|renewable energy certificates runs from 2012 to 2022.[http://www.fuelcellseminar.com/medi a/5505/kim_10_19_2010.pdf RD status and prospects on fuel cells in Korea] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

122 Micro combined heat and power - South Korea 1 *PEMFC by GS Group|GS FuelCell,[http://gsfc.en.ec21.com/Small_Stationary _Fuel_Cell_System html GS Fuelcell Co., Ltd] FuelCell Power,[http://www.fuelcellpower.co.kr/eng/index.ph p FuelCell Power] Hyundai Hysco[https://www.hysco.com/eng/product/fuel_ce ll01.aspx Hyundai Hysco] Joint venture|JV with Plug Power, IHI Corporation|IHI and Hyosung,[http://www.hyosungpni.com/eng/product /GreenEnergy/FuelCellSystem/RND1kWLowTemp eraturePEMFCSystem.jsp Hyosung’s 1kW low temperature PEMFC System] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

123 Micro combined heat and power - Germany 1 In Germany, 3,000 ecopower micro-CHP units have been installed, using the U.S https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

124 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *Viessmann (Panasonic)[http://www.fcdic.com/eng/new s/ pdf Number FDIC - Viesmann-Panasonic] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

125 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *Elcore,[http://www.elcomax.com/ Elcore - Elcomax ] a 300W addon.[http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/analy sis/analyst-views/2013/ handling- the-cost-of-residential-fuel-cells Handling the cost of residential fuel cells] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

126 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *Tropical (vehicles)|Tropical [http://www.tropical.gr/products/fuel-cell- power-generators/1kw-hydrogen-fc-power- generator.html Tropical] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

127 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *Riesaer Brennstoffzellentechnik GmbH (Inhouse Engineering)[http://www.inhouse- engineering.de/de/brennstoffzellensystem e/produkte/PEM-Brennstoffzellenstacks- von-1-5kW/ Inhouse] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

128 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *Center for Fuel Cell Technology (ZBT) (Nippon Oil|JX Nippon)[http://www.zbt- duisburg.de/en/meta-menu/news-anzeige- eng/article/deutsch-japanisches- kooperationsprojekt/ ZBT] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

129 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *Vaillant Group|Vaillant (Sunfire/Staxera)[http:// Sunfire] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

130 Micro combined heat and power - SOFC 1 *Buderus/Junkers - Bosch Thermotechnik (Aisin Seiki)[http://enefield.eu/field- trials/installations/first-buderus-ene-field- fuel-cell-system-successfully-tested-in- single-family-home/ Buderus Logapower FC10 energy centre supplies both heat and electricity] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

131 Micro combined heat and power - PEMFC 1 *In early 2012 less than kWe Baxi- Innotech [http://www.baxi-innotech.de/ BAXI-Innotech] PEM micro-CHP units from BDR Thermea where installed [http://www.cospp.com/articles/print/volum e-13/issue-3/features/micro-chp-japan- continues-to-lead-as-fuel-cells-units- emerge.html Micro-CHP Japan continues to lead as fuel cell units emerge] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

132 Micro combined heat and power - Denmark 1 The Danish mCHP project 2007 to 2014 with 30 units is on the island of Lolland and in the western town Varde.[http://www.fuelcellseminar.com/ass ets/pdf/2008/tuesday/DEM23- 2_AHPederson.ppt.pdf Demonstration of micro CHP based on Danish fuel cells] Denmark is currently part of the Ene.field project. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

133 Micro combined heat and power - United States 1 *AFC Doosan Fuel Cell America https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

134 Micro combined heat and power - Research 1 Testing is underway in Ameland, the Netherlands for a three year field testing until 2010 of HCNG were 20% hydrogen is added to the local Compressed natural gas|CNG distribution net, the appliances involved are kitchen stoves, condensing boilers, and micro-CHP boilers.[http://corporateuk.eneco.nl/outlook_and_st rategy/innovation/Pages/ThenewHReboiler.aspx Micro- CHP][http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.waterstofvereniging.nl%2Fnieu ws%2Fopinie- ameland.htmlsl=nltl=enhl=enie=UTF-8 Ameland Field testing] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-combined-heat-and-power-toolkit.html

135 For More Information, Visit: https://store.theartofservice.co m/the-combined-heat-and- power-toolkit.html https://store.theartofservice.co m/the-combined-heat-and- power-toolkit.html The Art of Service https://store.theartofservice.com


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