2Teacher’s notes and Flash files Most slides contain notes to accompany the presentation. This icon indicates that the notes contain particularly detailed instructions or extension activities.To access these notes go to ‘Notes Page View’ (PowerPoint 97) or ‘Normal View’ (PowerPoint 2000/2002).Notes Page ViewNormal ViewThis icon indicates that a Flash file has been embedded into the PowerPoint slide. These files are not editable.
3What is a volcano?A volcano is an opening or vent in the earth’s surface through which molten material erupts and solidifies as lava.Volcanic vent
4Where are volcanoes found? Around which plate do we find most volcanoes?
5Label this cross section of a volcano Volcanic bombs, ash, lava, gasesMagma chamberParasitic coneCraterMain vent
6Cross section of a volcano Volcanic bombs, ash and gasesCraterParasitic coneMain ventMagma chamber
7Why do they happen?A destructive plate boundary is found where a continental plate meets an oceanic plate.The oceanic plate descends under the continental plate because it is denser. As the plate descends it starts to melt due to the friction caused by the movement between the plates. This melted plate is now hot, liquid rock (magma). The magma rises through the gaps in the continental plate. If it reaches the surface, the liquid rock forms a volcano.Destructive Plate Boundary
9Why do they happen?At a constructive plate boundary, two plates move apart.As the two plates move apart, magma rises up to fill the gap. This causes volcanoes at this type of boundary. However, since the magma can escape easily at the surface, the volcano does not erupt with much force.Constructive Plate Boundary
11At destructive plate boundaries the lava is viscous (thick like treacle) and it cannot flow very far from the volcano’s vent. This makes the volcano steep sided.At constructive plate boundaries the lava is runny and it can flow far away from the volcano’s vent. This makes the volcano gentle sided.
12Volcano ShapesWhy are these volcanoes different shapes?
13Do all volcanoes erupt?Active volcano – liable to erupt e.g. Mt Etna.Dormant (sleeping) volcano – a volcano which has not erupted for many years. For example, Mt Pinatubo erupted in 1991 after 500 years of dormancy.Extinct volcano – a volcano which has not erupted for many thousands or millions of years e.g. Edinburgh.However, it is often very difficult to tell whether a volcano will erupt again…El Chichon, Mexico erupted in 1982 after being dormant for approximately 1200 years!
14located on the ‘Ring of Fire’ Mt St Helen’s eruption (May 1980)Mt St Helenslocated on the ‘Ring of Fire’While all care is taken to ensure web links contain useful information, Boardworks does not take responsibility for the content or accuracy of external web sites.Internet Links
15Mt St Helens – causes of the eruption North American PlateJuan de Fuca plateWhich is the oceanic plate?
16Mt St Helens – the eruption Animation showing the Mt St Helen’s eruption with text.
17Mt St Helens – consequences of the eruption 10kmInteractive map:Redrawn map, showing compass point, scale line, Mt St Helens, North and South Toutle rivers and area of total destruction. Buttons (North Toutle, trees flattened, Portland, Mt St Helens, Spirit Lake, ash cloud) reveal extra information when clicked…e.g. click on North Toutle button and ‘mudflows 200m thick in the upper Toutle valleys’ appears.
19What damage did the eruption cause? Up to 70mm of ash falls across Washington and East Montana… 7000 school students have an early summer vacation due to problems on the roadsAn increase in tourismMudflows block and divert rivers. The US army takes 18 months to dig out the debris from the River Toutle.Two million birds, animals and fish are killed.Communications routes threatened – railway and road bridges destroyed, Portland harbour blockedA decrease in tourismHot mudflows raise the temperature of the rivers and lakes to 30ºC60 people die from the eruption.Gophers, through their tunnelling, mix the soil with the ash. This increases the fertility of the soil.Deer mice, chipmunk, vole, gophers, salamander survive the blast. Their population steadily increases due to the absence of predators.Damage to crops=$175millionThe post office and Lone Fir Motel shut down in Cougar.Separate the above into the short term and long term impacts of the eruption.
20Deer mice, chipmunk, vole, gophers, salamander survive the blast Deer mice, chipmunk, vole, gophers, salamander survive the blast. Their population steadily increases due to the absence of predators.Why do you think animals such as the vole and gopher survived the blast?What benefits might the volcanic activity have brought to Mt St Helens?
21Why do people live in volcanic areas? This lava is weathered (broken down) to form a fertile soil,Can you think of any other reasons?Geothermal energy (heat from the earth) can be produced in many volcanic areas.Tourists are attracted to areas of volcanic activity.
22Nevada del Ruiz, Colombia (November 1985) Nevada del Ruiz is located in the Andes. The volcano had been giving signs of increased activity for some time and on the 13th November the volcano erupted, producing a cloud of steam, ash and rocks. The heat melted snow on the volcano and the water produced combined with ash, creating a mudflow. This mudflow rushed down the valley at 60km/hour towards the town of Armero and engulfed the town with mud up to 5m deep. It was just before midnight and most people were in bed. By the time the rescue team reached Armero, the next day, the mudflows had set hard.23,000 dead5,000 injured 5,000 homes destroyedThe eruption started at 9.08pm. If the mudflows reached Armeno at 11.30pm, how far is Armero from Nevada del Ruiz?What could have been the volcano’s ‘signs of increased activity’?Why wasn’t Armero evacuated when the volcano had shown these ‘signs of increased activity’?
23Internet links!Volcano World - a fun and informative web siteVirtual field visitsThe Michigan Technological University Volcanoes PageGlobal Volcanism ProgramFallout: Eye on the VolcanoSavage earthWhile all care is taken to ensure web links contain useful information, Boardworks does not take responsibility for the content or accuracy of external web sites.