Visible evidence that organisms have changed over time Ex. – Fossils
▪ Paleontologists are scientists who collect and study fossils. ▪ The fossil record provides incomplete information about the history of life. ▪ Over 99% of all species that have lived on Earth have become extinct. ▪ Where are all these fossils??
Fossil Formation Water carries small rock particles to lakes and seas. Fossil Formation
Dead organisms are buried by layers of sediment, which forms new rock.
The preserved remains may be later discovered and studied.
Lucy Lucy Coal Formation Coal Formation The following picture is of plant fossils found in coal from the Minto area that are 300 million years old…..older than dinosaures!
Relative Dating ▪ In relative dating, the age of a fossil is determined by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock. ▪ Rock layers form in order by age—the oldest on the bottom, with more recent layers on top. ▪ Grand Canyon Grand Canyon
Relative dating allows paleontologists to estimate a fossil's age compared with that of other fossils.
▪ Radioactive dating ▪ Some elements are radioactive and steadily break down into nonradioactive elements. ▪ Radioactive dating is the use of half-lives to determine the age of a sample. ▪ A half-life is the length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.
C-14 breaks down into N-14 at a fixed rate. The half life of C-14 is 5,760 years. When an organism dies, the C-14 in the organism starts to change into N-14. Knowing the half-life, you can compare the amount of C-14 to N-14 to determine the age of the fossil
Let’s say the fossil we are dating shows 50% C-14 and 50% N-14……. The fossil should be 5,760 years old. If another 5,760 years passed, what would be the ratio of C-14 to N-14? Right!!.........C-14 25% to N-14 75% Potassium 40 is an isotope with a half-life of 1.2 billion years!!
Evidence we can look at today that suggests we may have a common ancestry with other organisms. 1. Embryological Similarities
2. Comparative Morphology Homologous Structures (Similar structure but different function!)
3. Similarities in Biochemistry DNA similarities (98% of our DNA is the same as a chimpanzee) Protein in all organisms is composed of the same 20 amino acids!!
Direct Evidence – something we can look at that takes us back in time. Ex. Fossils Indirect Evidence – something we can look at that show some kind of evolutionary connection between organisms. Ex. Embryological similarities, Homologous structures, Biochemistry similarities
Darwin’s explanation of evolution is called Natural Selection. What does the term Artificial Selection mean? Discuss this with a neighbour. Samuri Crab Samuri Crab
Organisms don’t change to survive, they survive (or die!) because they change!