Presentation on theme: "For more information, please contact Katherine Salamon at Describing the Typical Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) User Katherine."— Presentation transcript:
For more information, please contact Katherine Salamon at Describing the Typical Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) User Katherine S. Salamon, Kathryn Sayers, W. Hobart Davies University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Introduction Interest and participation in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has steadily increased over the last decade (Bazargan et al., 2008). Growing research suggests that these therapies have benefits including stress management and alleviation of symptoms associated with medical illnesses (John, Sharma, Sharma & Kankane, 2007; Kuttner et al., 2006). Barnett et al. (2003) described a schema held by the general population that a typical CAM user is Caucasian, well educated, middle class, and female. Much research is still needed to explore the beliefs about the characteristics of individuals who participate in CAM therapies to see how pervasive and generalizable these opinions are and also whether these perceived characteristics function as a barrier to participation for individuals who do not share the characteristics. Methods The participants were recruited using a community sampling technique in two different waves of data collection. Eligible participants were between the ages of 18 to 24 years old. Undergraduate students enrolled in an advance psychology research methods course recruited participants as per course requirements. Consent and questionnaires were completed through an online surveying system. Aim The aim of the current study is to explore the demographic characteristics of the CAM user prototype elicited by the community. With this information, one possibility is to identify ways to combat this stereotype prior to the recruitment phase to ensure that a wider range of individuals may participate in CAM research. Measures (cont.) The Holistic Health Questionnaire (adapted from Tsao et al., 2005) is a measure used to assess previous traditional and non traditional treatment use as well as expectations of CAM treatments. A select group of individuals (N = 478) responded to both the CAM Perceptions questionnaire as well as rated expectations of yoga/acupuncture on a 7 point Likert scale, from not helpful to extremely helpful. Participant Demographics Results Conclusions See Table 1 for Top 5 descriptive adjectives See Table 2 for descriptive information on relevant variables across both vignettes Pearson correlations were utilized to compare expectations and likeliness to endorse a certain characteristics (see Table 3) For yoga, higher expectations of pleasantness were associated with broadening the CAM prototype in terms of gender, age, sexuality, and religion. For acupuncture, there were no significant relationships between expectations of pleasantness and broadening the description of the CAM prototype. Taking the results together, it appears that the model profile for participants in both types of CAMs is a White or Asian female, age 26-34, highly educated (college degree or higher), identifies as liberal, and religious affiliation is Buddhist or Hindu. The results of the current study largely resemble the stereotype that Barnett and colleagues (2008) postulated. It will become especially important to understand how these factors may affect recruitment, participation, and overall treatment effects. Generalizability of the treatment effects may be impacted if a representative sample is not recruited. One possibility is to identify ways to combat this stereotype prior to the recruitment phase to ensure that a wider range of individuals may participate in CAM research. These efforts could potentially lead to a more representative sample and provide a rigorous literature base on the effectiveness of CAM therapies. Yoga Vignette N = 361 Acupuncture Vignette N = 209 Gender (Female)56.9%56.7% Age (years)24.2 (7.02)24.7 (7.46) Ethnicity (Caucasian)81%79.1% Education13.49 years Table 1: Top 5 Descriptive Words Yoga VignetteAcupuncture Vignette Open minded (67.9%)Open minded (68.4%) Exploring (46.2%)Exploring (54.6%) Free spirited (39.7%)Free spirited (48.5%) Nontraditional (39.7%)Spiritual (42.1%) Curious (35.9%)Healthy (38%) Table 2: Descriptive Statistics VariableM(SD) Man compared to Woman2.06(.75) years old compared to yrs3.26(1.15) years old compared to yrs3.35(.76) Over 50 years old compared to yrs2.39(.96) Liberal compared to Moderate3.58(.75) Conservative compared to Moderate2.37(.71) Middle School compared to High School graduate2.14(.82) College compared to High School graduate3.50(.90) Master’s Degree compared to High School graduate3.56(.79) Homosexual Male compared to Heterosexual male3.45(.79) Homosexual Female compared to Heterosexual female3.22(.73) African American compared to Caucasian/White2.42(.73) Asian compared to Caucasian/White3.44(.87) Native American compared to Caucasian/White2.74(.84) Latino/a compared to Caucasian/White2.59(.69) Catholic compared to Agnostic/Atheist2.60(.74) Protestant compared to Agnostic/Atheist2.67(.69) Buddhist compared to Agnostic/Atheist3.55(.90) Jewish compared to Agnostic/Atheist2.65(.72) Hindu compared to Agnostic/Atheist3.33(.89) Expectations: Yoga Vignette4.23(1.66) Expectations: Acupuncture Vignette4.31(1.75) Measures Demographic Information, including age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Perceptions Questionnaire is a 21 item instrument that asks individuals to judge likeliness to participate in yoga or acupuncture based on a series of demographic factors. An example question included, “Compared to an year old, how likely do you think and year is to participate in yoga (acupuncture)?” Responds rate likeliness on a 5 point Likert scale from much less likely to much more likely. Additionally, individuals were ask to select adjectives from a list that described an individual seeking yoga or acupuncture in a vignette. Expectations: Yoga r p Expectations: Acupuncture r p Man.15 (.014)**.09(NS) years old.19(.001)***-.08(NS) years old.15(.014)**-.04(NS) Over 50 years old-.10(NS).05(NS) Liberal.10(NS).08(NS) Conservative-.07(NS).01(NS) Middle School-.10(NS)-.14(.083)* College.60(NS).13(NS) Master’s Degree.03(NS).12(NS) Homosexual Male-.07(NS)-.03(NS) Homosexual Female-.18(.002)***.01(NS) African American.03(NS).07(NS) Asian-.02(NS).15(NS) Native American-.09(NS).06(NS) Latino/a.03(NS).05(NS) Catholic.03(NS)-.02(NS) Protestant.01(NS)-.01(NS) Buddhist.07(NS)-.00(NS) Jewish-.15(.014)**.00(NS) Hindu.08(NS).15(.066)* Table 3: Correlations NS = not significant. *p <. 10. **p <.05. ***p <.01.