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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 55 Ecosystems

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview: Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ecosystems can range from a microcosm, such as an aquarium – To a large area such as a lake or forest Figure 54.1

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regardless of an ecosystem’s size – Its dynamics involve two main processes: energy flow and chemical cycling: Energy flows through ecosystems While matter cycles within them

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 55.1: Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling Ecosystem ecologists view ecosystems – As transformers of energy and processors of matter

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ecosystems and Physical Laws The laws of physics and chemistry apply to ecosystems – Particularly in regard to the flow of energy Energy is conserved – But degraded to heat during ecosystem processes

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Trophic Relationships Energy and nutrients pass from primary producers (autotrophs) – To primary consumers (herbivores) and then to secondary consumers (carnivores)

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Energy flows through an ecosystem – Entering as light and exiting as heat Figure 54.2 Microorganisms and other detritivores Detritus Primary producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Heat Sun Key Chemical cycling Energy flow

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nutrients cycle within an ecosystem

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Decomposition – Connects all trophic levels

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Detritivores, mainly bacteria and fungi, recycle essential chemical elements – By decomposing organic material and returning elements to inorganic reservoirs Figure 54.3

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 55.2: Physical and chemical factors limit primary production in ecosystems Primary production in an ecosystem – Is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ecosystem Energy Budgets The extent of photosynthetic production – Sets the spending limit for the energy budget of the entire ecosystem

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Global Energy Budget The amount of solar radiation reaching the surface of the Earth – Limits the photosynthetic output of ecosystems Only a small fraction of solar energy – Actually strikes photosynthetic organisms

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gross and Net Primary Production Total primary production in an ecosystem – Is known as that ecosystem’s gross primary production (GPP) Not all of this production – Is stored as organic material in the growing plants

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Net primary production (NPP) – Is equal to GPP minus the energy used by the primary producers for respiration Only NPP – Is available to consumers

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Different ecosystems vary considerably in their net primary production – And in their contribution to the total NPP on Earth Percentage of Earth’s surface area (a) Average net primary production (g/m 2 /yr) (b) (c)

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overall, terrestrial ecosystems – Contribute about two-thirds of global NPP and marine ecosystems about one-third Figure  120  W 60  W 00 60  E120  E 180  North Pole 60  N 30  N Equator 30  S 60  S South Pole

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Primary Production in Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems In marine and freshwater ecosystems – Both light and nutrients are important in controlling primary production

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Light Limitation The depth of light penetration – Affects primary production throughout the photic zone of an ocean or lake

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nutrient Limitation More than light, nutrients limit primary production – Both in different geographic regions of the ocean and in lakes

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A limiting nutrient is the element that must be added – In order for production to increase in a particular area Nitrogen and phosphorous – Are typically the nutrients that most often limit marine production

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nutrient enrichment experiments – Confirmed that nitrogen was limiting phytoplankton growth in an area of the ocean EXPERIMENT Pollution from duck farms concentrated near Moriches Bay adds both nitrogen and phosphorus to the coastal water off Long Island. Researchers cultured the phytoplankton Nannochloris atomus with water collected from several bays. Figure 54.6 Coast of Long Island, New York. The numbers on the map indicate the data collection stations. Long Island Great South Bay Shinnecock Bay Moriches Bay Atlantic Ocean

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 54.6 (a) Phytoplankton biomass and phosphorus concentration (b) Phytoplankton response to nutrient enrichment Great South Bay Moriches Bay Shinnecock Bay Starting algal density Unenriched control Ammonium enriched Phosphate enriched Station number Phytoplankton (millions of cells per mL) Inorganic phosphorus (  g atoms/L) Phytoplankton (millions of cells/mL) Station number CONCLUSION Since adding phosphorus, which was already in rich supply, had no effect on Nannochloris growth, whereas adding nitrogen increased algal density dramatically, researchers concluded that nitrogen was the nutrient limiting phytoplankton growth in this ecosystem. Phytoplankton Inorganic phosphorus RESULTS Phytoplankton abundance parallels the abundance of phosphorus in the water (a). Nitrogen, however, is immediately taken up by algae, and no free nitrogen is measured in the coastal waters. The addition of ammonium (NH 4  ) caused heavy phytoplankton growth in bay water, but the addition of phosphate (PO 4 3  ) did not induce algal growth (b).

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Experiments in another ocean region – Showed that iron limited primary production Table 54.1

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The addition of large amounts of nutrients to lakes – Has a wide range of ecological impacts

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In some areas, sewage runoff – Has caused eutrophication of lakes, which can lead to the eventual loss of most fish species from the lakes Figure 54.7

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Primary Production in Terrestrial and Wetland Ecosystems In terrestrial and wetland ecosystems climatic factors – Such as temperature and moisture, affect primary production on a large geographic scale

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The contrast between wet and dry climates – Can be represented by a measure called actual evapotranspiration

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Actual evapotranspiration – Is the amount of water annually transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape – Is related to net primary production Figure 54.8 Actual evapotranspiration (mm H 2 O/yr) Tropical forest Temperate forest Mountain coniferous forest Temperate grassland Arctic tundra Desert shrubland Net primary production (g/m 2 /yr) 1,000 2,000 3, ,0001,500 0

31 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings On a more local scale – A soil nutrient is often the limiting factor in primary production Figure 54.9 EXPERIMENT Over the summer of 1980, researchers added phosphorus to some experimental plots in the salt marsh, nitrogen to other plots, and both phosphorus and nitrogen to others. Some plots were left unfertilized as controls. RESULTS Experimental plots receiving just phosphorus (P) do not outproduce the unfertilized control plots. CONCLUSION Live, above-ground biomass (g dry wt/m 2 ) Adding nitrogen (N) boosts net primary production June July August 1980 N  P N only Control P only These nutrient enrichment experiments confirmed that nitrogen was the nutrient limiting plant growth in this salt marsh.

32 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 55.3: Energy transfer between trophic levels is usually only 10% efficient The secondary production of an ecosystem – Is the amount of chemical energy in consumers’ food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given period of time

33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Production Efficiency When a caterpillar feeds on a plant leaf – Only about one-sixth of the energy in the leaf is used for secondary production Figure Plant material eaten by caterpillar Cellular respiration Growth (new biomass) Feces 100 J 33 J 200 J 67 J

34 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The production efficiency of an organism – Is the fraction of energy stored in food that is not used for respiration

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Trophic Efficiency and Ecological Pyramids Trophic efficiency – Is the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next – Usually ranges from 5% to 20%

36 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pyramids of Production This loss of energy with each transfer in a food chain – Can be represented by a pyramid of net production Figure Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers 1,000,000 J of sunlight 10 J 100 J 1,000 J 10,000 J

37 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pyramids of Biomass One important ecological consequence of low trophic efficiencies – Can be represented in a biomass pyramid

38 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most biomass pyramids – Show a sharp decrease at successively higher trophic levels Figure 54.12a (a) Most biomass pyramids show a sharp decrease in biomass at successively higher trophic levels, as illustrated by data from a bog at Silver Springs, Florida. Trophic level Dry weight (g/m 2 ) Primary producers Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers

39 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Certain aquatic ecosystems – Have inverted biomass pyramids(usually because producers are consumed too quickly to accumulate) Figire 54.12b Trophic level Primary producers (phytoplankton) Primary consumers (zooplankton) (b) In some aquatic ecosystems, such as the English Channel, a small standing crop of primary producers (phytoplankton) supports a larger standing crop of primary consumers (zooplankton). Dry weight (g/m 2 ) 21 4

40 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pyramids of Numbers A pyramid of numbers – Represents the number of individual organisms in each trophic level (not always a pyramid shape) Figure Trophic level Number of individual organisms Primary producers Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers 3 354, ,624 5,842,424

41 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The dynamics of energy flow through ecosystems – Have important implications for the human population Eating meat – Is a relatively inefficient way of tapping photosynthetic production

42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Worldwide agriculture could successfully feed many more people – If humans all fed more efficiently, eating only plant material Figure Trophic level Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers

43 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Green World Hypothesis According to the green world hypothesis – Terrestrial herbivores consume relatively little plant biomass because they are held in check by a variety of factors…

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most terrestrial ecosystems – Have large standing crops despite the large numbers of herbivores Figure 54.15

45 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The green world hypothesis proposes several factors that keep herbivores in check – Plants have defenses against herbivores – Nutrients, not energy supply, usually limit herbivores – Abiotic factors limit herbivores – Intraspecific competition can limit herbivore numbers – Interspecific interactions check herbivore densities

46 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes move nutrients between organic and inorganic parts of the ecosystem Life on Earth – Depends on the recycling of essential chemical elements Nutrient circuits that cycle matter through an ecosystem – Involve both biotic and abiotic components and are often called biogeochemical cycles

47 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A General Model of Chemical Cycling Gaseous forms of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen – Occur in the atmosphere and cycle globally Less mobile elements, including phosphorous, potassium, and calcium – Cycle on a more local level

48 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A general model of nutrient cycling – Includes the main reservoirs of elements and the processes that transfer elements between reservoirs Figure Organic materials available as nutrients Living organisms, detritus Organic materials unavailable as nutrients Coal, oil, peat Inorganic materials available as nutrients Inorganic materials unavailable as nutrients Atmosphere, soil, water Minerals in rocks Formation of sedimentary rock Weathering, erosion Respiration, decomposition, excretion Burning of fossil fuels Fossilization Reservoir aReservoir b Reservoir c Reservoir d Assimilation, photosynthesis

49 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings All elements – Cycle between organic and inorganic reservoirs

50 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biogeochemical Cycles The water cycle and the carbon cycle (p. 1232) Figure Transport over land Solar energy Net movement of water vapor by wind Precipitation over ocean Evaporation from ocean Evapotranspiration from land Precipitation over land Percolation through soil Runoff and groundwater CO 2 in atmosphere Photosynthesis Cellular respiration Burning of fossil fuels and wood Higher-level consumers Primary consumers Detritus Carbon compounds in water Decomposition THE WATER CYCLE THE CARBON CYCLE

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Water moves in a global cycle – Driven by solar energy The carbon cycle – Reflects the reciprocal processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration

52 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The nitrogen cycle and the phosphorous cycle Figure N 2 in atmosphere Denitrifying bacteria Nitrifying bacteria Nitrifying bacteria Nitrification Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes Decomposers Ammonification Assimilation NH 3 NH 4 + NO 3  NO 2  Rain Plants Consumption Decomposition Geologic uplift Weathering of rocks Runoff Sedimentation Plant uptake of PO 4 3  Soil Leaching THE NITROGEN CYCLE THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

53 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most of the nitrogen cycling in natural ecosystems – Involves local cycles between organisms and soil or water The phosphorus cycle – Is relatively localized

54 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling Rates Decomposers (detritivores) play a key role – In the general pattern of chemical cycling Figure Consumers Producers Nutrients available to producers Abiotic reservoir Geologic processes Decomposers

55 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The rates at which nutrients cycle in different ecosystems – Are extremely variable, mostly as a result of differences in rates of decomposition

56 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vegetation and Nutrient Cycling: The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest Nutrient cycling – Is strongly regulated by vegetation – See case study-- p. 1234

57 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Long-term ecological research projects – Monitor ecosystem dynamics over relatively long periods of time The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest – Has been used to study nutrient cycling in a forest ecosystem since 1963

58 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The research team constructed a dam on the site – To monitor water and mineral loss Figure 54.19a (a) Concrete dams and weirs built across streams at the bottom of watersheds enabled researchers to monitor the outflow of water and nutrients from the ecosystem.

59 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In one experiment, the trees in one valley were cut down – And the valley was sprayed with herbicides Figure 54.19b (b) One watershed was clear cut to study the effects of the loss of vegetation on drainage and nutrient cycling.

60 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Net losses of water and minerals were studied – And found to be greater than in an undisturbed area These results showed how human activity – Can affect ecosystems Figure 54.19c (c) The concentration of nitrate in runoff from the deforested watershed was 60 times greater than in a control (unlogged) watershed. Nitrate concentration in runoff (mg/L) Deforested Control Completion of tree cutting

61 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 55.5: The human population is disrupting chemical cycles throughout the biosphere As the human population has grown in size – Our activities have disrupted the trophic structure, energy flow, and chemical cycling of ecosystems in most parts of the world

62 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nutrient Enrichment In addition to transporting nutrients from one location to another – Humans have added entirely new materials, some of them toxins, to ecosystems

63 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Agriculture and Nitrogen Cycling Agriculture constantly removes nutrients from ecosystems – That would ordinarily be cycled back into the soil Figure 54.20

64 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nitrogen is the main nutrient lost through agriculture – Thus, agriculture has a great impact on the nitrogen cycle Industrially produced fertilizer is typically used to replace lost nitrogen – But the effects on an ecosystem can be harmful

65 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems The critical load for a nutrient – Is the amount of that nutrient that can be absorbed by plants in an ecosystem without damaging it

66 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings When excess nutrients are added to an ecosystem, the critical load is exceeded – And the remaining nutrients can contaminate groundwater and freshwater and marine ecosystems

67 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sewage runoff contaminates freshwater ecosystems – Causing cultural eutrophication, excessive algal growth, which can cause significant harm to these ecosystems

68 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Acid Precipitation Combustion of fossil fuels – Is the main cause of acid precipitation

69 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings North American and European ecosystems downwind from industrial regions – Have been damaged by rain and snow containing nitric and sulfuric acid Figure Europe North America

70 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings By the year 2000 – The entire contiguous United States was affected by acid precipitation Figure Field pH  – – – – – – – – – –4.4  4.3

71 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Environmental regulations and new industrial technologies – Have allowed many developed countries to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions in the past 30 years

72 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Toxins in the Environment Humans release an immense variety of toxic chemicals – Including thousands of synthetics previously unknown to nature One of the reasons such toxins are so harmful – Is that they become more concentrated in successive trophic levels of a food web

73 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In biological magnification – Toxins concentrate at higher trophic levels because at these levels biomass tends to be lower Figure Concentration of PCBs Herring gull eggs 124 ppm Zooplankton ppm Phytoplankton ppm Lake trout 4.83 ppm Smelt 1.04 ppm

74 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In some cases, harmful substances – Persist for long periods of time in an ecosystem and continue to cause harm

75 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide One pressing problem caused by human activities – Is the rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide

76 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rising Atmospheric CO 2 Due to the increased burning of fossil fuels and other human activities – The concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has been steadily increasing Figure CO 2 concentration (ppm)  0.15  0.30  0.45 Temperature variation (  C) Temperature CO 2 Year

77 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings How Elevated CO 2 Affects Forest Ecology: The FACTS-I Experiment The FACTS-I experiment is testing how elevated CO 2 – Influences tree growth, carbon concentration in soils, and other factors over a ten-year period Figure 54.25

78 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming The greenhouse effect is caused by atmospheric CO 2 – But is necessary to keep the surface of the Earth at a habitable temperature

79 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Increased levels of atmospheric CO 2 are magnifying the greenhouse effect – Which could cause global warming and significant climatic change

80 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone Life on Earth is protected from the damaging effects of UV radiation – By a protective layer or ozone molecules present in the atmosphere

81 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Satellite studies of the atmosphere – Suggest that the ozone layer has been gradually thinning since 1975 Figure Ozone layer thickness (Dobson units) Year (Average for the month of October)

82 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The destruction of atmospheric ozone – Probably results from chlorine-releasing pollutants produced by human activity Figure Chlorine from CFCs interacts with ozone (O 3 ), forming chlorine monoxide (ClO) and oxygen (O 2 ). Two ClO molecules react, forming chlorine peroxide (Cl 2 O 2 ). Sunlight causes Cl 2 O 2 to break down into O 2 and free chlorine atoms. The chlorine atoms can begin the cycle again. Sunlight ChlorineO3O3 O2O2 ClO Cl 2 O 2 O2O2 Chlorine atoms

83 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Scientists first described an “ozone hole” – Over Antarctica in 1985; it has increased in size as ozone depletion has increased Figure 54.28a, b (a) October 1979 (b) October 2000

84 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Good news? Since CFC’s have been regulated by many nations, the ozone depletion is slowing. However, the chlorine still in the atmosphere will still have effects for 50 years.


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