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The Rise of Fascism & Militarism in Italy, Germany & Japan; & Prelude to War: American Policy of Neutrality Adapted from a work created by the University.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Fascism & Militarism in Italy, Germany & Japan; & Prelude to War: American Policy of Neutrality Adapted from a work created by the University."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Fascism & Militarism in Italy, Germany & Japan; & Prelude to War: American Policy of Neutrality Adapted from a work created by the University of Nebraska at Omaha

2 Benitio Mussolini: "What is Fascism?" (1932) 1922-Mussolini & the Fascist Party came to power in Italy 1922-Mussolini & the Fascist Party came to power in Italy 1932-Mussolini wrote a definition of Fascism for the Italian dictionary 1932-Mussolini wrote a definition of Fascism for the Italian dictionary Rejection of Pacifism, Marxism & Democracy Rejection of Pacifism, Marxism & Democracy Life=duty, struggle & conquest Life=duty, struggle & conquest Humans=inherently unequal Humans=inherently unequal State=superior to the individual State=superior to the individual Territorial Expansion=manifestation of a nation’s vitality Territorial Expansion=manifestation of a nation’s vitality

3 Raymond H. Geist’s letter to Moffat (1934) Geist = U.S. Consul in Berlin Geist = U.S. Consul in Berlin Moffat=chief of the division of Western European Affairs Moffat=chief of the division of Western European Affairs Letter of Sept. 15, 1934 Letter of Sept. 15, 1934 Describes the newly established Nazi state Describes the newly established Nazi state Germany is remilitarizing Germany is remilitarizing Building up its air force & mechanized divisions Building up its air force & mechanized divisions The German youth is glorifying military heroism The German youth is glorifying military heroism Predicts war by the end of the decade Predicts war by the end of the decade

4 Nuremberg Laws (1935) Proclaimed during the 1935 Nuremburg Rally Proclaimed during the 1935 Nuremburg Rally Laws severely restricted the freedoms of German Jews Laws severely restricted the freedoms of German Jews the Jim Crow Laws in the American South= a model for segregation the Jim Crow Laws in the American South= a model for segregation Forbade Marriage & Sexual Relations between Germans & Jews Forbade Marriage & Sexual Relations between Germans & Jews Stripped Citizenship from German-Jews Stripped Citizenship from German-Jews

5 Haile Selassie’s Appeal to the League of Nations (June 1936) October 3, 1935, Mussolini launched an invasion of Ethiopia October 3, 1935, Mussolini launched an invasion of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I =Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I =Emperor of Ethiopia League had promised Ethiopia assistance against Italian aggression League had promised Ethiopia assistance against Italian aggression Outlines Italian policy of targeting civilians Outlines Italian policy of targeting civilians Exposes Italian diplomatic treachery Exposes Italian diplomatic treachery Exposes the League’s goal of collective security as a sham Exposes the League’s goal of collective security as a sham Argues that, by its inaction, the League is establishing a deadly precedent of “bowing before force” Argues that, by its inaction, the League is establishing a deadly precedent of “bowing before force” ultimately, the League does nothing ultimately, the League does nothing Other states like Germany & Japan are encourage to pursue expansionist aims Other states like Germany & Japan are encourage to pursue expansionist aims

6 Hossbach Memorandum (BERLIN, November 10, 1937) Since his seizure of power in 1933, Hitler demanded a fair but peaceful revision of the Versailles Treaty. Since his seizure of power in 1933, Hitler demanded a fair but peaceful revision of the Versailles Treaty. Hitler exploited widespread international pacifism Hitler exploited widespread international pacifism In 1937, Hitler held a secret meeting in Berlin with his top generals In 1937, Hitler held a secret meeting in Berlin with his top generals Germany’s Problem=lack of living space Germany’s Problem=lack of living space autarky, participation in the world economy and overseas colonies are rejected as possible solutions autarky, participation in the world economy and overseas colonies are rejected as possible solutions Goal of German Foreign Policy=Expansion at the expense of Germany’s neighbors Goal of German Foreign Policy=Expansion at the expense of Germany’s neighbors War must come by , because Germany’s enemies will have caught up with German rearmament War must come by , because Germany’s enemies will have caught up with German rearmament

7 World Defense Spending

8 Hitler's Defiance of the Western Powers

9 German Expansion

10 Japanese Expansion

11 Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 Named after the American secretary of state, Frank B. Kellogg & French Foreign minister Aristide Briand Named after the American secretary of state, Frank B. Kellogg & French Foreign minister Aristide Briand Treaty renounced war as a means of national policy Treaty renounced war as a means of national policy International Disputes should be solved by peaceful means International Disputes should be solved by peaceful means helped to formulate later international law especially notions of “crimes against peace.” helped to formulate later international law especially notions of “crimes against peace.” Pact lack an efficient enforcement mechanism Pact lack an efficient enforcement mechanism

12 Message to the Nations of the World appealing for Peace by Disarmament and the end of Economic Chaos, (May 16, 1933) To solve the global financial crisis, Franklin Roosevelt urges economic cooperation and an international agreement for disarmament. To solve the global financial crisis, Franklin Roosevelt urges economic cooperation and an international agreement for disarmament. Considers Armaments to be unnecessary Considers Armaments to be unnecessary Proposes that all gov’ts reduce their militaries Proposes that all gov’ts reduce their militaries Urges Gov’ts to adopt transcend domestic needs & create lasting international economic reform Urges Gov’ts to adopt transcend domestic needs & create lasting international economic reform

13 The Nye Report (February 24, 1936) In 1934, Senator Nye headed an investigation of the munitions industry. In 1934, Senator Nye headed an investigation of the munitions industry. he charged the industry with corruption by connecting wartime profits of the banking & munitions industries to America's involvement in World War I he charged the industry with corruption by connecting wartime profits of the banking & munitions industries to America's involvement in World War I Many Americans felt betrayed Many Americans felt betrayed perhaps the war hadn't been an epic battle between the forces of good (democracy) and evil (autocracy) perhaps the war hadn't been an epic battle between the forces of good (democracy) and evil (autocracy) The report bolstered sentiments for isolationism The report bolstered sentiments for isolationism

14 "Is Neutrality Possible?" By Gerald Nye World War I led to an unacceptable loss of life & caused grave economic consequences World War I led to an unacceptable loss of life & caused grave economic consequences The U.S. should focus its energies at home The U.S. should focus its energies at home U.S. should avoid European entanglements U.S. should avoid European entanglements Neutrality is the preferred policy over “collective security” Neutrality is the preferred policy over “collective security” Munitions manufacturers stir up animosities between Japan & the U.S. to ensure profits Munitions manufacturers stir up animosities between Japan & the U.S. to ensure profits Money wasted on the military could be used for the public’s benefit Money wasted on the military could be used for the public’s benefit The spread of Fascism can be checked by building up a better societal model in the United States The spread of Fascism can be checked by building up a better societal model in the United States

15 "Neutrality Act" of August 31, 1935 spurred by the growth of isolationism after WW1 spurred by the growth of isolationism after WW1 Goal=to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts Goal=to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts Prohibited Prohibited Sale of arms to nations at war Sale of arms to nations at war The transport of arms on American vessels The transport of arms on American vessels Americans from traveling on belligerent vessels Americans from traveling on belligerent vessels Further amended in 1936, 1937 & 1939 Further amended in 1936, 1937 & 1939 Allowed the President to decide when nations were at war Allowed the President to decide when nations were at war This provided a loophole that FDR carefully exploited to assist American allies from aggressor states This provided a loophole that FDR carefully exploited to assist American allies from aggressor states Legacy Legacy Made no distinction between Aggressor states & states being attacked Made no distinction between Aggressor states & states being attacked they limited the US government's ability to aid Britain vs. Nazi Germany they limited the US government's ability to aid Britain vs. Nazi Germany

16 Address Delivered by President Roosevelt Before the Congress, January 3, 1936 Points Points International tensions have steadily increased over the past 3 years International tensions have steadily increased over the past 3 years By contrast, Western Hemisphere enjoys a “good neighbor” policy By contrast, Western Hemisphere enjoys a “good neighbor” policy The U.S. must take note of the rise of aggression abroad The U.S. must take note of the rise of aggression abroad These states lack democratic channels for change These states lack democratic channels for change Bellicose states have blocked disarmament efforts Bellicose states have blocked disarmament efforts Although it reaffirms American isolation, FDR’s speech is notable for its markedly pessimistic tone Although it reaffirms American isolation, FDR’s speech is notable for its markedly pessimistic tone

17 Roosevelt's "Quarantine" Speech (October 5, 1937) Hopes for global peace are undermined by aggressor states Hopes for global peace are undermined by aggressor states “foundations of civilization” are threatened “foundations of civilization” are threatened The U.S. & the Western Hemisphere also in danger The U.S. & the Western Hemisphere also in danger Complete isolation from the world isn’t possible Complete isolation from the world isn’t possible U.S. must reestablish international law & morality U.S. must reestablish international law & morality War is like a disease, it must be quarantined to protect the world War is like a disease, it must be quarantined to protect the world With the speech, FDR sounds the alarm that American must now take notice of global problems With the speech, FDR sounds the alarm that American must now take notice of global problems

18 Depiction of U.S. Isolationism

19 America First Party Est. September 1940 Est. September 1940 Pressure group to keep the U.S. out of the war Pressure group to keep the U.S. out of the war Peak membership=800,000 Peak membership=800,000 Charles Lindbergh speech in New York April 23, 1941 Charles Lindbergh speech in New York U.S. shouldn’t enter war unless it can win U.S. shouldn’t enter war unless it can win Britain nor the U.S. can defeat Germany Britain nor the U.S. can defeat Germany Fall of the democracies in Europe can be blamed on the interventionists in those countries (effectively blames the victims) Fall of the democracies in Europe can be blamed on the interventionists in those countries (effectively blames the victims) Britain is trying to lure the U.S. into the war Britain is trying to lure the U.S. into the war FDR is leading the U.S. into war but the majority is against it FDR is leading the U.S. into war but the majority is against it U.S should follow the Monroe Doctrine & Washington’s advice to avoid “entangling alliances” U.S should follow the Monroe Doctrine & Washington’s advice to avoid “entangling alliances”

20 Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech (Sept. 11, 1941) Propaganda has led the American public from isolation toward being on the verge of war Propaganda has led the American public from isolation toward being on the verge of war 3 groups are responsible 3 groups are responsible The British The British The Jews The Jews The Roosevelt Administration The Roosevelt Administration According to Lindbergh, these groups control the media & are brainwashing the public According to Lindbergh, these groups control the media & are brainwashing the public Lindbergh’s speech with its anti- Semitic connotations enraged many Lindbergh’s speech with its anti- Semitic connotations enraged many

21 Bibliography Slide #1: Slide #1: Mussolini/Hitler: Mussolini/Hitler: Roosevelt: Roosevelt: Lindbergh: Lindbergh: Slide #2 Slide #2 Photo of Mussolini: Photo of Mussolini: Slide #3 Slide #3 Photo of Hitler: Photo of Hitler: Photo of Nuremberg Rally: Photo of Nuremberg Rally: Slide #4 Slide #4 Photo of Nazi Eugenic Test: Photo of Nazi Eugenic Test: Photo of “Jew Only Bench”: Photo of “Jew Only Bench”: Photo of Jewish Shop: Photo of Jewish Shop: Slide #5 Slide #5 Time Cover of Haile Selassie: Time Cover of Haile Selassie: Slide #6 Slide #6 Photo of German Troops: Photo of German Troops: Slide #7 Slide #7 Defense Spending Chart: Defense Spending Chart: Slide #8 Slide #8 David Lowe Cartoon: David Lowe Cartoon: Slide #9 Slide #9 German Expansion: German Expansion: Slide #10 Slide #10 Japanese Expansion Before Pearl Harbor: Japanese Expansion Before Pearl Harbor: Slide #11 Slide #11 Kellogg-Briand: Kellogg-Briand: Slide #13 Slide #13 The Nye Committee: The Nye Committee: Slide #15 Slide #15 Political Cartoon: Political Cartoon: Slide #17 Slide #17 Roosevelt: Roosevelt: Slide #18 Slide #18 Political Cartoon: Political Cartoon: Slide #19 Slide #19 Lindbergh America First: Lindbergh America First: Slide #20 Slide #20 Dr. Suess Cartoon: Dr. Suess Cartoon:


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