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1 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 20121 Contains ‘overlay’ animations: Please download and save to your hard disk, then use F5 key to run the presentation! (Scrolling through this presentation without actually running it will SURELY be very confusing!) All material © GS Chandy unless specified otherwise

2 (c) GS ChandyOPMS General Presentation2 The ‘One Page Management System’ (OPMS) Any kind of idea! -- Small or large, at any level… -- Belonging to an individual or to a group or groups… -- Individual, organizational or societal Missions! The Presentation - 2012 Outline description of a PRACTICAL process to help people effectively work with all their productive ideas and realize them better!

3 (c) GS Chandy3 CONTENTS: Putting Ideas to Work – ‘Systems’Putting Ideas to Work‘Systems’ Describing OPMS – in briefDescribing OPMS – in brief OPMS Process DeliverablesOPMS Process Deliverables Some reasons to use OPMSSome reasons to use OPMS Some difficulties you may encounterSome difficulties you may encounter Services offered What we’re looking for Where OPMS comes fromWhere OPMS comes from More information about OPMSMore information about OPMS  More

4 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 20124 CONTENTS (continued) : Examples of ‘prose + structural graphics’ Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) – to follow Field Representation (FR) Method – to follow  CONTENTS-1

5 We describe a simple but powerful tool – the ‘One Page Management System’ (OPMS) – that is designed to enable us to put our good ideas effectively to work In general, the conventional means we use to ‘manage our ideas’ do not even allow the best use of our good ideas! (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 20125 There are always any number of good ideas available. It’s remarkable (and sad) that, in general, our not-so-good ideas all too often win out over our better ideas… …and, all too often, what rules society are the damaging and even dangerous ideas… The OPMS (‘One Page Management System’) is designed to ensure that our good ideas can be effectively put to work in complex situations …many individuals too do rather better than society as a whole (and better than many societal institutions) because they are generally working for themselves and they do keep some track of how they are performing On the surface of things, commercial organizations often appear to do better than society as a whole [and better than the instruments we have developed to run society – our governments] – because they generally have to present an audited ‘Balance-Sheet’ every year… The real issue, that should underlie everything we do: …the measurable (and highly visible) deterioration in our natural environment over the past 50 years should be evidence enough in support of this claim! There are any number of societal issues on which we are not at all moving towards satisfactory resolution or even making minimal progress (check out some of the ‘societal’ Missions identified later) Putting ideas to work – effectively! Human societies as entities (along with many governments) are often able to evade effective societal accounting because of ‘politics’; because we are unable to ‘see’; and because of our control of the environment by way of technology. In the long run we shall all have to pay for such evasions! …both are superficial impressions: deeper examination is needed. The failures of society (and of societal institutions) on major societal and environmental issues confronting us are actually rooted in the failure of individuals and commercial organizations in their societal responsibilities... …in any case, it is individual citizens (or their grandchildren!) who will ultimately if not right away have to pay for such societal failures as well. How to ensure that our most productive ideas will win out (at least over time, most of the time)? …using conventional ways of tackling our problems and issues, we generally are far from being as effective as we could be and should be We note that commercial organizations and individuals are in general not performing anywhere near their own achievable potential It is crucial that we all (individuals, organizations and society as a whole) learn to use our productive ideas wisely - and with much higher effectiveness than is currently the case in the conventional way of things …in general, we are rather far from ‘wisdom’ in most of what we do! … the deficiencies of governance and of our educational systems provide other significant supporting instances Next, some needed background about: i) ‘ideas’ (and how to use them); ii) ‘systems’; iii) people in systems. – the basis to ensure effective use of OPMS…

6 But it’s only through the good ideas we get that we can change or improve things around us, for ourselves or for others Often, one person’s good ideas may conflict with someone else’s good ideas – and none of the good ideas can progress… At other times, one just cannot get hold of the needed resources to DO what’s needed even to start out at the time the idea comes - and then one is forced to give up on something that could be very fruitful… But all too often, our good ideas just disappear from the mind, leaving only a thought that there was something worthwhile or required to do still remaining undone … Anything we wish to accomplish can only be done through our good ideas about it… Sometimes, people pushing ‘bad ideas’ may block the progress of the good ideas… OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 Good ideas are very ‘slippery’ and can be quite difficult to work with (effectively) There are any number of reasons why our ideas may fail. To understand the sure-fire way that could enable our good ideas to really get going, we need to look a little at ‘systems’… CONTENTS …there may be personal frustrations due to inadequate systems in society; conflict with others; etc, etc… 6  About ‘systems’

7 (c) GS ChandyOPMS General -20127 ‘System’: a collection of interdependent parts, working together for a purpose Simple definition:  Simple sketch of ‘system’ The OPMS is a practical way to put this definition to work on any issue of current interest, specifically for some identified purpose About ‘systems’

8 Sketch of a system and its environment – showing ‘structure’ ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’, ‘E’: our ideas about ‘elements’ within the system: factors or subsystems of the system. ‘P’, ‘Q’, ‘R’; ‘X’, ‘Y’, ‘Z’: ideas about elements, systems or objects in the environment (outside the system under consideration). Arrows represent ‘directed relationships’ 8 X Y Z SYSTEM BOUNDARY B C D E P Q R A ENVIRONMENT To understand a ‘system’ effectively, we need to understand: the elements in it; the inter-relationships between elements in the system; as well as the inter- relationships between the system and certain systems or objects in its environment. The late John N. Warfield discovered and developed practical means that can enable anyone to communicate effectively about the inter-relationships between the factors in complex systems… Warfield’s simple but profound developments make it possible for anyone, at any level, to put the powerful concept of ‘systems’ to work on any issues of current interest… I call this extension to our language: ‘prose + structural graphics’ (p+sg) In the conventional view of systems, the inter-relationships between factors are not adequately seen or understood This is mainly because our standard means of communicating on issues - ‘conventional prose’ - is not effective for communicating about relationships between the factors of complex systems. Everything in the OPMS develops from the definition of ‘system’ and from this sketch – and from Warfield’s seminal developments (Later, we shall illustrate a practical application developing from this general picture)  The other critical factor: Stakeholders The best way to understand the need for and the power of the OPMS approach is to take up a specific Mission of interest and to develop an Action Plan to accomplish it using the recommended language of prose + structural graphics… ‘Prose + structural graphics’ (p+sg) can help us clearly ‘see’ and understand the ‘structure’ of complex systems – and to put that understanding to practical use! A couple of examples of ‘structural graphics’ …it provides us the needed ‘extension’ of our conventional ‘language of prose’ in a way that anyone can easily use Warfield’s developments have shown us the needed way to ‘extend’ our conventional means of communicating in prose… (So we need to find a practical way of communicating that could help clarify these inter-relationships between factors of complex systems…) (Without Warfield’s developments [or the equivalent], it is extremely difficult – perhaps even impossible - to arrive at a usable understanding of ‘systems’)

9 9 It is the people in the system – the stakeholders – who create and maintain the system, who can ensure the success of the system. (And they can also ensure the FAILURE of the system!!!) So: stakeholder ideas are crucial! It is these ideas that must serve as the ‘factors’ or ‘elements’ of the system (It is equally important is that stakeholders should be convinced that their ideas are being given due weight) In the conventional approach, stakeholder ideas are not effectively heeded… …and a great many of our failures must be attributed to our failure to heed available ideas from stakeholders… In fact, whatever may be the language used, it’s the ideas of stakeholders (and how they are put to use) that fundamentally determine the success or failure of systems …we need a practical means to enable us to integrate an effective ‘systems language’ with ‘stakeholder concerns’… That practical means is: Besides the ‘language’ we use, there is another critical factor to consider while working with or in systems:

10 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 201210 The ‘One Page Management System’ (OPMS) …you will see this for yourself when you develop your own OPMS for any Mission of interest… At a fundamental level, the OPMS helps individuals and groups ‘see’ their systems with utmost clarity (through language that enables stakeholder ideas). This significantly enhances stakeholder abilities to get their good ideas going! We’ve claimed that - in the conventional way - we rarely employ our good ideas effectively… [which enables us to ensure that both ‘language’ and ‘stakeholder ideas’ are effectively integrated into action on the ground – and into all systems and subsystems that may be involved]

11 To accomplish any Mission, tackle any problem – we need to: Grab hold of all good ideas available about the problem, issue or Mission… Record the ideas generated … Put the ideas together in the right kind of usable order (i.e. organize them) – to enable effective action planning Modify ideas to reflect the environmental reality … ‘Integrate’ every relevant issue that might come up … The ‘One Page Management System’ (OPMS) enables us to do ALL of these needed things – in the most effective way possible! …all of these things have to be done continuingly!  A picture of the OPMS The processes used in ‘conventional management’ do enable us to get hold of and record ideas – but they do not enable us to ‘organize or integrate’ ideas effectively … OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 …and thereby those so-called ‘management processes’ often prevent even the good ideas that are readily available everywhere from being put effectively to use!  OPMS, briefly CONTENTS From all sources It will be found that some small learning AND a fair amount of ‘unlearning’ are required in order to understand how to do all these things needed to use our ideas effectively Most of the disputes in society or in organizations (and also poor performance from individuals) stem from the fact that available good ideas are not being used effectively

12 The Action Plan develops as a kind of a ‘flow chart’, showing (to whatever level of detail may be required or appropriate) specifically how various system factors or elements “MAY CONTRIBUTE TO” each other and to the Mission undertaken… The ‘System Tie-Line’ helps us articulate any or all the relationships – transitive and non-transitive - of interest in a system Or any other Mission of interest… Only transitive system relationships are used in ISM – and only one relationship appears in each such model To develop an effective Action Plan, we need to find out specifically and in detail how actions performed day to day may help or hinder the Mission… The ‘Fundamental Dimensions’ of any system (above ‘System Tie-Line’) In each of the Fundamental Dimensions, you will see all the ‘elements’ in that dimension and all models constructed from those elements showing interactions between elements BARRIERS/DIFFICULTIES/ THREATS EVENTS/ MILESTONES System dimensions: all ‘subsystems’ needed to help accomplish Mission effectively WEAKNESSES (c) GS Chandy12OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 This is actually a ‘system model’, but for the moment just look at it as a simple picture… Models showing how the BARRIERS, WEAKNESSES, etc, may “hinder” or “prevent” accomplishment the Mission – AND HOW TO OVERCOME THEM! ‘System’ Dimensions (below ‘System Tie-line’) A Mission is any challenging objective that may require the sustained efforts of one or more stakeholders to accomplish it …individual, organizational, societal Missions… Conventional project planning fails because it does not give you an ‘integrated view’ of the Mission and everything connected with it Linked to Action Planning model in: In other dimensions of the OPMS: THINGS TO DO OPPORTUNITIESSTRENGTHS OPMS also contains something like a ‘S-W-O-T’ Analysis, but this is a SWOT linked with an Action Plan to help acquire needed STRENGTHS, overcome WEAKNESSES, avail OPPORTUNITIES and overcome THREATS! Conventional ‘Project Planning’ (PERT & Gantt Charts) OPMS enables us to see the EVENTS & MILESTONES of a Mission in proper relationship to everything else in the Mission The flow charts in the OPMS are based on ‘INTERPRETIVE STRUCTURAL MODELING’ (ISM) In our workshops, we demonstrate the use of the ‘System Tie-Line’ in some detail… Planning System In each specific dimension, you see models showing how the elements of that dimension impact each other and the Mission… Information System Other sub-systems needed to help accomplish Mission The ISMs (the OPMS flow charts) in any dimension would in general be based on the appropriate transitive relationship in that specific dimension… …and thereby we are able to show that the OPMS is actually a ‘REPRESENTATION’ – on a single page - of a comprehensive system to help accomplish the specific Mission under consideration For any chosen Mission, ‘stakeholders’ are enabled to put together their available ideas and develop a truly effective Action Plan to accomplish their Mission (modifying their existing ideas as appropriate)… …an effective Action Plan should help us to perform actions that CONTRIBUTE TO the Mission; and to minimize/stop actions that hinder accomplishment of the Mission! The models in ‘conventional project planning’ are NOT normative models! (Though the gurus of conventional management do try to use them as normative models) …all of which helps us ‘SEE’ the system with clarity and do things in it to help ensure it works the way we would want it to… The Action Plan – a ‘flow chart’ appearing in the THINGS TO DO Dimension – is continuingly developed to suit the background situation …the structures in the OPMS are designed to be used as ‘normative models’ – which can help us change ‘the way things are’ to ‘the way we would want them to be’ Mission: “To develop practical means to enhance this organization’s performance” “To enhance my managerial career” Organizational Missions:Societal Missions:Individual Missions: “To get myself an exciting and challenging job” India: “To become one of the least corrupt nations of the world, instead of being one of the most corrupt” Every Indian citizen: “To remove the national shame of 42% Indian children suffering from malnutrition” The nation’s leaders and bureaucrats (and every citizen!): “To ensure effective governance of the nation” A sizable number of ‘individual’ Missions and several ‘organizational’ Missions have been successfully accomplished using the OPMS No ‘societal’ Missions have as yet been formally taken up by appropriate groups …no Mission can succeed unless there is an appropriate individual or group able/willing to take it up and put in the needed sustained efforts to accomplish it… Some outright ‘failures’ of societal Missions have been recorded because such Missions were taken up ahead of appropriate groups becoming available “To become a top-level software designer within 1/3/5/7… years” In the OPMS, these models in the EVENTS/MILESTONES Dimension are effectively integrated with the normative models in other dimensions “To understand all topics of my math syllabus and thereby to get top results in math exams” “To ensure truly sustainable development in India” We now glance at what’s inside the OPMS: …in the “STRENGTHS” or the “OPPORTUNITIES” Dimensions, the ISMs could be based on “CONTRIBUTES TO”, “ENHANCES”, “SUPPORTS”… “To ensure top performance from members of staff” Two kinds of formal models appear in an OPMS (apart from ‘informal sketches’): Interpretive Structural Models (ISMs) Field Representations (FRs) (either or both types may appear in any of the OPMS Dimensions, as found appropriate) “To align members of staff to the organization’s Mission and Vision” Interpretive Structural Modeling and Field Representation Method were conceived and developed by the late John N. Warfield, to help us understand and cope with the abstractness and complexity of ‘systems’  More on Missions – with commentary in the “EVENTS/MILESTONES” Dimension, the ISMs would generally be based on the transitive relationship “PRECEDES” (leading to PERT/Gantt Charts) As the OPMS is explored, we find that it is actually a highly specified picture of a ‘general system’ (as illustrated earlier). The OPMS is designed for the specific purpose of enabling us to explore the Missions we set for ourselves  which can be applied to any Mission whatsoever! FRs are models developed by inserting elements from a large list of system factors into ‘categories’ or ‘similarity classes’ (in a very specific way) ISMs are ‘flow charts’ of a special kind The effectiveness of ‘OPMS Action Planning’ is readily demonstrated in live OPMS sessions for any desired Mission… (this is universally the case with or without the use of OPMS) …as observed earlier, it takes a very small amount of learning to use and apply the OPMS – but it does demand a fair amount of ‘unlearning’. (It will be found that unlearning is rather more difficult to do than learning!) No societal Missions systematically tried to date “To save the classroom from the political class” Questions? Doubts?? Contact: for any issue related to specific application of OPMS helps us construct structural models with a sizable number of transitive relationships that are important in complex systems. (Currently, OPMS does NOT enable us to handle the important transitive relationship “IMPLIES”) …ISMs in the BARRIERS & in the WEAKNESSES Dimensions would generally use either “HINDERS” or “AGGRAVATES”… …for instance, we already know that the Action Planning models in the ‘THINGS TO DO’ Dimension are built on the “CONTRIBUTES TO” relationship We call it a ‘super-SWOT analysis’ OPMS demands that ISM and FR be used ‘in tandem’ to help develop the Action Planning on any Mission (A sizable number of individual Missions have been successfully tackled using the OPMS – and there have been some failures as well) (A fair number of organizational Missions have been successfully tackled using OPMS – and there have been some failures as well) A picture of the OPMS follows, with brief explanation. We provide this explanation as background in order to show some of the implications of OPMS and the way it works… Inside the OPMS: “To increase turnover to Rs 2000 crores** p.a. within 3 years, at --- profitability” **1 crore = 10 million It will be seen that OPMS is a highly specified ‘realization’ of the picture shown initially of a general system …you will find that the only way to be convinced of the power and the many implications of the OPMS is to take up a Mission of current interest and work to develop an Action Plan to accomplish it… In brief, the OPMS uses two types of ‘graphical models’ to help us articulate and represent our ideas - AND the complex inter- relationships between those ideas First, we choose any appropriate ‘Mission’: ISM is illustrated here (to follow)here FR is illustrated here (to follow)here CONTENTS  The OPMS approach, in outline It’s the ‘System Tie-Line’ that ‘ties’ the whole construct together as a ‘system model’ A first look at the ‘OPMS’: “To ensure that politicians and bureaucrats throughout India become properly responsive to the concerns of the people they are supposed to be serving” Specifically, how do the BARRIERS/DIFFICULTIES/ THREATS/ WEAKNESSES hinder or prevent accomplishment of the Mission or THINGS TO DO to accomplish it? Specifically, how to develop/acquire the STRENGTHS needed to accomplish the Mission and the THINGS TO DO in the Action Planning? What preparation is required to avail the OPPORTUNITIES that may develop? It is NOT claimed that OPMS will ensure that every Mission will be successfully accomplished. It IS claimed that the ‘systems’ underlying any Mission can be better understood through OPMS – and that should help us work more effectively towards accomplishing it …and what may be the further THINGS TO DO to overcome them? In many cases, we can easily modify our initial, mistaken ideas about our Missions It may initially take a couple of months of work on a start-up Mission (about 10-15 minutes per day) in order to understand the implications of the OPMS and to gain needed confidence in the power of your own ideas about your Mission (As you gain confidence in your own ideas, you will find you get measurable progress on any Mission almost immediately!)

13 (c) GS Chandy 13 In brief, the OPMS approach enables you to: 1.Identify a ‘MISSION’ of current interest 2.Record and clarify available ideas, by responding to a series of well- designed ‘trigger questions’ relating to the Mission – CONTINUINGLY. (These are the ‘elements’ in your system) 3.Organize the ideas generated, by creating models showing the linkages between the various ideas and between the ideas and the identified Mission – CONTINUINGLY. The OPMS approach, in outline: 13 The well-known tools of brain-storming; idea-writing; nominal group techniques – and other ‘idea generation’ aids - are all useful for this The OPMS process enables us easily to discover whether a Mission is feasible (and to modify it if not). Organizations using conventional processes often expend huge amounts of time and other resources working infeasible Missions ‘Conventional management processes’ do not systematically enable this crucial requirement. Interpretive Structural Modeling & Field Representation Method (and developments therefrom) are the tools of choice to satisfy this critical aspect of any project.

14 (c) GS ChandyOPMS General Presentation14 (c) GS Chandy The OPMS approach, continued: OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 4.Integrate all available knowledge about the Mission to create an effective Action Plan to accomplish it – linking up practical means to overcome difficulties, barriers, weaknesses; preparation to capitalize on opportunities available for accomplishing Mission, etc. The Action Planning process of OPMS is highly iterative 5.Modify the Action Planning as needed in the light of the realities of the situations confronted… 14 OPMS enables all of this to be accomplished effectively - and perhaps even efficiently OPMS Action Planning is highly iterative – modification to suit situations encountered is built into its design

15 OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 15 The OPMS approach, continued: 6.Implement the Action Plan – time lines, etc, to be established and effectively followed… 15 CONTENTS  Deliverables The well-known PERT and Gantt Charts of the ‘conventional management sciences’ are useful at this stage – only after the ‘system’ has been adequately understood via the kind of modeling described earlier (in Items 1-5 on this list) The conventional management processes fail precisely because they attempt to show how ‘EVENTS’/‘MILESTONES’ may “PRECEDE” each other without effectively clarifying first how various processes employed and factors in the system may “CONTRIBUTE TO” each other and to the Mission under consideration

16 Mission – relating to an individual or groupIdentification of an agreed Mission – relating to an individual or group Lists of ideasLists of ideas covering various aspects of the Mission agreed Action PlanDevelopment of an agreed Action Plan to accomplish the Mission Practical meansPractical means to overcome BARRIERS, DIFFICULTIES THREATS, WEAKNESSES and avail of OPPORTUNITIES ReportsWhat & Why – Who – When - How MuchReports to monitor ‘What & Why – Who – When - How Much’ OPMS Process Deliverables OPMS 'Elevator' - 201216  More

17 sub-systems: marketing system, planning system, information systems – whatever the subsystems that may be required for the Mission!Design of all needed sub-systems: marketing system, planning system, information systems – whatever the subsystems that may be required for the Mission! Significant enhancement of attitudes, behaviour and performance of individuals at each level Significant enhancement of attitudes, behaviour and performance of individuals at each level (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 201217 CONTENTS The Action Planning that’s developed through the OPMS process is truly practical, based on the things that we can achieve right now – today, tomorrow and every day – clearly linked to our long-term objectives… As we develop our Action Planning, we will also develop practical means to overcome (or at least to understand adequately) all difficulties and barriers that may be encountered en route, AND to create all needed systems and subsystems to accomplish the Mission!  Why use OPMS OPMS Deliverables (continued): There are also some difficulties that may be encountered when we start using OPMS – (see separate section on ‘Difficulties’)

18 Some reasons to use OPMS: The OPMS process is in fact a ‘systematization’ of the way we ‘naturally’ think… The OPMS enables us to record all our ideas and to recall specific ideas exactly as and when needed Requires only about 5-10 minutes per day for any specific Mission chosen Huge benefits in systematic, organized thinking, motivation and other desirable outcomes – including accomplishment of your most ambitious Missions! 18OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 CONTENTS (… after the OPMS and its implications have been adequately understood) In fact (as claimed earlier), the processes we conventionally use actually prevent us from applying our best ideas effectively – this is demonstrated in our live workshops …but we should keep in mind that the way we ‘conventionally think’ is NOT the way we ‘naturally think’!  More …in general, our educational systems tend to force our ‘natural thinking’ into dormancy

19 OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 Claim: Every successful project is in fact the product of systematic thinking and work of this kind (even when you are not formally using the OPMS!!) …OPMS is just a formalization of what we are naturally doing when we tackle our Missions effectively CONTENTS  Difficulties

20 Difficulties that may be encountered: OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 Requires considerable ‘self-discipline’ to use ‘systematically-&-naturally’ At the start, people may find it difficult to ‘think systematically-&-naturally’ in the specific way that is demanded in OPMS Unless the OPMS process becomes a regular practice in the mind, the benefits of OPMS will not be understood Initially, it may take about 1-2 months to understand the process; ‘make it a regular practice’; convince oneself through construction of a preliminary OPMS Until the benefits of OPMS are adequately understood – the essential and quite demanding preliminary work of constructing an OPMS will not be done  More

21 OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 We often find it behaviorally difficult to perceive, understand or accept our own (individual/group) weaknesses – this is a very human characteristic we all do need to be aware of The use of OPMS demands a small amount of learning and a fair bit of ‘unlearning’ – which must happen in tandem. At root, what’s needed is an effective, usable understanding of the ‘action meaning’ of the relationship “CONTRIBUTES TO” – and it may not be easy to accept that so many of our problems derive from our lack of practical understanding of this ‘simple’ word! Difficulties (continued): Even after an individual/group recognizes and accepts a specific weakness, it could still take considerable time and effort to overcome it… Learning is relatively easy. But unlearning is not easy to do We can more or less guarantee that OPMS will work successfully in every case as these difficulties are overcome Both individuals and groups sometimes find it quite painful to overcome these difficulties – they may even feel it is impossible! This is emphatically not the case: such difficulties can definitely be overcome! This ‘effective understanding’ may take quite a while to develop Just identify the specific difficulties you may be facing, and then apply your good ideas to overcome those difficulties!  Services offered CONTENTS

22 Services offered OPMS Presentations Introductory Workshops  For individuals  For organizations OPMS Consulting Services – extended, ongoing interaction to help accomplish chosen Missions Facilitator Training Software offerings: OPMS s/w for the market; spinoffs from OPMS (see document) Forthcoming ‘OPMS Book’ Contact to find out more about our services CONTENTS  What we’re looking for

23 23 What we’re looking for : Opportunities to demonstrate power of OPMS – individuals; organizations (commercial; government; NGOs) Collaborators of various types Marketing associates Consultants to tie up with Finance to help us develop further Contact to find out more about our how you could join our efforts in various  Services Offered CONTENTS

24 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 201224 More on Missions (with status and commentary) -- Missions worked successfully (using OPMS) -- ‘Failed’ Missions -- Missions still in progress Under preparation – this section to be added in due course  Back to OPMS picture CONTENTS

25 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 201225 ‘Prose + structural graphics’ (p+sg): a couple of examples Some of the following instances would be best understood - along with their implications - when you construct models for yourself, relative to a specific Mission of current interest to you!  More  Back

26 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 201226 You’ve already seen this picture of a ‘general system’: X Y Z SYSTEM BOUNDARY B C D E P Q R A ENVIRONMENT As noted elsewhere, the OPMS itself is a detailed specification of this model of a general system – designed just for the purpose of helping individuals/groups accomplish their challenging Missions  More This is a simple ‘structural graphic’. For any specific case, the inter-relationships between factors should be clearly defined. Along with sufficient explanatory prose, the picture is an example of ‘prose + structural graphics’ (p+sg)

27 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 201227 ‘Informal’ structural graphics ‘Formal’ structural graphics The OPMS software does not yet enable us to construct useful ‘informal’ structural graphics. It does handle ‘formal’ structural graphics quite well (though it is still incomplete in some respects). Until such time as OPMS ‘Sketchpad’ modules are ready within OPMS – try out the ‘Free Mind’ (free) or ‘Mind Mapper’ (commercial) software, which offer some limited sketching facilities for ‘informal’ structural graphics (links provided)… [These software packages do not provide the full power of ‘OPMS thinking’, but they are useful for a start]Free MindMind Mapper We can usually construct pretty good ‘informal structural graphics’ using just pencil and paper

28 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 201228 ‘Informal’ structural graphics Whenever you think seriously on any issue, the simple ‘doodling’ you might do to link up one idea to another is actually an instance of ‘structural graphics’ If you were to combine the doodles with the prose articulation of thoughts that go through your mind as you create them (specifically detailing the relationships that come to mind), that would be ‘prose + structural graphics’ (p+sg)!!  More Our forthcoming ‘Sketchpad’ in OPMS software is designed for the purpose helping your integrate your ‘doodled’ ideas into your Action Planning

29 (c) GSC29 Mind Brain The picture below, when combined with prose detailing the relationships indicated by the arrows, is an instance of ‘p+sg’ (The apparently simple sketch above – when read with all the related prose - actually comprises all the ‘stuff’ of the vast field of ‘Cognitive Research’!!) More ‘informal’ structural graphics  More

30 (c) gsc - dyads, triads30 Part of the ‘stuff’ of the vast field of Education (when the linkages between ‘teaching’ and ‘learning’ are adequately understood by both teacher and learner)… More ‘informal’ structural graphics  More …when the picture is combined with prose detailing the relationships indicated TeachingLearning

31 (c) gsc - dyads, triads31 Unlearning Learning What ‘Education’ (earlier sketch) needs to become a ‘complete system’: More ‘informal’ structural graphics The relationships between learning and ‘unlearning’ are also crucially a part of the ‘stuff’ of ‘Education’ – (though most educators do not yet know this). [Generally, the interest of educators is confined only to “teaching”!] The fact is that the process of learning is fully successful only when accompanied by ‘unlearning’ (and a fair bit of the unlearning needs to be done by the educators themselves!)  More

32 (c) gsc - dyads, triads32 Ideas/ Way(s) to overcome it! A ‘Difficulty’  “lead(s) to” (reverse arrow means “further difficulties may arise”!) …a fundamental characteristic of ‘mind’ that enables problem-solving The reverse is also true: i.e., any idea generated would also lead to perception of difficulties that could prevent accomplishment of the idea (see next slide_… More ‘informal’ structural graphics  More

33 (c) gsc - dyads, triads33...objections against it! A good idea  “usually lead(s) to” (These objections usually arise from some mind other than the one that thought up the original good idea!) Illustrating a very human characteristic: More ‘informal’ structural graphics Another human characteristic – more practically useful than the earlier one: …more ideas to overcome objections  Some formal structural graphics Ask for current version of our presentation on ‘Dyads & Triads’ (still in progress) for some more useful ‘informal structural graphics’  Back  “usually lead(s) to”

34 (c) GS ChandyOPMS 'Elevator' - 201234 Some formal ‘structural graphics In outline – and without a great deal of explanation – we present some ‘formal’ structural graphics over the next few slides… (An adequate explanation would require a live workshop where participants identify a Mission of current interest and develop Action Planning to accomplish the Mission)  Back  More

35 …which we use to construct one or more models that would help accomplish the Mission: The ‘Action Planning Model’ (using Interpretive Structural Modeling - ISM) During our workshops we ask participants to generate some good ideas about a chosen Mission… This is some brief background relating specifically to ‘Action Planning’ models, which form part of what we call ‘formal structural graphics’ We should emphasize that only actual construction of your own models to accomplish a Mission of current interest to you will properly convince you of the power and the potential of this approach to working in complex systems

36 36OPMS General -2012 The general ‘Action Planning Model’ in abstract: The ‘Mission’ This may appear to be trivial – but we shall demonstrate that it is the heart of EVERY successful Mission!!! Various THINGS TO DO to accomplish a Mission Please PARTICIPATE with us while we develop a specific instance of this idea in some detail as background to your own modeling… One behavioral difficulty: Some of us may feel we don’t like to read such models. The benefits are HUGE – so we urge all to try to overcome this dislike: a little practice is all it takes!! It’s ESSENTIAL, for OPMS… Strength of relationships in an Action Planning model: (c) GS Chandy Read bottom-upwards, substituting “MAY CONTRIBUTE TO” whenever you encounter an arrow “may contribute to” “should contribute to” “does/do contribute to”  A specific instance of development of an Action Plan… “ MAY contribute to” is the ‘ruling strength’ of the relationship in the model. Some parts of the model may become more certain over time – i.e. we may be able to claim “SHOULD CONTRIBUTE TO…” for some parts of it… So we demonstrate a process that would help you correctly to IDENTIFY and DO the things that may contribute to your Mission! This will involve picking up some specific ‘simple’ skills… …these are skills essential for effective ‘Action Planning’ in complex systems! CLAIM: To accomplish any Mission, we just need to do, effectively, the various things that may “CONTRIBUTE TO” accomplishing it… This is essential whether we’re using OPMS or not ! Do you have any doubts, questions or scepticism about this claim? We do need your focused participation during this demo (If you do have doubts, we shall have to convince you that this claim is justified. This is critically important for any application of OPMS). Anyone seriously suffering this dislike could also take it up as an ‘Individual Mission’: “To overcome my behavioral dislike of reading such models”

37 (c) GS ChandyOPMS General -201237 For this demonstration, we have generated several elements for the Mission of “Propagating OPMS”: “To demonstrate OPMS to this group” (P) “To convince members of this group that they should use OPMS for their work (and play)” (Q) “To demonstrate OPMS – effectively” (R) “To respond to all doubts and difficulties expressed” (S) For illustration, we show how these (and other relevant elements) may be modeled to develop an Action Plan

38 To demonstrate OPMS to this group (P) To demonstrate OPMS to this group – effectively! (R) To demonstrate OPMS to this group (P) To convince members of this group that they should use OPMS for their work (and play) (Q) To demonstrate OPMS to this group (P) Formal Prose translation: “To demonstrate OPMS to this group MAY CONTRIBUTE To convince members of this group that they should use OPMS for their work (and play) which in turn MAY CONTRIBUTE To propagate OPMS” Let’s add a few more elements to the model P  R  Q  M IMPLIES: P  Q & P  M ; R  M Formal Prose translation: “… …” The subtleties: …. To translate these models into ‘prose’, just read in direction of arrow, substituting “MAY CONTRIBUTE” (in this case) whenever you encounter an arrow! Formal Prose translation: “… …” (Just read upwards, substituting “MAY CONTRIBUTE” whenever you encounter an arrow!) Formal Prose Translation: “To demonstrate OPMS to this group MAY CONTRIBUTE To propagate and apply OPMS” To propagate and apply OPMS (M) “may contribute Our specific example: Such a model is called an ‘Interpretive Structural Model’ (ISM) Right along, the model is developed from responses to ‘modeling questions’, such as: “Does ‘P’  ‘M’?” (Response “YES”) “Does ‘M’  ‘P’?” (Response “NO”) The current development reflects GSC’s perceptions – your perceptions may be different in several respects: that is entirely acceptable. For the moment, just follow this model – later you can use the computer to develop your own model. However, as humans, we know something about the real world (which the computer does not), and we can see some subtleties here that the computer cannot see. Specifically, right now, the computer model is telling us: “P may contribute to Q” and “Q may contribute to M”, BUT... Reading such models and picking up such subtleties ARE needed skills! …but our knowledge of the real world tells us: “‘Q’ SHOULD CONTRIBUTE to ‘M’” The process to be demonstrated is the very heart of OPMS Action Planning, so we request your focused attention AND PARTICIPATION … There are various kinds of ISMs – here, we are focusing on specific ‘Action Planning’ ISMs, based on the “CONTRIBUTION” relationship Those two responses resulted in the model displayed above… We shall now discuss in some detail various aspects of this model as it develops... (Such ‘model construction’ is NOT one of the needed skills! The computer will construct your models for you from your responses to modeling questions that it will ask)

39 To demonstrate OPMS to this group (P) “may contribute To respond to all doubts & difficulties expressed (S) To convince members of this group that (Q) they should use OPMS for their work (and play) To propagate and apply OPMS (M) To demonstrate OPMS to this group – effectively! (R) 39 “What, in my opinion, are the THINGS TO DO to accomplish lowest- level element(s)?” IMPORTANT QUESTION: Why do I call this a ‘developing Action Plan’??? Formal translation: “…” Questions? Doubts?? A response that came to my mind was: “To develop a presentation that could make sense to CSI group” (N) … (along with other elements) However, keep always in mind that correctly INTERPRETING the models constructed is THE key to success! Wrong interpretations could lead to undesired results – sometimes even disastrous results!! Translating models into standard prose is VERY important! Also, P  R,Q,M; S  Q, M; R  M If, by workshop end, most of you are NOT convinced “to use OPMS at work (and play)”, it is probable that I’ve not adequately responded to your doubts, difficulties expressed, questions asked… The ‘interpretation’ of a model is different from a ‘formal translation’ of the model into prose… FIRST: Why is it important to do this ‘formal translation’? (After all, we can always get this done for us by the computer!) A computer can do the formal translation of a model for you – but only you can interpret your models and that interpretation will determine your ACTIONS in pursuit of your Mission! Unless we develop the practice of mentally doing this formal translation as we see a model, we may not be able to perceive the ‘subtleties’ in it (which are crucial to create effective Action Planning) We emphasize: These subtleties are NOT accessible to a computer – only the specific human beings in the specific situation can extract these subtleties… We had started with “‘P’ MAY CONTRIBUTE TO ‘M’” – and the process has been able to help us increase the certainty of parts of our model! Your Interpretive Structural Models are reflections of what is going on in your mind – of your ‘MENTAL MODELS’ (Sometimes, if we are not accustomed to formally translating these models, we may not clearly and correctly understand the subtleties of some situations and how to interpret a model – this has happened to me!! - Example later ) Please bear with us while we explain AND EMPHASIZE some aspects of this modeling process in some depth… And it may take quite a while before one correctly interprets the model one makes – though the interpretation is about something that is already in one’s own mind!!! If you should feel ‘fagged out’ or bored during this explanation – please feel free to call for a break! (We DO need your focused attention and active participation). Once you get over the ‘logical rigours’ of this stage, most of OPMS is very easy indeed! The Action Plan that would develop from this kind of modeling is a ‘process flow chart’ showing how the various things you can do today, tomorrow and every day could “CONTRIBUTE TO” the things you want to achieve over time – and to your overarching Mission. (And all stages of the model are reflections of your “MENTAL MODEL” as it develops about issues involved) (Further, there may also be doubts/ difficulties that are NOT expressed – the workshop should also strive to handle those as well!!) By the way, there is NO MATH REQUIRED FROM USERS!! – it’s all just logic and commonsense. (Whatever math may be required will be handled by the computer) As you get used to reading such structures, all of these inferences and subtleties become almost instantly clear as you see and mentally translate the structures! The subtleties here that the computer cannot see: “ ‘S’ SHOULD CONTRIBUTE to ‘R’, which SHOULD CONTRIBUTE to ‘Q’, which SHOULD CONTRIBUTE to ‘M’”

40 To respond to all doubts & difficulties expressed (Q) To convince members of this group that (S) they should use OPMS for their work (and play) “may contribute To propagate and apply OPMS (M) To demonstrate OPMS to this group – effectively! (R) To demonstrate OPMS to this group (P) 40 To develop a presentation that could make sense to CSI group (N) The only modeling Questions needed to add this element: Does ‘N’  ‘P’?” – YES Does ‘P’  ‘N’?” – NO (Using ‘transitivity’, the computer calculates the specific questions to be asked at each stage – and the available inferences are calculated by the computer) (The relationships ‘N’  ‘Q’, ‘R’, ‘S’ and ‘M’ – as well as the relationships vice-versa are inferred by the computer using the TRANSITIVITY of “CONTRIBUTES TO”!)

41 To propagate and apply OPMS (M) 41 To respond to all doubts & difficulties expressed (Q) To convince members of this group that (S) they should use OPMS for their work (and play) “may contribute To demonstrate OPMS to this group – effectively! (R) To demonstrate OPMS to this group (P) To develop a presentation that could make sense to CSI group (N) The ‘modeling relationship’ chosen is key to understanding ‘systems’! Linked by SPECIFIC relationship Our ideas, in our natural language… ONLY ONE single “transitive relationship” is used right through the model!transitive relationship At next slides, we add a couple more elements to this structure … As we read our models, we are able to take into automatic consideration all the ‘subtleties’ and ‘implications’ contained in the structures! In conventional management sciences, the transitive relationship “CONTRIBUTES TO” is barely ever used formally– and only the relationship “PRECEDES” is used for what they choose to call ‘Action Planning’ or ‘Project Management’! There are HUGE benefits available if you construct your initial models for any Mission using “CONTRIBUTES TO” – the first being that you can get real Action Planning from the process! NEVER!!!! Continuing development of any ‘CONTRIBUTION structure’ will lead to elements at the bottom of the structure that we know how to accomplish today - linked up, step by step, with what we wish to accomplish – an ACTION PLAN! The “PRECEDENCE” relationship cannot lead to real Action Planning! WHY ? For instance, if we had chosen “PRECEDES” as the relationship of interest, we would have got a pretty useless structure for Action Planning! A useful learning exercise (for you, independently, later): ‘Translate’ and then ‘interpret’ this model (and what follows) for yourself! When you do this correctly, you would also probably have good ideas about improvements GSC needs to make in this workshop! Why the ‘precedence relationship’ cannot lead to Action Planning: 1.‘Precedence’ can help us model ONLY Events & Milestones – but EVERY Mission consists of much more than just Events & Milestones 2.‘Precedence’ is useful ONLY when we already understand the system fairly well – “CONTRIBUTION” can help us arrive at a ‘usable’ understanding of systems On deeper examination, it will be found that “CONTRIBUTES TO” and its ‘modeling opposite’ “HINDERS” are probably THE most important ‘system relationships’ that exist (for the purpose of creating effective Action Planning) The subtle distinctions between “CONTRIBUTES TO” and “PRECEDES” have not yet been integrated into the processes of the conventional management sciences! Now, here’s something very, VERY important!! The ‘PRECEDENCE’ relationship does serve various modeling needs – but it is not highly useful for ‘Action Planning’ purposes, which is the primary use it is put to by ‘conventional management’!

42 42 To respond to all doubts & difficulties expressed (Q) To convince members of this group that (S) they should use OPMS for their work (and play) “may contribute To propagate and apply OPMS (M) To demonstrate OPMS to this group – effectively! (R) To demonstrate OPMS to this group (P) To develop a presentation that could make sense to CSI group (N) The elements we shall add are: -- “To be in a position to demonstrate OPMS to any individuals or groups” -- “To launch a company for developing & marketing OPMS” -- “To develop the OPMS software” Earlier elements

43 43 To demonstrate OPMS to this group – effectively! To demonstrate OPMS to this group To respond to all doubts & difficulties expressed To convince members of this group that they should use OPMS for their work (and play) “may contribute To propagate and apply OPMS To be in a position to demonstrate OPMS to any individuals or groups To develop a presentation that could make sense to CSI group You just need to “understand the flow” of this model – you don’t really need to worry about the details of the elements in it…...later, if you wish, you can do the whole thing in detail as an exercise (Or – preferably - do a detailed analysis such as we’ve been doing here on some Missions of specific interest to you!)

44 To be able to demo OPMS to any group (2) (c) GS Chandy To demonstrate OPMS to this group – effectively! (7) To demonstrate OPMS to this group (5) To respond to all doubts & difficulties expressed (6) To convince members of this group that they should use OPMS (8) “may contribute To propagate and apply OPMS (9) To develop the OPMS software (4) To develop a presentation that could make sense to CSI group (3) To launch Company for OPMS (1) For instance: From the model on this single page, we may articulate, directly AND by inference, all of the following sentences (where the arrows stand for “MAY CONTRIBUTE”): 1  2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; & 9 2  3; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9 3  5; 6; 7; 8; 9 4  5; 6; 7; 8; 9 5  6; 7;8; 9 6  7; 8; 9 7  8; 9 8  9 One more useful feature of this modeling process: HUGE Compression! (The elements have been renumbered for convenience) A very large amount of information is contained in this simple picture! Earlier developments of my ‘Mission model’ – which started in 1983!! - have been automatically ‘synchronized’ with newly constructed model – with no fear of contradictions arising! Practice is ESSENTIAL! Remember that several of these relationships are perceived to be “SHOULD CONTRIBUTE” as we learn about the system through exploring the structure The best way to pick up these needed skills is to start with formally translating a few such structures – start small and steadily go to larger ones Also, in the reverse direction (top to bottom), we have the relationship “DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE” running right through the model! …and ALL of these sentences, subtleties and implications can be understood by the practiced reader almost at a glance! Something else has been demonstrated: If the ideas in such a model come from different people in the system, then this modeling would help them – by enabling them to articulate how their ideas “MAY CONTRIBUTE TO” each other – to ‘integrate’ their different ideas. That is, the process can help people arrive at a true ‘consensus’ on how to act! There are many important implications of this, including: New members of an organizational team can be swiftly and effectively inducted into any project with the help of these modeling tools! Also: if key groups in the organization have been systematically doing this kind of modeling, then ‘attrition’ would not cause the organization the serious problems it often does! WHAT HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED: The plain and simple ideas that we all have about what we believe would help us accomplish an ambitious Mission can be integrated into a productive Action Plan! (And the whole process contains huge implications, as we have roughly sketched)

45 (c) GS ChandyOPMS General -201245 The assumption is that ‘key people’ in the system must spend about 5-10 minutes each day doing ‘OPMS work’ on the specific Mission under consideration – that ensures ‘synchronization’ – and needed correction of all errors We now very briefly show (in more detail) some parts of the models constructed “To propagate OPMS – through this CSI workshop” These models extend over several slides. Don’t worry about reading the separate elements in the pictures that now follow – just try and ‘understand the flow’ One more insight: It really does not matter if you make a few mistakes while constructing your model – so long as you KEEP ON DEVELOPING YOUR MODEL, a few minutes each day! (Interpreting your model as correctly as possible at each ‘Action Stage’ is very important!!!) …errors made will soon be corrected as you keep developing your models further! In your own modeling to follow, clearly perceiving these “CONTRIBUTIONS” may sometimes be quite tricky! You may well make mistakes – but don’t worry too much about them…so long as you keep developing your models regularly… These models can continue developing – for as long as there is interest in the Mission (or if there is need to elaborate it to enhance understanding)… see following slides…

46 (c) GS ChandyOPMS General -201246 Some stages of the ‘Action Planning’ model shown on 3 slides (constructed using OPMS software) “may contribute” Initial modeling

47 (c) GS ChandyOPMS General -201247 Model constructed using OPMS software “may contribute” Page 1 Continued…2 Second model (upper level)

48 (c) GS Chandy Page 2 OPMS General -201248 Model constructed using OPMS software “may contribute” Some part of the development of this model is presented at the Handbook: “Preparing for CSI Workshop - ISM” & “Preparing for CSI Workshop - FR”“Preparing for CSI Workshop - ISM” “Preparing for CSI Workshop - FR” Second model (continued) [lower level] Do please excuse me if this in- depth explanation has bored you or tired you out too much! (If you have been able to maintain focus till now - everything else about OPMS should be a cakewalk!) These are part of the models that finally developed into the Action Plan that was used to guide a recent workshop… The model may appear very complex – but it is in fact very simple indeed to the person(s) who constructed it! (Such models are simple representations of the very complex processes in our minds – of our ‘mental models’)

49 (c) GS ChandyOPMS General -201249 What we have shown is ‘Interpretive Structural Modeling’ (ISM) - one of two simple but powerful ‘systems modeling tools’ invented by the late John N. Warfield During our workshops, we also demonstrate ‘Field Representation’ (FR) Method - and how it is related to the ‘One Page Management System’ [OPMS] - in some detail. (FR is other modeling tool invented by Warfield)  Back As noted earlier, ISM and FR should be used ‘in tandem’ (along with ‘informal structuring’) in order to construct an effective OPMS CONTENTS

50 (c) GS ChandyFundas50 ‘transitive’, The relationships in Interpretive Structural Models are ‘transitive’, which means:  Back If ‘A’ ‘B’, and if ‘B’ ‘C’, then ‘A’ MUST ‘C’ (where ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ are elements and stands for the specific transitive relationship under consideration) In brief, this is the algorithm the computer uses to ‘calculate’ these structures There are a sizable number of transitive relationships of importance in systems. OPMS can help us work with and clearly understand most of them CONTENTS

51 51 Information about John Warfield’s books, papers, etc: and see also the ‘John Warfield Collection’ maintained at the library of George Mason University /1920/3059 /1920/3059 The OPMS is based on seminal contributions to systems science from the late Professor John N. Warfield 51OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 CONTENTS  More about OPMS Warfield’s view of systems lays emphasis as we’ve shown on the ‘inter-relationships between factors (elements) in the system under consideration’ We claim this is essential to enable us to develop a ‘usable understanding’ of systems

52 52 For more information about OPMS please contact: G.S. Chandy email: (that’s gsunderscorechandy….) Bangalore: Terrapin Station (near Delhi Public School) Sathanur Village, Bagalur P.O., PIN: 562149 Bangalore, India Tel.: +91-80-2279 52OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012 CONTENTS

53 Our Journey Begins Now… Thank You! …as soon as you want to start working effectively on YOUR ambitious Mission… …just write in to to ask for the prototype OPMS software… (it’s freely available) (c) GS Chandy53OPMS 'Elevator' - 2012

54 54 ISM in outline Under preparation  FR briefly  Back Some information about ISM is available at the section on ‘prose + structural graphics’ – a new section is planned here specifically about ISM  CONTENTS

55 FR in outline  Back Under preparation  ISM briefly ISM briefly  CONTENTS

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