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Student Energy Auditor Training 1. Introductions Your name Your greatest environmental concern 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Student Energy Auditor Training 1. Introductions Your name Your greatest environmental concern 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Student Energy Auditor Training 1

2 Introductions Your name Your greatest environmental concern 2

3 Goals of the Day To learn how to use the tools To be able to calculate how much energy and money things in schools use Come up with data-based suggestions for saving energy to share with students, teachers, school staff, etc. 3

4 Energy and Efficiency Concepts

5 What is Energy? Energy makes things go. It is the capacity to do work, heat something up, or change it in some way.

6 Uses of Energy To generate electricity for our computers, lights, refrigerators, washing machines, and air conditioners For gasoline used in our cars, and diesel fuel used in our trucks

7 Brainstorm: In what ways did you use energy so far today?

8 Energy Takes Many Forms, Including… Mechanical (also called kinetic) energy

9 Energy Takes Many Forms, Including… Chemical energy

10 Energy Takes Many Forms, Including… Electrical energy

11 Energy Takes Many Forms, Including… Light (radiant) energy

12 Energy Takes Many Forms, Including… Heat (thermal) energy

13 Energy Takes Many Forms, Including… Nuclear energy

14 Energy Takes Many Forms, Including… Gravitational (also called potential) energy

15 Brainstorm: What form of energy did you use the most so far today?

16 1. THE ENVIRONMENT  Cutting back on electricity means using fewer fossil fuels, thus saving precious energy resources, reducing pollution, and cutting CO 2 emissions.  This protects our air, water, and the global climate. Why Should We Care About Saving Electricity? 16

17 Power Plants and Pollution  Burning a fuel such as coal produces pollutants, including the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO 2 )  The release of greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels to create electricity is the number one contributor to climate change. 17

18 Power Plants and Pollution  Not all power plants create the same amount of pollution. Some fuels and some technologies are cleaner than others 18

19 Renewable Sources An energy source that can be replenished in a short period of time Solar-from the sun Wind Geothermal –from inside the earth Biomass-from plants Hydropower-from water Ocean Energy-from water 19

20 Nonrenewable Sources An energy source that we are using up and cannot recreate in a short period of time Fossil Fuels - Oil - Natural Gas - Coal Uranium (Used in nuclear energy) 20

21 Where Does Our Electricity Come From in DC? COAL, HYDRO, OIL, NATURAL GAS, NUCLEAR, RENEWABLES

22 Where Does Our Electricity Come From in DC? CC oal: 45.1% NN uclear: 38.3% NN atural Gas: 9.6%  O il: 4% HH ydro: 0.9% RR enewables:1.2% COAL, HYDRO, OIL, NATURAL GAS, NUCLEAR, RENEWABLES

23 Electricity Basics Electricity has three basic units: voltage (v), current (I), and resistance (r). Voltage is measured in volts (Like the water in a pipe) Current is measured in amps (Like the flow rate of the water in the pipe) Resistance is measured in ohms (Like obstructions in the pipe)

24 Electricity: from producer to consumer


26 Energy Conversion  In order to do work, energy transforms, or converts, from one form to another.  Whenever energy is converted, some of the energy is wasted.

27 Energy, from one form to another chemical heat mechanical electrical

28 Power Plant Efficiency Transmission & Distribution 92-94% Transmission & Distribution 92-94% Combustion Turbine 33-35% Combustion Turbine 33-35% Generator 60-80% Generator 60-80%

29 Conclusions: - Energy is wasted at EVERY POINT across the system - In a traditional coal plant, for example, only about 30-35% of the energy in the coal ends up as electricity on the other end of the generator. - We can’t necessarily improve the efficiency of the GRID, but we can make better use of the energy that reaches us

30 Questions?

31 Why Should We Care About Saving Electricity? 2. MONEY  Schools pay more for energy than textbooks and computers combined!  Schools nationwide spend more than $8 billion/year on energy  Every dollar saved is income that can benefit your school 31

32 Why Should We Care About Saving Electricity? 2. MONEY  Annual electricity cost per building type:  Educational facilities are some of the most expensive to operate when you compare them to other commercial buildings. 32 EducationFood Sales Food Service LodgingRetail (other than mall) OfficeReligious Worship $21,100$20,900$17,400$37,100$11,600$20,700$4,400

33 What is energy efficiency? Energy efficiency means… using less energy to accomplish the same task, such as heating or lighting a building. 33

34 Energy Efficiency - Energy efficiency: the ratio of how much useful work we can get out of any system to how much energy goes in. - The human body, for example, converts about 5-15% of the chemical energy we consume as food into useful work. - Thus our bodies are about 5-15% energy efficient. energy in (gasoline) useful energy out (work) Waste energy out (heat) Efficiency = of engine 34

35 Electricity: Easy to Use, Easy to Waste  Electricity is a widely used energy input – flip a switch and something turns on.  It’s also easy to waste – you can leave a lamp or computer and forget that it’s on. 35

36 Measuring Energy  POWER = Watts (W) and kilowatts (kW)  Instantaneous reading  ENERGY = Watt-hours (Wh) and kilowatt- hours (kWh)  Usage over time 36

37 More about Watts, Kilowatts, and Kilowatt-Hours  Most electrical devices have a label that says how many watts they use at any given point OR you can use a watt meter to find the watts  Kilowatt-hours (kWh) are the unit your power company uses to charge for electricity.  Using the wattage, we can calculate how many kW the device uses and then how much energy in kWh it will use over time. 37

38 Figuring Kilowatt-hours FOUR EASY STEPS: 1.Find wattage the device 2.Divide by 1,000 to get kilowatts (kW). 3.Estimate how many hours the device is used 4.Multiply hours of use by kilowatts (kW) to determine kilowatt-hours (kWh).  Here’s the formula: 38 1 2 43

39 Kilowatt-hours (kWh)  We pay for electricity based on the number of kilowatts (or 1,000 watts) used per hour  The power company bills you in cents per kilowatt-hour  How many cents do you think schools in DC pay/kWh?  15.21cents, or $0.1521 39

40 Energy and Power For example, a device requiring one watt of power to run will use one watt-hour (Wh) during one hour…and 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) over a thousand hours. 40

41 Using kWh to Figure Yearly Costs  Estimate the number of hours the device will be used during a year. Multiply this by the power (kW) rating of the device.  Multiply the result by the charge from the utility per kWh.  Here’s the formula: 41

42 Question About how much money does Wilson High School pay for electricity each month? - $19,640.95 (average from Oct ‘07 – Aug ’09) 42

43 Light Bulb Experiment 43

44 LIGHT EXPERIMENT Incandescent BulbCompact Fluorescent Bulb Measured Wattage Light Output Temperature 44

45 Financial: How much $ can ONE bulb save? Convincing people to pay more up front to buy CFLs Life-cycle cost calculation Incandescent BulbCompact Fluorescent Bulb Total cost/year: Savings/year:n/a 45

46 Environmental: How much CO 2 can ONE bulb save? Carbon dioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels = largest contributor to global warming In DC: CO 2 = 1.139 lbs/kWh National Average: CO 2 = 1.329 lbs/kWh Calculate CO 2 emissions for an incandescent bulb and CFL in a year: Incandescent BulbCompact Fluorescent Bulb kWh/year: Total CO2 emissions: 46

47 Conclusions Which bulb is more efficient at producing light? How do you know? - They do the same JOB – same number of footcandle output - CFL does it using LESS energy 47

48 Conclusions The “expensive” bulb is really much cheaper when you factor in energy costs Using less energy also means less CO2 emissions 48

49 Questions? 49

50 5 minute break 50

51 What Is an Energy Audit?  Provides a “snapshot” of how energy is currently being used in the facility. Identifies the energy and cost savings to be achieved by changing the way energy is used in a building or group of buildings. They reveal the ways a home, school, or other facility AND the people in it can save energy. 51

52 SEAT ENERGY AUDIT You will be doing some of the same activities that are done in a full audit: 1. Data Gathering & Analysis 2. Energy Plan: Recommendations for Changes and Savings Analysis 3. Project Report 52

53 Brainstorm: Where should you focus your energy saving efforts? What activities will save the most energy? What things in schools use the most electricity? What are the best ways to save energy in schools? 53

54 How electricity is used in schools nationwide: 54

55 Auditing a School 1. Lighting 2. Behavior patterns 3. Plug loads 4. Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) 55

56 1. LIGHTING Often a large portion of electricity use (~30%) and one of the most controllable The cost of ENERGY represents about 90% of the cost of light over the life of a lamp. - (As we learned in the light bulb experiment) 56

57 1. LIGHTING: Factors to Consider A. Light level requirements vs. current level B. Type of lighting technology C. Ballast type 57

58 1a. Light levels Every task has an associated recommended lighting level Illuminance is measured in footcandles (fc) - Illuminance = how much a light source illuminates an area - Footcandle = the light from one candle held one foot away 58

59 1a. Light Levels Factors That Determine Appropriate Light Levels  Type of activity  Age of occupants  Length of time at task  Contrast / Surroundings  Expert recommendations/ standards  User expectations/ existing lighting they’re accustomed to 59

60 1a. Light levels Activity TypeFootcandlesArea TypeHow Measured Public Spaces2 – 5Foyer/entry way General lighting average throughout the space Simple Orientation5 – 10Hallway Working Spaces, occasional visual tasks 10 – 20Lobby Visual Tasks; high contrast, or large size 20 – 50Lecture Measured on the surface/area where task is being performed Visual Tasks; medium contrast, or small size 50 – 100Writing/reading Visual Tasks; low contrast, or very small size 100 – 200Sewing, woodwork, surgery, etc. 60

61 1a. Light Meter Shows how much light is in an area A light meter measures the illuminance of a given area or work surface in footcandles Two ways to measure: - Take light meter readings in representative areas of the room and average - OR for task-specific places, put on the surface where you need light 61

62 1b. Lighting Technologies Screw-in light bulbs Basic light source Used in lamps 62

63 1b. Incandescent vs. CFL IncandescentCompact Fluorescent (CFL) Light Emitting Diode (LED) WATTAGE 100 23 - 2813 7518 - 2210 6013 - 187 40 8 – 105 LIFETIME 1,0006,00050,000 BULB COST ~$0.75~$5.00~$50-$100 With incandescent bulbs, up to 90% of electricity is wasted as heat instead of light 63

64 1b. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Lamps Very efficient, long lasting lighting technology Commonly used in illuminated exit signs, digital displays, traffic signals, holiday decorative lights Still expensive and not common in overhead lighting applications Can signal “phantom loads” – more on that later 64

65 1b. Lighting Technologies Fluorescent Tube Lamps There are many different types and sizes of fluorescent lamps. Can be “U” shaped, circular, or straight Used in overhead fixtures in schools, stores, offices, and industrial plants. 65

66 1b. T12 vs. T8 Fluorescent Lamps Tube-shaped fluorescents come in different lengths and diameters. T5s and T8s can be used to replace T12s and save energy. Number refers to 8ths of an inch - T12 1.5” diameter - T8 1” diameter - T5 5/8” diameter  T8 T12  66

67 1b. T12 vs. T8 Fluorescent Lamps 67 Lamp Type DiameterTypical Wattage Average LifeCost/lamp T121.5”40 watts20,000 hours$2.00 T81”32 watts24,000 hours$3.50 T55/8”28 watts30,000 hours$11.00 Number refers to how many 8ths of an inch in diameter T12 1.5” diameter T8 1” diameter T5 5/8” diameter

68 1b. High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps Four types Used mainly for street lighting or industrial uses, common in gymnasiums Use a specific ballast so not easily replaced by a different bulb type 68

69 1b. High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps Lamp TypePictureApplicationWattage RangeNotes Mercury Vapor Lamps Industrial applications; outdoor lighting 40 – 1,000Long life (16,000 – 24,000 hrs) Metal Halide Lamps Industrial applications; outdoor lighting 175 – 1,650, or compact = 32 - 250 Similar to mercury, but 1.5- 2x more efficient High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Street/ outdoor lighting, industrial plants, commercial/ institutional 35 – 1,000Highest lamp efficiency of all commonly used indoors Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps Street/highway lighting; outdoor areas/security lighting; warehouses 18 – 180Most efficient of all, but reds, blues & other colors look gray or yellow 69

70 1c. What are Ballasts? Fluorescent and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps require ballasts. Ballasts help these lamps start up, and regulate light output by maintaining normal operating current and voltage. Ballasts consume some energy – typically about 10% of the total used by the fixture 70

71 1c. Two Main Ballast Types There are two main types of ballasts for fluorescent tubes: Magnetic and Electronic Ballast TypeNotesComfortEfficiency MAGNETICOlder technology, not very efficient Can produce a flicker and noise ELECTRONICNewer and today don’t cost much more than magnetic Produce little- to-no flicker; lighter, cooler, less noisy Use about 3 to 8 watts less per ballast than magnetic 71

72 1c. Flicker Checker Tests fluorescent lights to determine whether they have magnetic or electronic ballasts. Detects “flicker” in lights Checker pattern = magnetic Smooth circles = electronic 72

73 Lighting Levels Worksheet Find if the room is over lit, - i.e. can we eliminate bulbs or replace bulbs with more energy efficient ones? - What behavior changes would help save energy in this room? Calculate cost of lighting in room Determine ballast type 73

74 LIGHTING Recommendations How do you save energy used by lighting? -C-C onserve Behavior – turn off lights Set timers/sensors if present; inside and outside/parking lots -I-I mprove/reduce light levels Delamp (remove lamps from fixtures) Use daylighting and turn off lights Use bulbs with more appropriate (less) wattage/light output Clean or replace dirty or warped fixture covers -S-S witch to more efficient lighting Swap incandescents for CFLs Suggest T8s for T12s Upgrade ballasts from magnetic to electronic 74

75 Questions? 75

76 Lunch 76

77 2. BEHAVIOR Changes  One of the easiest ways to save energy is to reduce the amount of electricity we use - CONSERVE  Start with appliances, lights, and other daily used devices 77

78 2. Behavior Makes a Difference… Some simple energy behavior rules:  Turn it off  Turn it down  Take it out  Unplug it  Use available daylight 78

79 …and so does Awareness The US Department of Energy reports that simply raising awareness at a school about saving energy can save between 1 - 3% – without spending any money on efficient new equipment. 79

80 2. Energy Bills: Demand Charge  WHEN you use things can matter as much to your energy bill as HOW MUCH you use  This is called a demand charge  When everyone uses energy at the same time, it costs more for the utility to produce, causing PEAK DEMAND and higher costs  Brainstorm:  When does peak demand occur?  How could you avoid getting peak demand charges?

81 2. Behavior tracking BRAINSTORM: what activities could you carry out to track energy behavior patterns? What could you do to encourage energy saving behaviors/deter waste? 81

82 Questions? 82

83 3.PLUG LOADS  Receive electrical power through a cord plugged into an outlet.  Include computers, copiers, refrigerators, vending machines and more.  Some are very inefficient. 83

84 3. PLUG LOADS: Factors to consider A. Phantom loads B. Efficient models/Energy Star C. Efficient usage 84

85 3a. Phantom Loads Many appliances suck up energy even when they are supposedly turned “off” 75% of the electricity that powers home electronics is consumed while these devices are turned off! Look for things with remote controls, small LED lights, that give off heat BRAINSTORM: - What items do you suspect to have phantom loads? 85

86 3a. Phantom Loads Can be eliminated by unplugging the device OR use a power strip to plug in multiple devices and flip the switch to power them all down simultaneously If you can’t turn off the computer – what about the monitor? Printer? Speakers? - (The monitor uses about 2/3 the power of the computer) 86

87 3b. Efficiency/Energy Star Save by reducing wattage Most appliances have steadily gained efficiency over the years Look for the Energy Star label - Incorporate advanced technologies that use 10–50% less energy and water than standard models 87

88 3b. Refrigerator Example Today’s new refrigerators use 75% less energy than in 1973 From 1972 to 2003: - Energy Use down 74 % - Capacity up 29% - Price down 64 % Source: Graphic -- Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program Statistics – Art Rosenfeld (CEC) and David Goldstein (NRDC)

89 3c. Efficient Usage Save by reducing the time that it is in operation Behavior changes to turn off appliances when not in use Can also use more efficiently: - Fully load dishwasher before running - Don’t prop refrigerator door open/set to a medium temperature 89

90 3c. Efficient Usage This first thing to remember is: if you can, turn it off and unplug it. For example, the average computer is used for only a few hours a day, but is usually left on for a much longer time. If you can’t turn off the computer – what about the monitor? Printer? Speakers? - (The monitor uses about 2/3 the power of the computer) 90

91 3c. Watt Meter Shows how much power an appliance is using Measures in watts Energy is billed in kilowatt hours (1000 watts) SAFETY: Remove from the wall/appliances carefully USE: Always make sure you are measuring Watts by pressing that button once and reading the unit displayed 91

92 Wattage Activity What are 4 things in the room that we can plug into the watt meter and find the wattage of? 92

93 3. PLUG LOAD Recommendations How do you save energy used by plug loads? - Unplug it Or plug everything into a power strip and switch that off - Turn it off Or turn off all auxiliary items (printer, speakers, etc) - Remove unnecessary appliances What devices do you think are the biggest energy users in a school? - Refrigerators/cafeteria equipment, computers (use less but lots), copy machines 93

94 Questions? 94

95 4. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and AC) Often the biggest use of energy in any “conditioned” building Often powered by natural gas or oil as opposed to electricity Can be difficult to control as a building user, but still possible to influence 95

96 4. Investigate HVAC Thermostat - Can set a few degrees warmer/cooler Obvious drafts - “Weatherize” – seal drafty windows/doors Time of use - Make sure unoccupied building isn’t being heated/cooled Window coverings - Close drapes/blinds at night in winter to keep heat out, open during day to let sun in; opposite in summer Natural ventilation/insulation - Open windows instead of turning on heater; dress warmer in cold weather 96

97 4. Temperature Gun Shows the surface temperature of objects Measures in DEGREES FARENHEIT Useful because usually the hotter objects are, the more electricity they are using Also useful to see window temp to check insulation of school SAFETY: Don’t point at people 97

98 4. Humidity/Temperature Pen Shows the air temperature and humidity of the room Typical comfortable humidity levels range from about 35-50% Measures in DEGREES FARENHEIT, and PERCENT HUMIDITY Use when taking the temp of a space vs. the surface temp of an object USE: Hold away from your body so it doesn’t take your temperature 98

99 4. HVAC Recommendations How do you help keep the school at its desired temperature? - Thermostats Lower thermostat settings to 70°F in the winter, and raise them to 78°F in the summer. Keep heat/cold producing things away from thermostats Turn off lights when not needed. Their heat makes your cooling system work harder in the summer and is an expensive way to heat a room in the winter. 99

100 4. HVAC Recommendations - Natural ventilation/insulation During cold weather, open window draperies and blinds on sunny days to let the daylight in and warm rooms. At night, close the draperies to conserve heat. During the summer, close draperies during the day to keep heat out and open at night to cool the building. Dress warmly in winter and wear light clothing during the summer. Keep doors/windows closed and sealed in winter; open in nice weather 100

101 4. HVAC Recommendations - Turn it off Eliminate unnecessary heating or cooling when the building is unoccupied. Turn the heating and cooling system off at night and over the weekends and holidays. Do not heat or cool unused office space, storage rooms, closets and other unoccupied spaces. Close duct registers in these areas. 101

102 Building tour – what to look for? Use checklist to assess energy use in the school Determine areas of probable energy waste Go back with tools later to find wattage/light levels/etc and calculate saving potential 102

103 Brainstorm How are you going to save energy? How to convince others to save energy Lighting Efficiency Needless appliances Temperature Weatherization 103

104 Brainstorm Who will you tell? - Who can help you implement your recommendations? - How will you present the information so that they care? - People at the school - People at the district - Parents/community members - Other students and friends 104

105 Brainstorm How are you going to move forward with this? Meeting times Auditing the rest of the school Organization Communication Student roles to distribute tasks Community impact Outreach 105

106 Thank you!

107 Supplemental Questions

108 What kind plant is most efficient

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