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READING INSTRUCTION THE IMPACT OF BELIEF CHILDREN OF THE CODE

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Presentation on theme: "READING INSTRUCTION THE IMPACT OF BELIEF CHILDREN OF THE CODE"— Presentation transcript:

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2 READING INSTRUCTION THE IMPACT OF BELIEF

3 CHILDREN OF THE CODE

4 COMMON COMMON SENSE AND RESEARCH ARE COMING TOGETHER. THE DAYS OF THE “GREAT EXPERIMENT ON OUR CHILDREN” ARE OVER.

5 to years

6 Good Teachers Good Good Students Common Sense Instructional Materials

7 TEACHING TEACHING A PERSON TO READ WAS BASED ON A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF A PHONETIC ALPHABET SYSTEM, AND ON THE RESULTS OBTAINED TEACHING TODAY IS MORE OFTEN BASED ON “A PHILOSOPHY”----- REGARDLESS OF RESULTS BELIEF THEN PRESUPPOSED LEARNING TO READ WAS A SKILL BELIEF TODAY PRESUPPOSES THAT LEARNING TO READ IS A “NATURAL PROCESS”

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10 1828 NOAH WEBSTER STANDARDIZED SPELLING IN HIS “AMERICAN DICTIONARARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE”

11 IMMENSE “AN IMMENSE EFFECT MAY BE PRODUCED BY SMALL POWERS WISELY AND STEADILY DIRECTED.” Noah Webster, 1821

12 Word Mastery A Course in Phonics for the First Three Grades BY FLORENCE AKIN Formerly a Teacher in Primary Grades, Portland, Oregon HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY The Riverside Press Cambridge 2 COPYRIGHT, 1913, BY FLORENCE AKIN COPYRIGHT, 1941, BY FLORENCE AKIN BANKS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO REPRODUCE THIS BOOK OR PARTS THEREOF IN ANY FORM The Riverside Press CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

13 truction%20-%20Henry.pdf%20Typed.pdf %20Reading%20Made%20Easy%20with%20Blend%20Phon ics%20justified.pdf

14 Reading Made Easy with Blend Phonics for the First Grade Lesson Plans and Teacher’s Guide Hazel Logan Loring This publication is a project of the Logan Institute for Educational Excellence © 1980 by Hazel Loring

15 Beginning in the mid 1800’s a new philosophy of teaching caught the imagination of educators, and that new philosophy called “Progressive Education” swept through the schools like wildfire.

16 Normal Schools to train prospective teachers dotted the landscape, and institutions of higher learning such as Teachers College Columbia, and the University of Chicago led the way to a more “humane” and “socially acceptable” approach to schooling.

17 In the 1920’s Dr. Samuel Orton, a clinician and prominent dyslexia researcher, hypothesized that normally developing readers suppress the visual images reported by the right hemisphere of the brain because these images could potentially interfere with input from the left and then published seminal findings that have been validated by science in the 21 st Century.

18 “USING FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (Fmri) TO STUDY BRAIN ACTIVITY IN CHILDREN, RESEARCHERS TODAY CONFIRMED PART OF AN EIGHTY-YEAR OLD THEORY ON THE NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF READING DISABILITY, AND SHED NEW LIGHT ON BRAIN REGIONS THAT CHANGE AS CHILDREN BECOME ACCOMPLISHED READERS.” Dr. Guinevere Eden, Georgetown University Published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, 5/18/2003

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20 AS PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES TOOK ROOT, THE ORTON/GILLINGHAM PROGRAMS FOCUSED ON THOSE STUDENTS MOST IN NEED, WHILE THE GENERAL SCHOOL POPULATION WAS DENIED INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES THAT HAD BEEN PROVEN TO WORK FOR CENTURIES BEFORE.

21 WHAT ABOUT THE FIELD OF MEDICINE? IS THERE A PARALLEL TO THE FIELD OF EDUCATION? YES!!

22 American Medical Association – formed to standardize medical practice in 1847 FDA established in 1931 – formed to scientifically test foods and drugs, and to disseminate legal advice to prevent violations, and to police medical devices.

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28 Just a few more: Massage that fat away with a mechanical device to mimic actual exercise, including bicycling and rowing; Massage that fat away with a mechanical device to mimic actual exercise, including bicycling and rowing; Or why not go to a Zander room where, in 1996 you could access a Model EE-400 Executive Briefcase Model that provided “easy fitness for men.” Or why not go to a Zander room where, in 1996 you could access a Model EE-400 Executive Briefcase Model that provided “easy fitness for men.”

29 In 1999 FCA investigators accompanied the U.S. Marshall to the offices of Executive Fitness Products in Atlanta, GA to seize hundreds of these devices and destroy them.

30 THANKFULLY, FOR THE MOST PART, WE CAN TRUST THE PILLS WE ARE PERSCRIBED, OR ACCEPT A DOCTOR’S RECOMMENDATIONS, OR BE HOSPITALIZED AND TREATED WITH RELATIVE CONFIDENCE WE WILL SURVIVE.

31 WHY? BECAUSE IN THE EARLY PART OF THE 20 TH CENTURY DR. ABRAHAM FLEXNOR CONDUCTED A MAJOR ASSESSMENT OF MEDICAL SCHOOLS AND FOUND A WIDE VARIATION OF TRAINING PRACTICES….SOME GOOD, BUT MOST VERY, VERY BAD.

32 WE TAKE FOR GRANTED THAT THE FIELD OF MEDICINE DEPENDS ON CAREFULLY DESIGNED QUANTATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES, WITH CLINICAL TRIALS AND PROOF THAT AT A MINIMUM NO HARM WILL BE DONE WITH ANY TREATMENT

33 GOVERNMENTS REQUIRE SELLERS OF NEW MEDICINES TO DEMONSTRATE THE SAFETY AND EFFECTI GOVERNMENTS REQUIRE SELLERS OF NEW MEDICINES TO DEMONSTRATE THE SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THEIR PRODUCTS

34 THE ACCEPTED “GOLD STANDARD” OF EVIDENCE IS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL, IN WHICH A NEW DRUG IS COMPARED WITH THE BEST EXISTING THERAPY (OR WITH A PLACEBO, IF NO TREATMENT IS AVAILABLE).

35 DRUG TRIALS MUST ALSO INCLUDE ENOUGH PATIENTS TO MAKE IT UNLIKELY THAT CHANCE ALONE MAY DETERMINE THE RESULT. [The above 4 statements were taken from the Economist, 2/28/2002]

36 12 YEARS OF SCHOOLING IN AMERICA AMOUNTS TO ABOUT 15,000 HOURS OF COMPULSORY TREATMENT.

37 IT IS HIGH TIME THAT THE AMERICAN PUBLIC DEMANDS THAT THOSE WHO USE HARD EARNED TAX DOLLARS TO EDUCATE OUR CHILDREN OFFER THE SAME GUARANTEE FOR THE RESULTS OF THEIR INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES OR PHILOSOPHIES OF TEACHING AS THOSE IN THE HEALING ARTS.

38 SO WHAT ABOUT READING INSTRUCTION? SAD TO SAY HAVE REGRESSED TO THE DARK AGES.

39 DESPITE DECADES OF CAREFULLY CONDUCTED RESEARCH UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FOR THE PAST FIFTEEN YEARS UNDER THE CAREFUL AND FAITHFUL LEADERSHIP OF DR. REID LYON, THE MATTER OF HOW CHILDREN LEARN TO READ CONTINUES TO BE DEBATED.

40 1997 – 2007 THE DECADE OF “SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH”

41 READING EXCELLENCE ACT – 1997/98 READING EXCELLENCE ACT – 1997/98 The purpose of REA was to provide funds to train teachers in SBRR for the most vulnerable children. The purpose of REA was to provide funds to train teachers in SBRR for the most vulnerable children. SBR was defined for the first time in federal law SBR was defined for the first time in federal law PREVENTING READING FAILURE IN YOUNG CHILDREN PREVENTING READING FAILURE IN YOUNG CHILDREN The “reading wars are over (?)” The “reading wars are over (?)” REPORT OF THE NATIONAL READING PANEL – 2000 REPORT OF THE NATIONAL READING PANEL – 2000 The Essential Components of Reading Instruction established. The Essential Components of Reading Instruction established. SBR is now in education law more than 117 times, affecting every aspect of federal education policy. SBR is now in education law more than 117 times, affecting every aspect of federal education policy. Reading First – $1.1 billion annually provided for diagnostic testing instruments, instructional materials; and professional development to all fifty states. Reading First – $1.1 billion annually provided for diagnostic testing instruments, instructional materials; and professional development to all fifty states. Over six years nearly $7 billion have been allocated to improve reading instruction for the most vulnerable children in the nation. Over six years nearly $7 billion have been allocated to improve reading instruction for the most vulnerable children in the nation. OMB designated RF as the one program in DOE that met its standard of an “effect” program in OMB designated RF as the one program in DOE that met its standard of an “effect” program in RF has become the most popular program in NCLB RF has become the most popular program in NCLB

42 WHY HAS THERE BEEN SO MUCH STURM AND DRANG OVER READING FIRST? Resistance on the part of the education Resistance on the part of the education industry to adopt practices that are industry to adopt practices that are validated by quantitative scientific validated by quantitative scientificevidence An unwillingness to apply the clearly written requirements of the law. An unwillingness to apply the clearly written requirements of the law.

43 Gaming the system to avoid changing existing instructional practices despite the overwhelming evidence available that would dictate such change. Tepid or no support from large education lobbies who had the power to bring about change at the state and school levels

44 WHERE ARE WE TODAY? I would argue that the genie is out of the bottle. It can’t be put back in again. It will take time, and effort, and perseverance but the truth will prevail. Let’s look at just some of the evidence

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48 “Ultimately, we failed to convince ourselves that a……meaningful distinction could be made among social, physical, and life science research and scientific research in education.”

49 “Thus, the committee concluded that the set of guiding principles that apply to scientific inquiry in education are the same set of principles that can be found across the full range of scientific inquiry.” Scientific Research in Education: National Research Council, 2002

50 “REAL SCIENTISTS DO EXPERIMENTS TO TEST THEIR THEORIES – SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, IT IS WIDELY THOUGHT, DO NOT SUBJECT THEIR OWN HYPOTHESES TO ANY SUCH RIGOROUS TREATMENT. WORSE, THEY PEDDLE THEIR UNTESTED HYPOTHESES TO GOVERNMENTS, AND TRY TO GET THEM TURNED INTO POLICIES.” Economist, 2/28/2002

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52 52 Why Do Fads Prevail? Schooling cannot be improved by relying on folk wisdom about how students learn and how schools should be organized. Schooling cannot be improved by relying on folk wisdom about how students learn and how schools should be organized. Decisions about education are sometimes instituted with no scientific basis at all, but rather are derived directly from ideology or deeply held beliefs about social justice or what’s good for society in general. Decisions about education are sometimes instituted with no scientific basis at all, but rather are derived directly from ideology or deeply held beliefs about social justice or what’s good for society in general.

53 WHAT WILL BRING ABOUT CHANGE? Get the best, most disinterested cognitive scientists to synthesize what is dependably known about learning in a form that can have direct practical application to schools. Get the best, most disinterested cognitive scientists to synthesize what is dependably known about learning in a form that can have direct practical application to schools. Require textbook companies to provide evidence that their products have met the “gold standard” test for research. Require textbook companies to provide evidence that their products have met the “gold standard” test for research.

54 Encourage the U.S. Congress to set aside 1% of the total funds for federal education to fund independent “gold standard” research to insure that no student in our publically funded schools can be subjected to instructional practices. Encourage the U.S. Congress to set aside 1% of the total funds for federal education to fund independent “gold standard” research to insure that no student in our publically funded schools can be subjected to instructional practices. Build on the success of Reading First by expanding the number of schools that meet the high standards of SBRR. Build on the success of Reading First by expanding the number of schools that meet the high standards of SBRR.

55 Use the diagnostic testing instruments the instructional materials that meet the requirements of Reading First, and the findings of the National Reading Panel. Use the diagnostic testing instruments the instructional materials that meet the requirements of Reading First, and the findings of the National Reading Panel.

56 Insist that National Associations, such as the International Reading Association, The National Council of Teachers of English, the National School Boards Association, the Council of Chief State School Officers, the National PTA, the National Elementary Principals Association, and call their Member of Congress today and ask for full funding for Reading First.

57 INSIST THAT YOUR STATE USE AVAILABLE RF FUNDS TO ASSESS THE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION AND TO MAKE PUBLIC THE PHILOSOPHY OF READING INSTRUCTION THEY PROVIDE TO PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS.

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59 WHY READING FIRST? 1.“Reading First is our best chance in many decades to close the achievement gap and end three decades of flatline outcomes.” 2.“Reading First encompasses all the things that research says effective schools do. That is unique. It’s seen as a place to learn. I love everything about it. I love it every day.” 3.“You see the faces of happy children. If you’re a human being, that’s got to have an impact.”

60 IT’S ALL ABOUT THE CHILDREN

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