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Energy Resources Fossil Fuels Renewable Sources of Energy Nuclear Energy Energy Conservation Table of Contents.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Resources Fossil Fuels Renewable Sources of Energy Nuclear Energy Energy Conservation Table of Contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels Renewable Sources of Energy Nuclear Energy Energy Conservation Table of Contents

2 Energy Resources Building Vocabulary Using a word in a sentence helps you think about how best to explain the word. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a meaningful sentence using each Key Term. - Fossil Fuels Key Terms:Examples: energy transformation combustion fuel An example of energy transformation is combustion, when a fuel is burned and chemical energy is released. petroleum fossil fuels hydrocarbons Oil, also called petroleum, is one of the fossil fuels, which are made up of energy-rich hydrocarbons. refineryMany products that come from oil are produced in a refinery, where oil is heated and separated. Key Terms:Examples: petrochemicals Petrochemicals, which are also made from oil, are used to make medicines, plastics, paints, and cosmetics.

3 Energy Resources Energy Transformation and Fuels When fuels are burned, the chemical energy that is released can be used to generate another form of energy, such as heat, light, motion, or electricity. - Fossil Fuels

4 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels Energy Transformation and Fuels Pg A Substance that provides a form of energy, such as heat, as a result of a chemical change is a(n) ____. Fuel 2. Energy cannot be converted from one form to another. False 3. The process of burning a fuel is called ____. combustion 4. The energy stored in fuels can be used to generate electricity. True

5 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels 5. Sentences that are true about the production of electric power. In most power plants, water is boiled to make steam. Powerful magnets turn inside a wire coil.

6 Energy Resources Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed from plant remains. What Are Fossil Fuels? - Fossil Fuels

7 Energy Resources What Are Fossil Fuels? Crude oil is first pumped out of the ground and then refined. In the refining process, crude oil is heated and separated to make different products. - Fossil Fuels

8 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels What Are Fossil Fuels? Pg Energy-rich substances formed from the remains of once- living organisms are called ____. fossil fuels 7. List the three major fossil fuels. a.Coal b.Oil c.Natural gas

9 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels 8. Energy-rich chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms are called ____. hydrocarbons 9. Flowchart: Left: Hydrogen + Carbon + ______ Oxygen Right: _____ + _______ = Energy Carbon Dioxide + Water 10. A solid fossil fuel formed from plant remains is _____. coal 11. Today, coal provides 23 percent of the energy used worldwide. False

10 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels 12. The major use of coal is to fuel factories. False 13. Sentences that are true about coal as an energy source. It provides a lot of energy when burned. 14. How can coal mining harm the environment? It can increase erosion and run-off from mines can cause water pollution. 15. Another name for oil---the thick,black,liquid fossil fuel– is ______. petroleum

11 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels 16. Sentences that are true about petroleum. Petroleum fuels most cars, airplanes, trains, and ships. The United States consumes a third of all the petroleum produced in the world. Finding oil is difficult. 17. Scientists can use ______ to test an area for oil without drilling. sound waves 18. When oil is first pumped out of the ground, it is called _____. crude oil 19. A factory where crude oil is separated into fuels and other products by heating is called a(n) ____. refinery

12 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels 20. Compounds that are made from oil are called _____. petrochemicals 21. Sentences that are true about natural gas. It produces a lot of energy. It is highly flammable. 22. Because natural gas is less dense than oil, it often rises above an oil deposit. True

13 Energy Resources Fossil Fuels 23. Fossil fuels are considered a renewable resource. False 24. Sentences that are true about the supply of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels take hundreds of millions of years to form. New sources of energy are needed to replace decreasing fossil reserves.

14 Energy Resources Fuels and Electricity The circle graph shows which energy sources are used to produce electricity in the United States. - Fossil Fuels

15 Energy Resources Fuels and Electricity The percentage of total U.S. electricity that is produced using the labeled energy source Reading Graphs: What does each wedge of the circle represent? - Fossil Fuels

16 Energy Resources Fuels and Electricity Coal Interpreting Data: Which energy source is used to generate most of the electricity in the United States? - Fossil Fuels

17 Energy Resources Fuels and Electricity 70.8% (59.3% coal, 9.3% natural gas, 2.2% petroleum) Drawing Conclusions: What percentage of the electricity production in the United States relies on fossil fuels? - Fossil Fuels

18 Energy Resources Fuels and Electricity Coal, petroleum, and natural gas might decrease because they are in limited supply; nuclear and hydroelectric energy sources might increase to replace fossil fuels. Predicting: How might the circle graph differ 50 years from now? Give reasons to support your prediction. - Fossil Fuels

19 Energy Resources Links on Fossil Fuels Click the SciLinks button for links on fossil fuels. - Fossil Fuels

20 Energy Resources End of Section: Fossil Fuels

21 Energy Resources Write two questions that you have about the diagram “Harnessing the Sun’s Energy” in a graphic organizer like the one below. Then, answer your questions. Q. How does the house capture solar energy? A. Active solar collectors on the roof, large windows on the south and west sides that act as passive solar collectors Q. What does the equipment that is on the roof do? A. Active solar cells on the roof generate electricity that can be stored in a battery in the basement. Solar House Q. What is the difference between active and passive solar heating systems? A. Both convert sunlight into thermal energy, but only active systems use pumps and fans to distribute heat. - Renewable Sources of Energy Previewing Visuals

22 Energy Resources Harnessing the Sun’s Energy Passive and active solar systems convert solar energy into heat and electricity in a solar house. - Renewable Sources of Energy

23 Energy Resources Renewable Resources of Energy Harnessing the Sun’s Energy Pg What is solar energy? It is energy from the sun. 2. The sentence that is true about solar energy. It is the source of most other renewable energy resources. It will not run out for billions of years. It is available only when the sun is shinning. 3. How do some solar plants capture energy and use it to generate electricity? Rows of giant mirrors focus the sun’s rays to heat a tank of water. The water boils, making steam that can be used to generate electricity.

24 Energy Resources Renewable Resources of Energy 4. Solar energy can be converted directly into electricity in a solar cell. True 5. What are cells used to power? They are used to power calculators, lights, and other small devices. 6. Solar heating systems convert sunlight into mechanical energy. False 7. Concept Map: Passive Active

25 Energy Resources Renewable Resources of Energy 8. How do active solar heating systems differ from passive solar heating systems? Active solar heating systems use fans and pumps to distribute the heat. Hydroelectric Power Pg List other renewable sources of energy besides the sun. A.Water B.Wind C.Biomass D.Geothermal energy E.Hydrogen 10. Electricity produced by flowing water is called ____. hydroelectrical power

26 Energy Resources Renewable Resources of Energy 11. Hydroelectrical power is the least widely used source of renewable energy in the world today. False 12. What are two limitations on hydroelectric power in the United States. Most of the suitable rivers have already been dammed, and dams can have negative effects on the environment. Capturing the Wind Pg Sentences that are true about wind energy. It is the fastest-growing of the world’s electricity. In some places it is the major source of power.

27 Energy Resources Renewable Resources of Energy 14. Most places have winds that blow steadily enough to be a worthwhile energy source. False Biomass Fuels Pg Fuels made from living things are called ____. biomass fuels 16. Sentences that are true about biomass fuels They include leaves, food wastes, and manure. They can be converted to other fuels. They are renewable resources.

28 Energy Resources Renewable Resources of Energy Tapping Earth’s Energy Pg Intense heat from Earth’s interior is called ____. Geothermal energy 18. Geothermal energy is an unlimited source of cheap energy. True 19. Drawing.

29 Energy Resources Tapping Earth’s Energy - Renewable Sources of Energy A geothermal power plant uses heat from Earth’s interior as an energy source to produce electricity.

30 Energy Resources Renewable Resources of Energy The Promise of Hydrogen Power Pg What is the obstacle to use hydrogen as a fuel? It takes more energy to obtain pure hydrogen than is produced by burning the hydrogen.

31 Energy Resources Renewable Energy Resources Click the Video button to watch a movie about renewable energy resources. - Renewable Sources of Energy

32 Energy Resources Links on Renewable Energy Click the SciLinks button for links on renewable energy. - Renewable Sources of Energy

33 Energy Resources End of Section: Renewable Sources of Energy

34 Energy Resources Comparing and Contrasting As you read, compare fission and fusion reactions in a Venn diagram like the one below. Write the similarities in the space where the circles overlap and the differences on the left and right sides. Nuclear FissionNuclear Fusion Uses uranium Releases large amounts of energy Uses hydrogen - Nuclear Energy Splits nuclei Combines nuclei Loses small amounts of mass Produces energy

35 Energy Resources Nuclear Fission Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atom’s nucleus into two smaller nuclei. - Nuclear Energy

36 Energy Resources Nuclear Energy Introduction Pg The central core of an atom that contains the proton and neutrons is called the ____. nucleus 2. Concept map: Fission Fusion Nuclear Fission Pg Nuclear reactions convert matter into energy. True 4. What formula, developed by Albert Einstein, describes the relationship between energy and matter? E=mc 2

37 Energy Resources Nuclear Energy 5. The splitting of an atom’s nucleus into two smaller nuclei is called ____. nuclear fission 6. In a controlled nuclear chain reaction, the energy released as heat can be used o generate electricity. True

38 Energy Resources Nuclear Power Plants In a nuclear power plant, the heat released from fission reactions is used to change water into steam. The steam then turns the blades of a turbine to generate electricity. - Nuclear Energy

39 Energy Resources Nuclear Energy Nuclear Power Plants Pg How is electricity produced in a nuclear power plant? The heat released from the reactions is used to change water into steam. The steam then turns the blades of a turbine to generate electricity. 8. Reactor vessel B- it is where nuclear fission occurs 9. Fuel rod A- it contains the uranium 10. Control rod C- it controls the reactions

40 Energy Resources Nuclear Energy 11. Heat exchanger D- it changes hot water to steam 12. When fuel rods in a nuclear power plant generate to much heat that they start to melt, the condition is called a(n) ______. meltdown 13. Why is it difficult to dispose of radioactive wastes produced by power plants? It is difficult because they remain dangerous for many thousands of years.

41 Energy Resources The Quest to Control Fusion In nuclear fusion, two hydrogen nuclei combine to create a helium nucleus, which has slightly less mass than the two hydrogen nuclei. The lost mass is converted to energy. - Nuclear Energy

42 Energy Resources Nuclear Energy The Quest to Control Fusion Pg The combining of two atomic nuclei to produce a single larger nucleus is called _____. nuclear fusion 15. Sentences that are true about nuclear fusion. The fuel it needs is readily available. It should produce less radioactive waste than nuclear fission.

43 Energy Resources Nuclear Power Plant Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about nuclear power plants. - Nuclear Energy

44 Energy Resources End of Section: Nuclear Energy

45 Energy Resources What You Know What You Learned Using Prior Knowledge Before you read, write what you know about energy efficiency and conservation in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn. 1.I can turn off lights to conserve energy. 2.I can walk instead of riding in a car when possible. 1.One way to preserve our current energy resources is to increase efficiency. 2.One method of increasing efficiency of heating and cooling systems is to use insulation. 3.Compact fluorescent bulbs use about one fourth as much energy as incandescent light bulbs. - Energy Conservation

46 Energy Resources Energy Conservation Introduction Pg What are two ways to preserve our current energy sources? One way is to increase the efficiency of our energy use. Another way is to conserve energy whenever possible. Energy Efficiency Pg The percentage of energy from a fuel that is actually used to perform work is its _____. efficiency 3. What happens to the energy from a fuel that is not used to preform work? Most of the rest of the energy is “lost” to the surroundings, usually a heat.

47 Energy Resources Energy Conservation 4. A layer of material that helps block the transfer of heat between the air inside and the air outside a building is called ____. insulation 5. How does insulation work? It traps air, and this layer of trapped air helps keep the building from losing or gaining heat from the outside. 6. Circle the best material for insulation. Fiberglass 7. Why do new windows have two panes of glass with space between them? The air between the panes of glass acts as insulation to help prevent heat loss through the windows.

48 Energy Resources Energy Conservation 8.Incandescent light bulbs waste less energy than compact fluorescent bulbs. False 9. How have engineers improved the energy efficiency of cars? Engineers have designed better engines and tires. 10. What are some ways to reduce the number of cars on the road? Communities can maintain public transit systems that provide an alternative to driving. They also can encourage carpooling.

49 Energy Resources Energy Conservation Energy conservation means reducing energy use. - Energy Conservation

50 Energy Resources Energy Conservation 11. Reducing energy use is called ______. energy conservation 12. Sentences that describe a way you can reduce your personal energy use. Walk or ride a bike for short trips. Recycle

51 Energy Resources Energy Conservation Key Terms 1.Fuel 2.Petrochemical 3.Petroleum 4.Reactor vessel 5.Refinery 6.Meltdown 7.Efficiency 8.Insulation 9.Conservation 10.Hydroelectric 11.Gasohol 12.hydrocarbon

52 Energy Resources Graphic Organizer Pollutes air Produces large amounts of energy Renewable, does not pollute Requires sunshine Renewable, does not pollute Requires steady winds, generators noisy Dams cause environmental harm Renewable, does not pollute Limited availability, deep drilling expensive Produces huge amount of energy Coal Oil Solar Wind Hydroelectric Geothermal Nuclear Energy TypeAdvantageDisadvantage Easy to transport Nonrenewable No pollution Radioactive waste

53 Energy Resources End of Section: Energy Conservation

54 Energy Resources End of Section: Graphic Organizer


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