Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Fossil Fuels Renewable Sources of Energy"— Presentation transcript:
1Table of Contents Fossil Fuels Renewable Sources of Energy Nuclear EnergyEnergy Conservation
2Building Vocabulary - Fossil Fuels Using a word in a sentence helps you think about how best to explain the word. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a meaningful sentence using each Key Term.Key Terms:Key Terms:Examples:petrochemicalsExamples:energy transformationcombustionfuelPetrochemicals, which are also made from oil, are used to make medicines, plastics, paints, and cosmetics.An example of energy transformation is combustion, when a fuel is burned and chemical energy is released.petroleumfossil fuelshydrocarbonsOil, also called petroleum, is one of the fossil fuels, which are made up of energy-rich hydrocarbons.refineryMany products that come from oil are produced in a refinery, where oil is heated and separated.
3Energy Transformation and Fuels - Fossil FuelsEnergy Transformation and FuelsWhen fuels are burned, the chemical energy that is released can be used to generate another form of energy, such as heat, light, motion, or electricity.
4Fossil FuelsEnergy Transformation and Fuels PgA Substance that provides a form of energy, such as heat, as a result of a chemical change is a(n) ____.Fuel2. Energy cannot be converted from one form to another.False3. The process of burning a fuel is called ____.combustion4. The energy stored in fuels can be used to generate electricity.True
5Fossil Fuels5. Sentences that are true about the production of electric power.In most power plants, water is boiled to make steam.Powerful magnets turn inside a wire coil.
6What Are Fossil Fuels? - Fossil Fuels Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed from plant remains.
7What Are Fossil Fuels? - Fossil Fuels Crude oil is first pumped out of the ground and then refined. In the refining process, crude oil is heated and separated to make different products.
8Fossil FuelsWhat Are Fossil Fuels? Pg6. Energy-rich substances formed from the remains of once-living organisms are called ____.fossil fuels7. List the three major fossil fuels.CoalOilNatural gas
9Fossil Fuels8. Energy-rich chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms are called ____. hydrocarbons 9. Flowchart: Left: Hydrogen + Carbon + ______ Oxygen Right: _____ + _______ = Energy Carbon Dioxide + Water 10. A solid fossil fuel formed from plant remains is _____. coal 11. Today, coal provides 23 percent of the energy used worldwide. False
10Fossil Fuels 12. The major use of coal is to fuel factories. False 13. Sentences that are true about coal as an energy source.It provides a lot of energy when burned.14. How can coal mining harm the environment?It can increase erosion and run-off from mines can cause water pollution.15. Another name for oil---the thick,black,liquid fossil fuel– is ______ .petroleum
11Fossil Fuels 16. Sentences that are true about petroleum. Petroleum fuels most cars, airplanes, trains, and ships.The United States consumes a third of all the petroleum produced in the world.Finding oil is difficult.17. Scientists can use ______ to test an area for oil without drilling.sound waves18. When oil is first pumped out of the ground, it is called _____.crude oil19. A factory where crude oil is separated into fuels and other products by heating is called a(n) ____.refinery
12Fossil Fuels 20. Compounds that are made from oil are called _____. petrochemicals21. Sentences that are true about natural gas.It produces a lot of energy.It is highly flammable.22. Because natural gas is less dense than oil, it often rises above an oil deposit.True
13Fossil Fuels 23. Fossil fuels are considered a renewable resource. False24. Sentences that are true about the supply of fossil fuels.Fossil fuels take hundreds of millions of years to form.New sources of energy are needed to replace decreasing fossil reserves.
14Fuels and Electricity - Fossil Fuels The circle graph shows which energy sources are used to produce electricity in the United States.
15Fuels and Electricity - Fossil Fuels Reading Graphs: What does each wedge of the circle represent?The percentage of total U.S. electricity that is produced using the labeled energy source
16Fuels and Electricity - Fossil Fuels Interpreting Data: Which energy source is used to generate most of the electricity in the United States?Coal
17Fuels and Electricity - Fossil Fuels Drawing Conclusions: What percentage of the electricity production in the United States relies on fossil fuels?70.8% (59.3% coal, 9.3% natural gas, 2.2% petroleum)
18Fuels and Electricity - Fossil Fuels Predicting: How might the circle graph differ 50 years from now? Give reasons to support your prediction.Coal, petroleum, and natural gas might decrease because they are in limited supply; nuclear and hydroelectric energy sources might increase to replace fossil fuels.
19Click the SciLinks button for links on fossil fuels.
21Previewing Visuals - Renewable Sources of Energy Write two questions that you have about the diagram “Harnessing the Sun’s Energy” in a graphic organizer like the one below. Then, answer your questions.Solar HouseQ. How does the house capture solar energy?A. Active solar collectors on the roof, large windows on the south and west sides that act as passive solar collectorsQ. What does the equipment that is on the roof do?A. Active solar cells on the roof generate electricity that can be stored in a battery in the basement.Q. What is the difference between active and passive solar heating systems?A. Both convert sunlight into thermal energy, but only active systems use pumps and fans to distribute heat.
22Harnessing the Sun’s Energy - Renewable Sources of EnergyHarnessing the Sun’s EnergyPassive and active solar systemsconvert solar energy intoheat and electricityin a solar house.
23Renewable Resources of Energy Harnessing the Sun’s Energy PgWhat is solar energy?It is energy from the sun.2. The sentence that is true about solar energy.It is the source of most other renewable energy resources.It will not run out for billions of years.It is available only when the sun is shinning.3. How do some solar plants capture energy and use it to generate electricity?Rows of giant mirrors focus the sun’s rays to heat a tank of water. The water boils, making steam that can be used to generate electricity.
24Renewable Resources of Energy 4. Solar energy can be converted directly into electricity in a solar cell. True 5. What are cells used to power? They are used to power calculators, lights, and other small devices. 6. Solar heating systems convert sunlight into mechanical energy. False 7. Concept Map: Passive Active
25Renewable Resources of Energy 8. How do active solar heating systems differ from passive solar heating systems?Active solar heating systems use fans and pumps to distribute the heat.Hydroelectric Power Pg. 6849. List other renewable sources of energy besides the sun.WaterWindBiomassGeothermal energyHydrogen10. Electricity produced by flowing water is called ____.hydroelectrical power
26Renewable Resources of Energy 11. Hydroelectrical power is the least widely used source of renewable energy in the world today.False12. What are two limitations on hydroelectric power in the United States.Most of the suitable rivers have already been dammed, and dams can have negative effects on the environment.Capturing the Wind Pg13. Sentences that are true about wind energy.It is the fastest-growing of the world’s electricity.In some places it is the major source of power.
27Renewable Resources of Energy 14. Most places have winds that blow steadily enough to be a worthwhile energy source.FalseBiomass Fuels Pg. 68515. Fuels made from living things are called ____.biomass fuels16. Sentences that are true about biomass fuelsThey include leaves, food wastes, and manure.They can be converted to other fuels.They are renewable resources.
28Renewable Resources of Energy Tapping Earth’s Energy Pg. 68617. Intense heat from Earth’s interior is called ____.Geothermal energy18. Geothermal energy is an unlimited source of cheap energy.True19. Drawing.
29Tapping Earth’s Energy - Renewable Sources of EnergyTapping Earth’s EnergyA geothermal power plant uses heat from Earth’s interior as an energy source to produce electricity.
30Renewable Resources of Energy The Promise of Hydrogen Power Pg. 68720. What is the obstacle to use hydrogen as a fuel?It takes more energy to obtain pure hydrogen than is produced by burning the hydrogen.
31Renewable Energy Resources - Renewable Sources of EnergyRenewable Energy ResourcesClick the Video button to watch a movie about renewable energy resources.
32Links on Renewable Energy - Renewable Sources of EnergyLinks on Renewable EnergyClick the SciLinks button for links on renewable energy.
34Comparing and Contrasting - Nuclear EnergyComparing and ContrastingAs you read, compare fission and fusion reactions in a Venn diagram like the one below. Write the similarities in the space where the circles overlap and the differences on the left and right sides.Nuclear FissionNuclear FusionReleaseslarge amounts of energyUses hydrogenUses uraniumProduces energyLoses small amounts of massCombines nucleiSplits nuclei
35Nuclear Fission - Nuclear Energy Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atom’s nucleus into two smaller nuclei.
36Nuclear EnergyIntroduction Pg. 690The central core of an atom that contains the proton and neutrons is called the ____.nucleus2. Concept map:FissionFusionNuclear Fission Pg3. Nuclear reactions convert matter into energy.True4. What formula, developed by Albert Einstein, describes the relationship between energy and matter?E=mc2
37Nuclear Energy5. The splitting of an atom’s nucleus into two smaller nuclei is called ____. nuclear fission 6. In a controlled nuclear chain reaction, the energy released as heat can be used o generate electricity. True
38Nuclear Power Plants - Nuclear Energy In a nuclear power plant, the heat released from fission reactions is used to changewater into steam. The steam then turnsthe blades of a turbine togenerate electricity.
39Nuclear EnergyNuclear Power Plants Pg7. How is electricity produced in a nuclear power plant?The heat released from the reactions is used to change water into steam. The steam then turns the blades of a turbine to generate electricity.8. Reactor vesselB- it is where nuclear fission occurs9. Fuel rodA- it contains the uranium10. Control rodC- it controls the reactions
40Nuclear Energy11. Heat exchanger D- it changes hot water to steam 12. When fuel rods in a nuclear power plant generate to much heat that they start to melt, the condition is called a(n) ______. meltdown 13. Why is it difficult to dispose of radioactive wastes produced by power plants? It is difficult because they remain dangerous for many thousands of years.
41The Quest to Control Fusion - Nuclear EnergyThe Quest to Control FusionIn nuclear fusion, two hydrogen nuclei combine to create a helium nucleus, which has slightly less mass than the two hydrogen nuclei. The lost mass is converted to energy.
42Nuclear EnergyThe Quest to Control Fusion Pg. 69414. The combining of two atomic nuclei to produce a single larger nucleus is called _____.nuclear fusion15. Sentences that are true about nuclear fusion.The fuel it needs is readily available.It should produce less radioactive waste than nuclear fission.
43Nuclear Power Plant Activity - Nuclear EnergyNuclear Power Plant ActivityClick the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about nuclear power plants.
45Using Prior Knowledge - Energy Conservation Before you read, write what you know about energy efficiency and conservation in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn.What You KnowI can turn off lights to conserve energy.I can walk instead of riding in a car when possible.What You LearnedOne way to preserve our current energy resources is to increase efficiency.One method of increasing efficiency of heating and cooling systems is to use insulation.Compact fluorescent bulbs use about one fourth as much energy as incandescent light bulbs.
46Energy ConservationIntroduction Pg. 695What are two ways to preserve our current energy sources?One way is to increase the efficiency of our energy use. Another way is to conserve energy whenever possible. Energy Efficiency Pg2. The percentage of energy from a fuel that is actually used to perform work is its _____.efficiency3. What happens to the energy from a fuel that is not used to preform work?Most of the rest of the energy is “lost” to the surroundings, usually a heat.
47Energy Conservation4. A layer of material that helps block the transfer of heat between the air inside and the air outside a building is called ____. insulation 5. How does insulation work? It traps air, and this layer of trapped air helps keep the building from losing or gaining heat from the outside. 6. Circle the best material for insulation. Fiberglass 7. Why do new windows have two panes of glass with space between them? The air between the panes of glass acts as insulation to help prevent heat loss through the windows.
48Energy Conservation8.Incandescent light bulbs waste less energy than compact fluorescent bulbs. False 9. How have engineers improved the energy efficiency of cars? Engineers have designed better engines and tires. 10. What are some ways to reduce the number of cars on the road? Communities can maintain public transit systems that provide an alternative to driving. They also can encourage carpooling.
49Energy Conservation - Energy Conservation Energy conservation means reducing energy use.
50Energy Conservation 11. Reducing energy use is called ______. 12. Sentences that describe a way you can reduce your personal energy use.Walk or ride a bike for short trips.Recycle
52Graphic Organizer Energy Type Advantage Disadvantage Coal Oil Solar Easy to transportPollutes airOilProduces large amounts of energyNonrenewableRenewable, does not polluteSolarRequires sunshineRenewable, does not polluteRequires steady winds, generators noisyWindHydroelectricDams cause environmental harmNo pollutionRenewable, does not polluteLimited availability, deep drilling expensiveGeothermalNuclearProduces huge amount of energyRadioactive waste