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Sentence Connectors Dr. Sarwet Rasul.

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1 Sentence Connectors Dr. Sarwet Rasul

2 Review of Previous Lesson
Sentence structure Importance of sentence structure Types of sentence structure: Declarative       Interrogative    Imperative        Exclamatory  Elements of Sentence Construction Differences in Phrases, Clauses, Sentences Adjective Clauses Adverb Clauses Avoiding Fragments Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence Compound Complex Sentence  

3 Today’s Lesson What are sentence connectors?
Role of sentence connectors Types of sentence connectors Showing comparison Showing addition Showing cause /effect Showing condition Showing contrast Showing opposition Some more types of sentence connectors Activities and Exercises

4 Sentence connectors - Linking Your Ideas in English
Sentence connectors are used to link ideas from one sentence to the next and to give paragraphs coherence. Sentence connectors perform different functions and are placed at the beginning of a sentence. They are used to introduce, order, contrast, sequence ideas, theory, data etc. https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/4...LL/sentence.html

5 Sentence connectors - Linking Your Ideas in English
Help to develop ideas and relate them to one another When speaking in a formal context or when presenting complicated information in writing they add sophistication to writing style.

6 Sentence Connectors Showing comparison
Source: Connector(s) Examples and...too High level positions are stressful, and can be harmful to your health too. just as Just as high level positions are stressful, they can be harmful to your health. similarly, in comparison High level positions are stressful at times; similarly, they can be harmful to your health. like, similar to Similar to other important professions, high level business positions are stressful at times.

7 Cont…Sentence Connectors Showing addition
Examples And High level positions are stressful at times, and can be harmful to your health. in addition, additionally, furthermore, moreover, also High level positions are stressful at times; furthermore, they can be harmful to your health not only...but also Not only are high level positions stressful at times, but they also can be harmful to your health. in addition to, along with, as well as Along with being stressful, high level positions can also be harmful to your health.

8 Cont…Sentence Connectors Showing cause /effect
Examples for (cause), so (effect) Professionals can sometimes be extremely impatient, for their positions are at times rather stressful. because, since Since high level positions are at times rather stressful, professionals can sometimes be extremely impatient. therefore, as a result, consequently High level positions are at times rather stressful; therefore, professionals can sometimes be extremely impatient. because of, due to, as a result of Due to the stressful nature of high level positions, professionals can sometimes be extremely impatient.

9 Cont…Sentence Connectors Showing condition
Examples if, unless, only if, even if If you consider the financial rewards of high level positions, the stressful nature of these positions becomes less important. Otherwise You should remember the financial rewards of high level positions; otherwise, you might find the stressful nature of these positions too demanding

10 Cont… Sentence Connectors Showing contrast
Examples But High level positions are stressful at times, but the financial rewards make these positions very desirable indeed. whereas, while While high level positions are stressful at times, the financial rewards make these positions very desirable indeed. in contrast, on the other hand High level positions are stressful at times; on the other hand, the financial rewards make these positions very desirable indeed. Unlike Unlike the undesirable stress of high level positions, the financial rewards make these positions very desirable indeed.

11 Cont… Sentence Connectors Showing opposition
Examples But High level positions are stressful at times, but professionals can learn to manage their stress levels. although, despite the fact that Despite the fact that high level positions are stressful at times, professionals can learn to manage their stress levels. however, nevertheless High level positions are stressful at times; nevertheless, professionals can learn to manage their stress levels. despite, in spite of In spite of the stressful nature of high level positions, professionals can learn to manage their stress levels.

12 Sentence connectors more details.doc

13 Select appropriate connector in addition, and , and also , likewise, moreover , similarly , neither, either , because , due to , in order to , as In formal western situations men must wear a jacket and a tie; ____________ women must wear a skirt or a dress, not pyjamas. Emma Thompson was nominated for an Academy Award as both a screenwriter __________ an actress in You can't teach navigation in the middle of a storm. _________ you can not build a system of values in the current educational climate Our energy bills have been increasing steadily. ___________to these costs, our telephone costs have doubled over the past six months. Contestants perform on the stage "live" before the judges _________ millions of television viewers. His problems with his parents are extremely frustrating. _________ , there seems to be no easy solution to them. Talent shows on television are loved _____________ hated.  As a universal language , Esperanto has never really gained widespread acceptance __________ its lack of native speakers . Synthetic polymers may be _______________ thermoplastic or thermosetting depending on the action.

14 Answers In formal western situations men must wear a jacket and a tie; similarly, women must wear a skirt or a dress, not trousers. Emma Thompson was nominated for an Academy Award as both a screenwriter and an actress in You can't teach navigation in the middle of a storm. Likewise, you can't build a system of values in the current educational climate Our energy bills have been increasing steadily. In addition to these costs, our telephone costs have doubled over the past six months. Contestants perform on the stage "live" before the judges and millions of television viewers. His problems with his parents are extremely frustrating. Moreover, there seems to be no easy solution to them. Talent shows on television are loved and also hated.  As a universal language , Esperanto has never really gained widespread acceptance due to its lack of native speakers . Synthetic polymers may be either thermoplastic or thermosetting depending on the action

15 because , because of , if only because , consequently , as a consequence,
10. There was poor sanitation in the village. _________  she had health problems.  11. She had health problems ______________ poor sanitation in the village.  12. Schools for girls were built ; ____________  girls had a chance to learn about health and life skills. 13. _____________ girls learned about health skills, they improved the sanitation of their villages.  14. Many people would love to live in New York; ____________, life in New York is very expensive 15. She visits the cafe  ______________  she wants to check on her employees.  16. She needs a job ________________  she needs something to occupy herself everyday.  17. We are confident _____________ we are getting your overwhelming support 18. He lacks self-confidence. _____________ , he is unlikely to be successful. 19. It was sunny ; _________________ , we had to wear sunscreen. 20. She visits the cafe  _________________  she wants a bite to eat. 

16 Answers 10. There was poor sanitation in the village. As a consequence,  she had health problems.  11. She had health problems because of  poor sanitation in the village.  12. Schools for girls were built  consequently  girls had a chance to learn about health and life skills. 13. Because  girls learned about health skills, they improved the sanitation of their villages.  14. Many people would love to live in New York; consequently, life in New York is very expensive 15. She visits the cafe because she wants to check on her employees.  16. She needs a job if only because she needs something to occupy herself everyday.  17. We are confident because we are getting your overwhelming support 18. He lacks self-confidence. As a consequence , he is unlikely to be successful. 19. It was sunny ; consequently, we had to wear sunscreen. 20. She visits the cafe if only because she wants a bite to eat. 

17 as well , as a result , furthermore , therefore, not only, due to , on account of ,
21. Road conditions in the United States suffered a severe setback _____________ of the Civil War . 22. Life in the Sahara has many negative features including aridity and high temperatures but many positive aspects _______________ . 23. The government has drastically reduced its spending. ___________ , a number of programs have been canceled. 24. She was often cold _________ not having shoes, warm clothes or blankets.   25. Some graduates became valued business owners  ; _____________  they were invited to serve on business councils. 26. He reduced the amount of time studying for his final exams. __________ , his marks were rather low. 27. After graduation, the girls were more likely to start small businesses   ___________  their mathematical and accounting skills . 28. Food and drink prices in New York are very high; _______________ , renting an apartment is very expensive.  29. We are concerned ________________ by the costs, but also by the competition. 30. I assured him that I would come to his presentation. ______________ , I also invited a number of important representatives from the local chamber of commerce.

18 Answers 21. Road conditions in the United States suffered a severe setback as a result of the Civil War . 22. Life in the Sahara has many negative features including aridity and high temperatures but many positive aspects as well . 23. The government has drastically reduced its spending. Therefore, a number of programs have been canceled. 24. She was often cold due to not having shoes, warm clothes or blankets.   25. Some graduates became valued business owners; as a result they were invited to serve on business councils. 26. He reduced the amount of time studying for his final exams. As a result, his marks were rather low. 27. After graduation, the girls were more likely to start small businesses  on account of  their mathematical and accounting skills . 28. Food and drink prices in New York are very high; furthermore, renting an apartment is very expensive.  29. We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition 30. I assured him that I would come to his presentation. 30. Furthermore, I also invited a number of important representatives from the local chamber of commerce.

19 Review of Today’s Session
What are sentence connectors? Role of sentence connectors Types of sentence connectors Showing comparison Showing addition Showing cause /effect Showing condition Showing contrast Showing opposition Some more types of sentence connectors Activities and Exercises

20 Thank you!


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