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4 Linear Motion #1 – What do we mean when we say motion is relative? What is motion relative to? 1.I could answer this easily 2.I needed help with this.

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Presentation on theme: "4 Linear Motion #1 – What do we mean when we say motion is relative? What is motion relative to? 1.I could answer this easily 2.I needed help with this."— Presentation transcript:

1 4 Linear Motion #1 – What do we mean when we say motion is relative? What is motion relative to? 1.I could answer this easily 2.I needed help with this 3.I have no idea how to answer this

2 4 Linear Motion #2 – Speed is the rate at which…. 1.Velocity changes 2.Acceleration happens 3.Distance is covered 4.I have no idea how to answer this

3 4 Linear Motion #3 You walk across the room at 2 kilometers per hour. Express using units 1.2 km/h 2.2 km/ hr 3.2 KM/ HR 4.2 Km/h

4 4 Linear Motion #4 Inst. Vs. Average speed 1.Average speed is at any given moment, instantaneous speed is total distance divided by time 2.Instantaneous is at any given moment, average speed is total distance divided by time

5 4 Linear Motion #5 Does a speedometer read Inst.or. Average speed 1.Average speed 2.Instantaneous speed 3.Both 4.Neither

6 4 Linear Motion #6 Speed vs. velocity? 1.Velocity is a scalar (how fast); speed is a vector (how fast + direction) 2.Speed is a scalar (how fast); velocity is a vector (how fast + direction) 3.No clue

7 4 Linear Motion #7 If a speedometer reads constant 40 km/h, can you say it has a constant velocity? 1.Yes 2.No 3.Not really sure Think about it… it could be going at 40 km/h while TURNING aka changing direction aka changing velocity!

8 4 Linear Motion #8 What 2 controls change speed? What changes velocity? 1.SPEED: Steering wheel, brake, VELOCITY: gas 2.SPEED: gas, brake, VELOCITY: steering wheel 3.SPEED: Steering wheel, gas VELOCITY: break

9 4 Linear Motion You can calculate the acceleration of an object by dividing the change in its velocity by time. 4.4 Acceleration

10 4 Linear Motion We can change the state of motion of an object by changing its speed, its direction of motion, or both. Acceleration is the rate at which the velocity is changing. 4.4 Acceleration

11 4 Linear Motion In physics, the term acceleration applies to decreases as well as increases in speed. The brakes of a car can produce large retarding accelerations, that is, they can produce a large decrease per second in the speed. This is often called deceleration. **We will call it NEGATIVE acceleration** 4.4 Acceleration

12 4 Linear Motion A car is accelerating whenever there is a change in its state of motion. 4.4 Acceleration

13 4 Linear Motion A car is accelerating whenever there is a change in its state of motion. 4.4 Acceleration

14 4 Linear Motion A car is accelerating whenever there is a change in its state of motion. 4.4 Acceleration

15 4 Linear Motion Change in Direction Acceleration also applies to changes in direction. It is important to distinguish between speed and velocity. Acceleration is defined as the rate of change in velocity, rather than speed. Acceleration, like velocity, is a vector quantity because it is directional. 4.4 Acceleration

16 4 Linear Motion Accelerate in the direction of velocity–speed up ***POSITIVE ACCELERATION*** 4.4 Acceleration

17 4 Linear Motion Accelerate in the direction of velocity–speed up ***POSITIVE ACCELERATION*** Accelerate against velocity–slow down ***NEGATIVE ACCELERATION*** 4.4 Acceleration

18 4 Linear Motion Accelerate in the direction of velocity–speed up ***POSITIVE ACCELERATION*** Accelerate against velocity–slow down ***NEGATIVE ACCELERATION*** Accelerate at an angle to velocity–change direction

19 4 Linear Motion Change in Speed When straight-line motion is considered, it is common to use speed and velocity interchangeably. When the direction is not changing, acceleration may be expressed as the rate at which speed changes. 4.4 Acceleration

20 4 Linear Motion Speed and velocity are measured in units of distance per time. Acceleration is the change in velocity (or speed) per time interval. Acceleration units are speed per time. Changing speed, without changing direction, from 0 km/h to 10 km/h in 1 second, acceleration along a straight line is 4.4 Acceleration

21 4 Linear Motion The acceleration is 10 km/hs, which is read as “10 kilometers per hour-second.” Note that a unit for time appears twice: once for the unit of speed and again for the interval of time in which the speed is changing. 4.4 Acceleration

22 4 Linear Motion think! Suppose a car moving in a straight line steadily increases its speed each second, first from 35 to 40 km/h, then from 40 to 45 km/h, then from 45 to 50 km/h. What is its acceleration? 4.4 Acceleration

23 4 Linear Motion think! Suppose a car moving in a straight line steadily increases its speed each second, first from 35 to 40 km/h, then from 40 to 45 km/h, then from 45 to 50 km/h. What is its acceleration? Answer: The speed increases by 5 km/h during each 1-s interval in a straight line. The acceleration is therefore 5 km/hs during each interval. 4.4 Acceleration

24 4 Linear Motion think! In 5 seconds a car moving in a straight line increases its speed from 50 km/h to 65 km/h, while a truck goes from rest to 15 km/h in a straight line. Which undergoes greater acceleration? What is the acceleration of each vehicle? 4.4 Acceleration

25 4 Linear Motion think! In 5 seconds a car moving in a straight line increases its speed from 50 km/h to 65 km/h, while a truck goes from rest to 15 km/h in a straight line. Which undergoes greater acceleration? What is the acceleration of each vehicle? Answer: The car and truck both increase their speed by 15 km/h during the same time interval, so their acceleration is the same. 4.4 Acceleration


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