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Calvin College - Engineering Department Spring 2002 Engineering Electromagnetic Fields “The beauty of electricity... [is] that it is under law.” Michael Faraday “Each individual man should do all he can to impress his mind with the extent, the order, and the unity of the universe, and should carry these ideas with him as he reads [the Bible].” James Clerk Maxwell

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Text: Engineering Electromagnetics, Sixth Edition, by William Hayt, and John A. Buck, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 2001 Course Goals and Objectives: This course uses Maxwell's equation as the central theme. These equations are developed from a historical approach in which the relevant experimental laws are gradually introduced and manipulated with the help of a steadily increasing knowledge of vector calculus. The equations are developed in their differential and integral forms to free space and material region. Several applications of these equations are studied, including wave motion, skin effect, transmission line phenomena, circuit theory, and resonant cavity. A first look at radiation and antennas is also included. The. objective of the course is then to develop physical insight into applications of electromagnetic equations and to gain facility in doing calculations in solving problems in electromagnetic theory. The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from frequencies 10 E+23 cycles per second to 0 cycles per second (or, in corresponding wavelengths, from 10 E ‑ 13 centimeter to infinity) and including, in order of decreasing frequency, cosmic ray photons, gamma rays, x ‑ rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, heat, and electric currents. Thus, one can very easily see the importance of a clear understanding of electromagnetic fields in the process of redeeming, i.e. preserving, healing and opening up, creation. The concept of a field (and corresponding forces) introduced by Maxwell (and Kelvin) is a basic and fruitful idea to describe physical (electromagnetic) interactions. From a philosophical point of view a field is a spatial concept which anticipates the kinematical and physical modal aspects, whereas force is a physical concept, as it refers back to the spatial aspect. From this kind of reasoning we hope to encourage the students to think and develop a creative, scientific/philosophical mind in which the applications (and implications) of the Maxwell's equations may be understood and discussed. Students are exposed to a brief introduction to numerical methods / finite elements for electromagnetic applications.

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Course Description and Overview: The course will cover the topics of: vector analysis review, coulomb's law and electric field intensity, electric flux density, Gauss's law, divergence, energy and potential, conductors, dielectrics, capacitance, Poisson's and Laplace's equations, the steady magnetic field, magnetic forces, materials, inductance, time ‑ varying fields, Maxwell's equations, the uniform plane wave, transmission lines, antennas and other applications. Considering the abstract nature of the subject, visual aids are very important in grasping concepts. Consequently, in order to facilitate the learning process, an emphasis on computer calculations will given through the extensive use of MathCAD, MATLAB, Mathematica. Also a finite element computer program (Quick Field) for calculation of electrical and magnetic fields will be used.

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Methods of Instruction: Four class periods (two class presentations and two computer lab hours) per week. Major assignments or Projects: Weekly homework, computer-lab/research paper project. Means of Evaluation:Track 1: Two Midterms (30%) Exam (20%) Homework(20%) Short Research Paper / Presentation (10%) Participation (10%) Track 2: Homework (20%) Research Paper / Presentation (70%) Participation (10%) Example of Topics for Research Paper: X-ray Biological Effect of EM Fields: power, RF, etc. Electromagnetic Interference Magnetic Fields at Home Electric Blankets Computational Tools Used: MathCAD, MATLAB and Quick Field

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Some of the 2001 Paper Topics Electromagnetic Pulse Rail guns Microwaves The Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation on Health in Space Environments DC Stepping Motors The History of Electromagnetism Biological Effects of EMF Particle Accelerators Wireless Communications Magnetic Levitation The HAARP Project Geomagnetic Storms and Impact on Power Systems

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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS Chapter Problems 15, 12, 15, 23, 27 23, 7, 10, 13, 17, 20 33, 9, 12, 15, 17, 21, 26 46, 9, 11, 13, 17, 23, 31, 33 51, 3, 9, 17, 23, 29, 45 73, 13, 17, 23, 27 81, 5, 15, 23, 29 95, 9, 31a,b 103, 9, , 9, 21, , 3, 11, 15, 17 All homework assignments must be turned in on time for full credit. Late assignments will be assessed a penalty. Assignments more than one week late will be assessed a penalty. Homework, Tests, etc. should be prepared electronically (MathCAD, MATLAB / Mathematica, Word). No handwritten assignments will be accepted.

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