Egypt has frequent earthquakes, floods, flash floods and landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN EGYPT FLOODS STORMS EARTHQUAKES DUST STORMS ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s atmospheric- hydrospheric- lithospheric interactions create situations favorable for FLOODS
THE NILE RIVER The ancient Egyptians thought of the annual floods as the annual coming of the god Hapi. They did not realize that the annual flood cycle happened after rainfall in the mountains to the south swelled the tributaries and small rivers that form the northward-flowing Nile River.
FLOODING IS A PART OF THE EGYPTIAN CULTURE The annual flooding of the Nile River (Arabic: عيد وفاء النيل), a natural cycle, has been a part of Egyptian culture since ancient times. It is celebrated annually as a holiday (known as Wafaa El-Nil) for two weeks starting August 15.
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE The first indications of the rise of the Nile River and the beginning of the flood cycle are typically seen as early as the beginning of June. A steady increase in water level occurs until the middle of July. The Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, when the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks, sometimes a little less. In October it rises again, and reaches its highest level. From this period it begins to subside, and though it rises yet once more and reaches occasionally its former highest point, it sinks steadily until the month of June when it is again at its lowest level
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE (Continued) The water level in the Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, then the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks. In October the water rises again and reaches its highest level.
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE (Continued) From October to June, the water level in the Nile continues to subside until it once again reaches its lowest level in June.
HAZARDSHAZARDS ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK EXPOSUREEXPOSURE VULNERABILITYVULNERABILITY LOCATIONLOCATION RISKRISK
FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS ) TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED WITHIN THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO BE ACCOMMODATED NORMALLY IN THE REGIONAL WATER CYCLE EROSION SCOUR MUDFLOWS
A DISASTER CAN HAPPEN WHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF A FLOOD INTERACT WITH EGYPT’S COMMUNITIES
LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN FLOODS INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS) EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF RISK CASE HISTORIES
The annual flood cycle of the Nile River has made the difference between living and dying for thousands of years in Egypt.
THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF LIFE The annual floods of the Nile River brought nutrient-rich silt from the mountains to the Nile delta, which produced bountiful crops.
THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF DEATH When the water levels in the Nile River are too high, flooding prevents deposition of the nutrient-rich silt in the Nile delta, reducing agricultural output. When water levels are too low for flooding, the result is low agricultural output and possible starvation.
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., floods, earthquakes,…) intersect at a point in space and time.
Disasters are caused by s ingle- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE... When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST.
THE REASONS ARE... The community is UN- PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence— high-probability of adverse consequences event.
THE REASONS ARE... The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
THE REASONS ARE... The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE... The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
FLOODS IN EGYPT ARE INEVITABLE AND DAMAGING ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT.
THE ALTERNATIVE TO A FLOOD DISASTER IS FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE
EGYPT’S COMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS FLOOD HAZARDS INVENTORY VULNERABILITY LOCATION FL\OOD RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE PREPAREDNESS PROTECTION FORECASTS/SCENARIOS EMERGENCY RESPONSE RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
STRATEGIC COLLABORATION (I.E., WORKING TOGETHER ON A COMMON GOAL) FOR BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT
THE ASWAN HIGH DAM At 364 feet (111 meters) high and about 2.4 miles (3.8 kilometers) wide, the Aswan High Dam was a marvel of construction in 1970, costing about $1 billion to build.
ELECTRICITY In addition to preventing flooding of the Nile River, the Aswan High Dam brought electricity to households and villages across Egypt that had never had it. This dam's 12 turbines are capable of generating ten billion kilowatt-hours annually
FRESH WATER The reservoir (Lake Nasser) with a gross capacity of 136,927,000 acre- feet (168.9 billion cubic meters). behind the Aswan High Dam provides a source of fresh water for the Egyptian people during drought years.
Unfortunately, before the dam could be built, 90,000 of Egypt’s poor and Sudan’s Nubian nomads had to be relocated