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Sentence Leveling a realistic approach to Syntax Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Sentence Leveling a realistic approach to Syntax Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sentence Leveling a realistic approach to Syntax Analysis

2 The Nature of the Sentence Deep structures – meaning always stays the same Surface structures – form changes  I don’t know  I know not  Don’t I know? Transforms emphasis  Columbus discovered America  America was discovered by Columbus

3 Thought Units We don’t think in words; we think in ideas Thoughts came before wordsThoughts came before words 1 simple sentence is 1 complete thought1 simple sentence is 1 complete thought Sentences are developed when thoughts are combinedSentences are developed when thoughts are combined

4 Sentence Combining Thought Units are the deeper structures Several are combined using FANBOYS Create more complex sentences I eat chicken, but I hate fish, and obese cats smell funny.

5 Sentence Leveling Obverse of Sentence Combining Starts with a completed sentenceStarts with a completed sentence Separates it into thought unitsSeparates it into thought units  I eat chicken,  but I hate fish  and obese cats smell funny

6 Syntax Analysis Look for emphasis What is the subject now (America was discovered)What is the subject now (America was discovered) Addition of phrases and clausesAddition of phrases and clauses Complexity of thought!Complexity of thought!

7 Improve Your Writing Add sentence varietyAdd sentence variety Steal from professionalsSteal from professionals Determine what is worthy of emphasisDetermine what is worthy of emphasis

8 Leveling! New Thought Units Shown by… PunctuationPunctuation VerbsVerbs Conjunctions (FANBOYS)Conjunctions (FANBOYS)

9 How to Display Levels Written in order of occurrence = as it happens in the sentence Level 1 = main clause Level 2 = modifies level 1 Level 3 = modifies level 2 Notice the INDENT!

10 Subordinate and Coordinate Subordinate = works FOR someone else Level 2 is subordinate to level 1Level 2 is subordinate to level 1 Level 3 is subordinate to level 2Level 3 is subordinate to level 2 Etc.Etc. Coordinate = works WITH someone else Level 1 is coordinate to level 1Level 1 is coordinate to level 1 Same level? CoordinateSame level? Coordinate

11 3 Subordinates Final: Comes after the main clause I eat chicken in a dark cave. 1.I eat chicken 2. in a dark cave

12 3 Subordinates Initial: Comes before the main clause In a dark cave, I eat chicken. 2. In a dark cave, 1.I eat chicken

13 3 Subordinates Medial: interrupts the main clause I eat, in a dark cave, chicken. 1.I eat,/,chicken 2. / in a dark cave

14 Sentence 1 After that we rode on in silence, the traces creaking, the hoofs of the horses clumping steadily in the soft sand, the grasshoppers shrilling from the fields and the cicadas from the trees overhead.

15 Option 1 1.After that we rode on in silence, 2. the traces creaking, 2. the hoofs of the horses clumping steadily in the soft sand, 2. the grasshoppers shrilling from the fields 2. and the cicadas from the trees overhead.

16 Option 2 (prepositional phrases removed) 1.After that we rode on in silence, 2. the traces creaking, 2.the hoofs of the horses clumping steadily 3. in the soft sand, 2. the grasshoppers shrilling 3. from the fields 2. and the cicadas 3. from the trees overhead.

17 Sentence 2 He was forty, a short, thickset man with a wealth of stiff, black hair, combed straight back without a parting, like Hulk Hogan.

18 Option 1 1.He was forty, 2. a short, thickset man with a wealth of stiff, black hair, 3. combed straight back without a parting, 4. like Hulk Hogan.

19 Option 2 1.He was forty, 2.a short, thickset man 3. with a wealth of stiff, black hair, 4. combed straight back 4. without a parting, 5. like Hulk Hogan.

20 Sentence 3 There was only one defender now, coming warily at him, his arms crooked, hands spread.

21 Answer: 1.There was only one defender now, 2. coming warily at him, 3. his arms crooked, 3. hands spread.


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