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Appositives & Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun that identifies or renames another noun or pronoun. An appositive phrase is made up.

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Presentation on theme: "Appositives & Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun that identifies or renames another noun or pronoun. An appositive phrase is made up."— Presentation transcript:

1 Appositives & Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun that identifies or renames another noun or pronoun. An appositive phrase is made up of an appositive plus its modifiers. Gail Devers, a champion sprinter, was born in Seattle in Barcelona, a large city in Spain, hosted the Olympics in 1992.

2 Essential Appositives An essential appositive is an appositive that provides information that is needed to identify the preceding noun or pronoun. It is sometimes called a restrictive appositive. The American sprinter Gail Devers won an Olympic gold medal in the 100-meter dash in Note that NO COMMAS are needed with an essential appositive.

3 Nonessential Appositives A nonessential appositive adds information about a noun or pronoun in a sentence in which the meaning is already clear. It is also called a nonrestrictive appositive. Nonessential appositives are set off with commas. Devers, a survivor of Graves’ disease, overcame many obstacles to achieve athletic success.

4 Let’s Practice … 1.Wilma Rudolph, another champion sprinter, also overcame a disability. 2.Rudolph was born with the disease polio. 3.Rudolph, a determined child, ignored doctors’ predictions about never being able to walk again. 4.A basketball star at age 13, she was known for her speed. 5.The coach Edward Temple invited her to a track camp. 6.In 1956, Rudolph, only a 16- year-old, made the U.S. Olympic team. 7.She and three other women, members of the women’s 400- meter relay team, won a bronze medal. 8.Four years later, Rudolph achieved her greatest personal triumph, three gold medals in a single Olympics.

5 How Did You Do? 1.Wilma Rudolph, another champion sprinter, also overcame a disability. 2.Rudolph was born with the disease polio. 3.Rudolph, a determined child, ignored doctors’ predictions about never being able to walk again. 4.A basketball star at age 13, she was known for her speed. 5.The coach Edward Temple invited her to a track camp. 6.In 1956, Rudolph, only a 16- year-old, made the U.S. Olympic team. 7.She and three other women, members of the women’s 400- meter relay team, won a bronze medal. 8.Four years later, Rudolph achieved her greatest personal triumph, three gold medals in a single Olympics.

6 Verbals A verbal is a verb form that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. They DO NOT act as the verb/simple predicate in the sentence. There are three types of verbals: 1.Participles (adjectives) 2.Gerunds (nouns) 3.Infinitives (nouns, adjectives, and adverbs)

7 Participial Phrases Played for more than 100 years, high school football has a rich tradition. Large crowds attend games featuring rival high schools. A participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective. There are two kinds: past and present participles. A participial phrase consists of a participle plus its modifiers.

8 Some Literary Examples From Robert Cormier’s The Chocolate War: “The coach looked like an old gangster: broken nose, a scar on his cheek, a stitched shoestring.” “Inhaling the sweet sharp apple air through his nostrils - he was afraid to open his mouth wide, wary of any movement that was not absolutely essential –- he walked tentatively toward the sidelines, listening to the coach barking at the other guys.”

9 Let’s Practice … 1.In many parts of the country, steadily declining interest has damaged high school football. 2.Preferring soccer or basketball, many students do not sign up for football. 3.Parents concerned about football injuries suggest other sports. 4.Reacting to a lack of interest, school officials have cut football funds. 5.Remaining popular in many urban areas, however, high school football won’t be dying out anytime soon.

10 How Did You Do? 1.In many parts of the country, steadily declining interest has damaged high school football. 2.Preferring soccer or basketball, many students do not sign up for football. 3.Parents concerned about football injuries suggest other sports. 4.Reacting to a lack of interest, school officials have cut football funds. 5.Remaining popular in many urban areas, however, high school football won’t be dying out anytime soon.

11 Why It Matters In Writing Many writers have trouble placing participial phrases in sentences. Putting words in the wrong place can result in a misplaced or dangling phrase that will confuse the reader. This is often called a dangling participle. A misplaced participial phrase is closer to some other noun than it is to the noun it actually modifies. Beginning in the 1890’s, Thanksgiving Day was when top high school football teams from different regions paired off in major games. Responding to changes in the rules of football, the forward pass was used more often in high school games in the 1920’s.

12 Make the Needed Corrections treatment. She was tackled by large opposing players kicking extra points. Katie was not ready to give up the game after high school. Determined to play college football, Katie’s mother gave her full support. A high school in Colorado had a homecoming queen who played football. There was a special ceremony at halftime of the homecoming game. Queen Katie smiled for the photographers taking off her helmet. Accepting a white rose, the crowd loudly cheered. Katie enjoyed the ceremony, but she was prouder of her performance on the field. With the game on the line, a field goal sailed through the goal posts kicked by Katie. During her four years on the team, Katie played well without receiving any special

13 How Did You Fix These? treatment. She was tackled by large opposing players kicking extra points. Katie was not ready to give up the game after high school. Determined to play college football, Katie’s mother gave her full support. A high school in Colorado had a homecoming queen who played football. There was a special ceremony at halftime of the homecoming game. Queen Katie smiled for the photographers taking off her helmet. Accepting a white rose, the crowd loudly cheered. Katie enjoyed the ceremony, but she was prouder of her performance on the field. With the game on the line, a field goal sailed through the goal posts kicked by Katie. During her four years on the team, Katie played well without receiving any special

14 Gerund Phrases A gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and acts as a noun. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus its modifiers. She loves swimming. She loves swimming in the ocean. Next morning, when it was time for the routine of swimming and sunbathing, his mother said, “Are you tired of the usual beach, Jerry? Would you like to go somewhere else?” - Doris Lessing, “Through the Tunnel”

15 Functions of Gerund Phrases Subject Swimming competitively requires lots of practice. Object of a Preposition Jeff got in shape by swimming at the YMCA. Direct Object Mr. Kroesche coaches high school swimming. Indirect Object Tamera gave competitive swimming a try. Predicate Nominative Tamera’s specialty is swimming the backstroke.

16 Let’s Practice … 3.Morales learned quickly, and soon he started winning junior championships. 4.Competing in the 1984 Olympics brought him one gold medal and two silver medals. 1.Pablo Morales became known as the comeback kid of Olympic swimming. 2.One of the goals of Morales’ mother was having her children learn to swim at an early age. 5.Morales surprised everyone by failing to qualify in He touched people’s hearts by making a comeback and winning a gold medal in the 100-meter butterfly in the 1992 Olympics.

17 How Did You Do? 3.Morales learned quickly, and soon he started winning junior championships. 4.Competing in the 1984 Olympics brought him one gold medal and two silver medals. 1.Pablo Morales became known as the comeback kid of Olympic swimming. 2.One of the goals of Morales’ mother was having her children learn to swim at an early age. 5.Morales surprised everyone by failing to qualify in He touched people’s hearts by making a comeback and winning a gold medal in the 100-meter butterfly in the 1992 Olympics.

18 Infinitive Phrases And we’re finally back to Shakespeare, “To be or not to be, that is the question.” An infinitive is a verb form, usually beginning with the word to, that can act as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive plus its modifiers and complements.

19 Uses of Infinitive Phrases Noun To win tournaments on the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) tour is the goal of top women golfers. Adjective In 1998, Se Ri Pak became the youngest player to win the U.S. Women’s Open golf championship. Adverb To become a champion golfer, Pak spent many hours practicing in her native land of South Korea.

20 Let’s Practice … 1.Tiger Woods was the first person of African-American descent to win a major tournament in men’s professional golf. 2.To overcome golf’s history of discrimination was no easy task. 3.Woods is determined to help other persons of color become golf stars. 4.To turn his dreams into reality, he founded a charitable organization, the Tiger Woods Foundation in 1997.

21 How Did You Do? 1.Tiger Woods was the first person of African-American descent to win a major tournament in men’s professional golf. 2.To overcome golf’s history of discrimination was no easy task. 3.Woods is determined to help other persons of color become golf stars. 4.To turn his dreams into reality, he founded a charitable organization, the Tiger Woods Foundation, in 1997.

22 Why It Matters In Writing Using infinitive phrases, you can combine sentences in a way that eliminates unnecessary words and sharpens the relationship between ideas.

23 Try Combining These … 1.Golfers use many different types of clubs during a tournament. Different clubs are needed to hit good shots. 2.Hale Irwin has displayed incredible skill. He has won the U.S. Open three times. 3.Hale Irwin must have amazing physical endurance. He has won tournaments for 30 years. 4.He had weeks of outstanding play on the Senior Tour. He earned nearly $3 million in one year.

24 How Did You Do? 1.Golfers use many different types of clubs to hit good shots during a tournament. 2.Hale Irwin has displayed incredible skill to win the U.S. Open three times. 3.Hale Irwin must have amazing physical endurance to win tournaments for 30 years. 4.He had weeks of outstanding play on the Senior Tour to earn nearly $3 million in one year.

25 Be careful … It is easy to confuse infinitives with prepositional phrases, since both can begin with to. Remember that an infinitive is to + a verb; a prepositional phrase is to + an object (noun or pronoun). She wanted to eat some delicious ice cream, so she went to the grocery store.

26 Let’s Practice … 1.The students were excited to work on their group project. 2.They walked to the library so they could complete their research. 3.While there, they were able to divide up the work evenly. 4.They later returned to their homes to complete the work. 5.They finally presented their project to the class.

27 How Did You Do? 1.The students were excited to work on their group project. 2.They walked to the library so they could complete their research. 3.While there, they were able to divide up the work evenly. 4.They later returned to their homes to complete the work. 5.They finally presented their project to the class.


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