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Subshells & orbitals  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period.

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Presentation on theme: "Subshells & orbitals  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Subshells & orbitals

3  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period

4  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels

5  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  This means there are different energy levels within one energy level  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  This means there are different energy levels within one energy level

6  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  This means there are different energy levels within one energy level  All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  This means there are different energy levels within one energy level  All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy

7  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  This means there are different energy levels within one energy level  All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy  The sub-shells are labelled s, p, d and f  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  This means there are different energy levels within one energy level  All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy  The sub-shells are labelled s, p, d and f

8  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  This means there are different energy levels within one energy level  All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy  The sub-shells are labelled s, p, d and f  Sub-shell energy levels: s < p < d < f  The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period  The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels  This means there are different energy levels within one energy level  All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy  The sub-shells are labelled s, p, d and f  Sub-shell energy levels: s < p < d < f

9  Each shell or energy level has one more sub-shell than the previous one

10  1st shell 1s  2nd shell 2s 2p  3rd shell 3s 3p 3d  4th shell 4s 4p 4d 4f  Each shell or energy level has one more sub-shell than the previous one  1st shell 1s  2nd shell 2s 2p  3rd shell 3s 3p 3d  4th shell 4s 4p 4d 4f

11  Each sub-shell has a maximum number of electrons it can hold.

12 s sub-shell2 electrons p sub-shell6 electrons d sub-shell10 electrons f sub-shell14 electrons

13  Each sub-shell has a maximum number of electrons it can hold.  Hence the 2nd energy level with an s sub-shell (2 electrons) and a p sub-shell (6 electrons) can hold a total of 8 electrons.  Each sub-shell has a maximum number of electrons it can hold.  Hence the 2nd energy level with an s sub-shell (2 electrons) and a p sub-shell (6 electrons) can hold a total of 8 electrons. s sub-shell2 electrons p sub-shell6 electrons d sub-shell10 electrons f sub-shell14 electrons

14 Electron Arrangement & Electronic Configuration  The arrangement of electrons when written in shells or energy levels such as 2, 9, 1 is called the electron arrangement

15 Electron Arrangement & Electronic Configuration  The arrangement of electrons when written in shells or energy levels such as 2, 9, 1 is called the electron arrangement  The writing of the organisation of the electrons in sub-shells (e.g. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 ) is called the electronic configuration  The arrangement of electrons when written in shells or energy levels such as 2, 9, 1 is called the electron arrangement  The writing of the organisation of the electrons in sub-shells (e.g. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 ) is called the electronic configuration

16 List of subshells containing electrons Electronic Configuration

17 List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Electronic Configuration

18 List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons Electronic Configuration

19 List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons Example: Electron configuration of neon number of electrons 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 main shell subshell List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons Example: Electron configuration of neon number of electrons 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 main shell subshell Electronic Configuration

20 Filling sub-shells  The order of filling the sub-shells becomes more complex at higher energy levels as the energy levels/shells start to overlap  From itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/lectures/lec_ 11.html  The order of filling the sub-shells becomes more complex at higher energy levels as the energy levels/shells start to overlap  From itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/lectures/lec_ 11.html

21 To help you remember From: itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/lectures/lec_11.html

22 Writing Electronic Configurations  You need to be able to write electronic configuration for the first 54 elements  E.g. H(1) 1s 1 Li(3) 1s 2 2s 1 Ne(10) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Na (11) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1  You need to be able to write electronic configuration for the first 54 elements  E.g. H(1) 1s 1 Li(3) 1s 2 2s 1 Ne(10) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Na (11) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1  Write out electronic configurations for: Be, O, Mg, P, Cl, Mn, Zn. Ge, Br, Sr, Ag and I.

23 Answers  Be - 1s 2 2s 2  O - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4  Mg - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2  P - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3  Cl - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5  Mn - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5  Zn - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10  Ge - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2  Br - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5  Sr - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2  Ag - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 9  I - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5  Be - 1s 2 2s 2  O - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4  Mg - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2  P - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3  Cl - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5  Mn - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5  Zn - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10  Ge - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2  Br - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5  Sr - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2  Ag - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 9  I - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5

24 Shorthand Electronic Configurations  To save writing out all the lover level configurations, it can be shortened by building on the last noble gas configuration  E.g. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 or [Ne] 3s 1 or K 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 or [Ar] 4s 1  To save writing out all the lover level configurations, it can be shortened by building on the last noble gas configuration  E.g. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 or [Ne] 3s 1 or K 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 or [Ar] 4s 1

25 Shorthand Electronic Configurations  To save writing out all the lover level configurations, it can be shortened by building on the last noble gas configuration  E.g. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 or [Ne] 3s 1 or K 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 or [Ar] 4s 1 For all elements on the previous slide, write their electronic configurations in the shorthand form  To save writing out all the lover level configurations, it can be shortened by building on the last noble gas configuration  E.g. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 or [Ne] 3s 1 or K 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 or [Ar] 4s 1 For all elements on the previous slide, write their electronic configurations in the shorthand form

26 Orbitals  A 3-dimensional shape/area outside the nucleus where there is a high probability that electrons can be found  s orbitals are spherical in shape  p orbitals are shaped like a peanut  d orbitals are doughnut-shaped  A 3-dimensional shape/area outside the nucleus where there is a high probability that electrons can be found  s orbitals are spherical in shape  p orbitals are shaped like a peanut  d orbitals are doughnut-shaped

27 From:

28 Filling Orbitals  Each orbital can contain a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spins  This can be shown diagrammatically using either lines or boxes and arrows -  Each orbital can contain a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spins  This can be shown diagrammatically using either lines or boxes and arrows - From:

29 Hund’s rule  This diagram is also based on Hund’s Rule  Orbitals within the same subshell are filled singly first  This reduces the amount of repulsion by having two electrons in the same orbital  This diagram is also based on Hund’s Rule  Orbitals within the same subshell are filled singly first  This reduces the amount of repulsion by having two electrons in the same orbital

30 Question  Draw diagrams using lines to represent orbitals and arrows for electrons to represent: a.F b.Na c.P d.S e.Ar f.Al  Draw diagrams using lines to represent orbitals and arrows for electrons to represent: a.F b.Na c.P d.S e.Ar f.Al

31 Aufbau Principle  The writing of electronic configurations is based on the Aufbau Principle, which states that orbitals with the lowest energy are filled first

32 Electronic Configuration & the Periodic Table  The structure of the periodic table is related to the subshell electronic configuration  s block has s 1 or s 2 in its outer shell  p block have p 1 to p 6 in their outer shell  Transition metals have d 1 to d 10 in their second last shell  From the electronic configuration can work out the group and period  The structure of the periodic table is related to the subshell electronic configuration  s block has s 1 or s 2 in its outer shell  p block have p 1 to p 6 in their outer shell  Transition metals have d 1 to d 10 in their second last shell  From the electronic configuration can work out the group and period

33 From:

34 Question  What period, block and group are the following elements in? a.1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 b.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 c.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 d.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5  What period, block and group are the following elements in? a.1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 b.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 c.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 d.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5

35 Question  What period, block and group are the following elements in? a.1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Period 2, p block, Group 3 b.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Period 3, s block, Group 2 c.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 Period 4, s block, Group 1 d.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 Period 4, d block, transition metals  What period, block and group are the following elements in? a.1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Period 2, p block, Group 3 b.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Period 3, s block, Group 2 c.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 Period 4, s block, Group 1 d.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 Period 4, d block, transition metals


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