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Subshells & orbitals

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The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period

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The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels

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The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels This means there are different energy levels within one energy level The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels This means there are different energy levels within one energy level

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The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels This means there are different energy levels within one energy level All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels This means there are different energy levels within one energy level All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy

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The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels This means there are different energy levels within one energy level All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy The sub-shells are labelled s, p, d and f The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels This means there are different energy levels within one energy level All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy The sub-shells are labelled s, p, d and f

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The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels This means there are different energy levels within one energy level All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy The sub-shells are labelled s, p, d and f Sub-shell energy levels: s < p < d < f The ionisation energy graph does not increase steadily across a period The small decreases are due to sub-shells or sub-energy levels This means there are different energy levels within one energy level All electrons in the same subshell have the same energy The sub-shells are labelled s, p, d and f Sub-shell energy levels: s < p < d < f

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Each shell or energy level has one more sub-shell than the previous one

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1st shell 1s 2nd shell 2s 2p 3rd shell 3s 3p 3d 4th shell 4s 4p 4d 4f Each shell or energy level has one more sub-shell than the previous one 1st shell 1s 2nd shell 2s 2p 3rd shell 3s 3p 3d 4th shell 4s 4p 4d 4f

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Each sub-shell has a maximum number of electrons it can hold.

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s sub-shell2 electrons p sub-shell6 electrons d sub-shell10 electrons f sub-shell14 electrons

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Each sub-shell has a maximum number of electrons it can hold. Hence the 2nd energy level with an s sub-shell (2 electrons) and a p sub-shell (6 electrons) can hold a total of 8 electrons. Each sub-shell has a maximum number of electrons it can hold. Hence the 2nd energy level with an s sub-shell (2 electrons) and a p sub-shell (6 electrons) can hold a total of 8 electrons. s sub-shell2 electrons p sub-shell6 electrons d sub-shell10 electrons f sub-shell14 electrons

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Electron Arrangement & Electronic Configuration The arrangement of electrons when written in shells or energy levels such as 2, 9, 1 is called the electron arrangement

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Electron Arrangement & Electronic Configuration The arrangement of electrons when written in shells or energy levels such as 2, 9, 1 is called the electron arrangement The writing of the organisation of the electrons in sub-shells (e.g. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 ) is called the electronic configuration The arrangement of electrons when written in shells or energy levels such as 2, 9, 1 is called the electron arrangement The writing of the organisation of the electrons in sub-shells (e.g. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 ) is called the electronic configuration

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List of subshells containing electrons Electronic Configuration

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List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Electronic Configuration

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List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons Electronic Configuration

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List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons Example: Electron configuration of neon number of electrons 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 main shell subshell List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons Example: Electron configuration of neon number of electrons 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 main shell subshell Electronic Configuration

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Filling sub-shells The order of filling the sub-shells becomes more complex at higher energy levels as the energy levels/shells start to overlap From itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/lectures/lec_ 11.html The order of filling the sub-shells becomes more complex at higher energy levels as the energy levels/shells start to overlap From itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/lectures/lec_ 11.html

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To help you remember From: itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/lectures/lec_11.html

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Writing Electronic Configurations You need to be able to write electronic configuration for the first 54 elements E.g. H(1) 1s 1 Li(3) 1s 2 2s 1 Ne(10) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Na (11) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 You need to be able to write electronic configuration for the first 54 elements E.g. H(1) 1s 1 Li(3) 1s 2 2s 1 Ne(10) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Na (11) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Write out electronic configurations for: Be, O, Mg, P, Cl, Mn, Zn. Ge, Br, Sr, Ag and I.

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Answers Be - 1s 2 2s 2 O - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Mg - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 P - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 Cl - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Mn - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 Zn - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 Ge - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 Br - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 Sr - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 Ag - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 9 I - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5 Be - 1s 2 2s 2 O - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Mg - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 P - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 Cl - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Mn - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 Zn - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 Ge - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 Br - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 Sr - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 Ag - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 9 I - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5

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Shorthand Electronic Configurations To save writing out all the lover level configurations, it can be shortened by building on the last noble gas configuration E.g. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 or [Ne] 3s 1 or K 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 or [Ar] 4s 1 To save writing out all the lover level configurations, it can be shortened by building on the last noble gas configuration E.g. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 or [Ne] 3s 1 or K 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 or [Ar] 4s 1

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Shorthand Electronic Configurations To save writing out all the lover level configurations, it can be shortened by building on the last noble gas configuration E.g. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 or [Ne] 3s 1 or K 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 or [Ar] 4s 1 For all elements on the previous slide, write their electronic configurations in the shorthand form To save writing out all the lover level configurations, it can be shortened by building on the last noble gas configuration E.g. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 or [Ne] 3s 1 or K 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 or [Ar] 4s 1 For all elements on the previous slide, write their electronic configurations in the shorthand form

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Orbitals A 3-dimensional shape/area outside the nucleus where there is a high probability that electrons can be found s orbitals are spherical in shape p orbitals are shaped like a peanut d orbitals are doughnut-shaped A 3-dimensional shape/area outside the nucleus where there is a high probability that electrons can be found s orbitals are spherical in shape p orbitals are shaped like a peanut d orbitals are doughnut-shaped

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From:

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Filling Orbitals Each orbital can contain a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spins This can be shown diagrammatically using either lines or boxes and arrows - Each orbital can contain a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spins This can be shown diagrammatically using either lines or boxes and arrows - From:

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Hund’s rule This diagram is also based on Hund’s Rule Orbitals within the same subshell are filled singly first This reduces the amount of repulsion by having two electrons in the same orbital This diagram is also based on Hund’s Rule Orbitals within the same subshell are filled singly first This reduces the amount of repulsion by having two electrons in the same orbital

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Question Draw diagrams using lines to represent orbitals and arrows for electrons to represent: a.F b.Na c.P d.S e.Ar f.Al Draw diagrams using lines to represent orbitals and arrows for electrons to represent: a.F b.Na c.P d.S e.Ar f.Al

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Aufbau Principle The writing of electronic configurations is based on the Aufbau Principle, which states that orbitals with the lowest energy are filled first

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Electronic Configuration & the Periodic Table The structure of the periodic table is related to the subshell electronic configuration s block has s 1 or s 2 in its outer shell p block have p 1 to p 6 in their outer shell Transition metals have d 1 to d 10 in their second last shell From the electronic configuration can work out the group and period The structure of the periodic table is related to the subshell electronic configuration s block has s 1 or s 2 in its outer shell p block have p 1 to p 6 in their outer shell Transition metals have d 1 to d 10 in their second last shell From the electronic configuration can work out the group and period

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From:

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Question What period, block and group are the following elements in? a.1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 b.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 c.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 d.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 What period, block and group are the following elements in? a.1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 b.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 c.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 d.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5

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Question What period, block and group are the following elements in? a.1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Period 2, p block, Group 3 b.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Period 3, s block, Group 2 c.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 Period 4, s block, Group 1 d.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 Period 4, d block, transition metals What period, block and group are the following elements in? a.1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Period 2, p block, Group 3 b.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Period 3, s block, Group 2 c.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 Period 4, s block, Group 1 d.1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 Period 4, d block, transition metals

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