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1 1 Version 1.02 20 February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "1 1 Version 1.02 20 February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 1 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved.

2 2 2 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Captain Mike Becker Chief Flight Instructor at Becker Helicopters 15,000 hours Day, Night, NVG, IFR, Multi 29 years in the industry

3 3 3 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. To discuss the practice forced landings and helicopter crash dynamics.

4 4 4 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Preparation, HASEL, CANCA, recovery limits including a LSALT, practice emergency radio calls. Making a DECISION

5 5 5 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. State the difference between an emergency, a malfunction and an undesired aircraft state Explain the Forced Landing Procedure Explain the Precautionary Landing procedure Be able to decide which procedure is required based on the emergency or malfunction

6 6 6 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Facilitator Teacher Keep the class on topic Listen and share experiences Have an enquiring mind Ask questions Stay on topic Participate and share your experiences Your RoleMy Role

7 7 7 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. What is a precautionary landing – when What is a forced landing – when What undesirable aircraft states require immediate action Discuss termination considerations

8 8 8 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. (Practice) Forced Landing (Power Off) – No Choice – No Other options – Radio Call: MAYDAY Precautionary Forced Landing (Power On): – Just in Case – Radio Call: PAN PAN Diversion Procedure : – Just in Case – Radio Call: ATC and/or Operational base, as required

9 9 9 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Some of the numbers and detail within this section have been referenced from the Department of Flying Safety, United States Army Primary Helicopter Centre student handout “How to Crash a Helicopter”.

10 10 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. If conducting a real Forced Landing you are in effect “crashing” a helicopter. The bottom of any real autorotation is, in effect, a “crash landing”. Understanding this and accepting it is the first step in surviving it.

11 11 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. The second step in surviving any crash landing is to hit the ground as gently as possible, remembering that the helicopter can be replaced, but you cannot. The more energy that can be absorbed in the touch down the better. It is not about saving the helicopter, but using it to increase your chances of survivability.

12 12 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Fixed WingHelicopter Dispensable structure refers to those design features that are built into an aircraft to protect the crew during a crash landing.

13 13 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. A Zero Zero landing refers to: – zero vertical speed, and – zero forward (horizontal) speed at touch down. Zero Zero landings are the goal when termination an autorotation … but depending on circumstances some forward motion can be accepted. Often there is a compromise in forward speed versus vertical speed depending on the terrain that the helicopter is going to crash into. The general rule is: The worse the touch down terrain, the slower the run on speed.

14 14 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. a run on speed of knots is acceptable as the helicopter can slide without hitting anything a zero forward speed termination is preferred; avoid hitting anything and bringing the helicopter to a sudden stop and exposing the crew to a high G loading Smooth, flat, hardTrees, mountainous

15 15 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. G loading is the force we feel when we change speed or direction (accelerate). The tolerance of the human body to G force will depend on the: – magnitude (amount) of the G force, – duration (length of time) it is applied, – direction it acts (vertical or horizontal and positive or negative), – location of the application, and – posture of the body at the time.

16 16 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. The known records for surviving a high G force are: Colonel John Stapp who in 1954 sustained 46.2G in a rocket sled, and Formula One racing car driver David Purley who survived 179G as he decelerated from 173kms per hour in 66cm after his accelerator stuck and he hit a wall. Force actsPositiveNegativeInstantaneousDeadly Vertical 5G (9G in a suit and trained) -3G 40G (1500 feet per minute ROD) 100G (3000 feet per minute ROD) Horizontal17G (pushing the body backwards) 12G (pushing the body forwards) 40-80GGreater than 100G

17 17 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Hard flat surface Descent 25 feet per second (1500 feet per minute) 0 forward speed = vertical load of 20-40Gs Helicopter damaged Crew injured But surviveable Hard flat surface Descent 25 feet per second (1500 feet per minute) kts forward speed = vertical load <20Gs = horizontal load of 15-25Gs Zero Zero touchdownForward speed touchdown

18 18 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. May cause fuselage to break-up, causing injuries Comes to a sudden stop, which it is not designed to due, and increases G force RollingHitting an object If the terrain is not hard and flat, any forward movement may cause the helicopter to either roll or hit an object, e.g. tree. Remember it is not the fall that will kill you, it is the sudden stop at the bottom!

19 19 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. The weather The route The altitude and airspeed The type of terrain, such as: – Trees (Forest, Jungle) – Water – Desert, or – Mountains.

20 20 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Forests – colder climates - trees are tall, spaced apart with little vegetation – with gaps/holes in the canopy - trees are usually harder and stronger. Jungles – warmer climates - tall, thicker vegetation, very few gaps. Trees can be a pilot’s best friend: – Land on top of them and allow the helicopter to settle into the canopy - they will absorb much of the energy. – Hitting trees at speed horizontally will have very poor outcomes.

21 21 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Mountains can be very unpredictable. Over a mountain area that is covered in trees? Above the tree line? Can you make it to an open area in the bottom of the valley? Do you need to land at or near a clump of trees so that you don’t roll down the mountain after landing? In general, if crashing in the mountains you need to not only think of the approach, but after landing what will be your best chance of survivability. If you are not likely to get any immediate help in an emergency in the mountains, then a route change may be preferable.

22 22 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Desert can provide reasonable open areas for a Forced Landing, but often with soft sand and slopes. Conducting the Forced Landing is the easy part, surviving once on the ground can be the challenge.

23 23 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Water is a good surface to conduct a Forced landing – absorbs energy well, however, it does pose two very significant issues: – difficult to judge the height; result in flaring to high or too low. – the helicopter is going to sink and you need to know how to get out and then survive in the water until you are rescued. It is probably a good idea to avoid water if you: – have not received Helicopter Underwater Escape Training (HUET) training, or – are unlikely to have rescue services available.

24 24 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. have to modify the flare and touch down technique based on what type of landing area is presented Wind – important – Extend glideslope – flying downwind, or – Reduce glideslope – flying into wind and manipulating speed – By 500ft turn into wind and select a speed for flare and termination Approach – – Size – Obstacles – Surface

25 25 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Wires – hard to see If termination area has wires – run parallel to them Avoid going under wires – pass over with 500ft clearance

26 26 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. First option is open areas careful in considering if it is actually the best option available. Better an smaller easy target, than bigger target difficult to reach an open area from 1500 feet may look perfect – but the surface is not prepared and there may be obstacles such as fences (another form of wires), buildings, wires, stock, vegetation, ploughed surfaces and crops that you will need to consider. Open area from 1500 feet Same open area on the ground

27 27 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. run on parallel with the furrows. Running across them will cause the helicopter to roll over. Treat a field with high crops the same as a ploughed field.

28 28 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. start scanning for wires, fences, stock, irrigation pipes and plan to run parallel or at least manoeuvre to avoid them.

29 29 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. If landing on a road then always remember that roads have: – wires – vehicles and people – ditches running next to the road, and – fences, trees, etc. running along each side of the road. It is preferred to touchdown in the same direction that the traffic is going (if you have a choice).

30 30 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Aiming for an open space in a populated area can be difficult, but the only option. Looking at the image below, just where would your best touchdown area be?

31 31 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. a tree landing may be something to avoid or it may actually be something that is going to help. thick jungles are preferable to sparsely wooded areas Usually in jungles, aiming for the area that is bright green (not dark green) that is very dense and the lowest part of the canopy indicates a softer wood and a better option

32 32 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. flare – low rate of descent and forward speed. at contact, level the skids - hold a slight tail low attitude so that the tail boom and the fuselage start to absorb some of the impact and the helicopter falls slightly backwards rather than have the fuselage tip forward and point the crew at the ground. use the collective to increase pitch while it is still available to continue to arrest the ROD. once the blades stop or are destroyed – just hang on and wait for the helicopter to settle

33 33 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. If the landing is going to be into low thick scrub type vegetation and small sapling type trees, then land as if they were not there as the helicopter will go through them. If you cannot avoid them, accept that but conduct the flare so that you have minimal forward speed and use the vegetation to help slow the fuselage. Aim for the lowest, softest looking area.

34 34 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. In the mountains you can encounter a combination of open areas, trees and jungle but of course you will now have slopes and rocks and very uneven surfaces. Usually best to head for valley floor – stream or river bed or other open area Otherwise accept slope

35 35 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Slopes: If in a stable autorotation, conduct the flare so that the helicopter conducts a Zero Zero landing onto the surface. position the helicopter so that it is facing up the slope. This will do two things: – tail will hit the ground - fuselage rocks backwards. Try to pull as much pitch as possible so that the rotor blades slow down as quickly as possible. – keeps the main rotor away from the rising slope.

36 36 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. If it is obvious that the helicopter is going to roll, help the helicopter by using cyclic to roll towards the advancing blade side, this will take the transmission and upper deck away from the crew as the retreating blade takes them with it.

37 37 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Conducting a Forced Landing into water is referred to as Ditching and is no different to any other Forced Landing (apart from several additional checklist items) until the helicopter arrives in the water. Then there is another emergency as the crew are required to evacuate a helicopter that is quickly sinking (unless there are floats installed on the helicopter). This requires the crew to act instinctively and for this to happen will require training. All pilots are encouraged to complete Helicopter Underwater Escape Training (HUET) prior to flights over water so that the lessons learned in this training can be used in this emergency. We will not discuss HUET here but focus on the pilots’ actions when having to ditch in the water.

38 38 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Try to get as close to the shore as possible or at least closer to where help or a rescue may be affected. arm emergency float system, if available. announce as soon as possible “DITCHIN DITCHING DITCHING BRACE BRACE BRACE” pop open the doors - so that they do not become jammed and are unable to be opened when in the water. Do not jettison doors (yet) in the flare, close to the ground - jettison doors if possible Announce just prior to commencing the flare, “DITCHIN DITCHING DITCHING BRACE BRACE BRACE”

39 39 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Execute a Zero-Zero flare level the skids approximately 5 feet above the surface As the helicopter sinks, use collective to cushion on if the helicopter does not have floats, then as the fuselage sinks into the water and before the main or tail rotor blades strike the water, roll the fuselage to the advancing blade side. The advancing blade will then strike the water and within one revolution the main rotor blades will stop. At that point the crew can evacuate the helicopter.

40 40 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Helicopter crashes are very survivable as long as the pilot reacts immediately and decisively. Injuries come from two areas: – High G impact, and – from the dissipation of energy as the helicopter rolls, tumbles and basically breaks apart around you. The impact can be avoided by crashing gently. The ground is your friend. Fly the helicopter all the way to the termination point and then stop it with the flare and the collective pitch. The dissipation of energy can be reduced by limiting forward speed. Zero Zero landings are to be encouraged and aimed for. A crash from 5 feet is going to be very survivable. Touching the ground nose high rather than nose low is preferred, as you can use the tail and fuselage to absorb some of the energy. Always wear your safety equipment. Protect your spine by sitting properly in your seat using the seat as support and the seat belt to hold you in place. Finally, in any real forced landing, your survival is paramount. The survival of the helicopter is not.

41 41 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved.

42 42 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved.

43 43 Version February 2015 Copyright © 2015 Becker Helicopter Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. Is it Critical? – YES: Enter autorotation, conduct Forced Landing Procedure – NO: Make a plan conduct a Precautionary Landing or divert Any questions?


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