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Communication. In today’s turbulent environment, communication is at the top of everyone’s needed-skills list. In today’s turbulent environment, communication.

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Presentation on theme: "Communication. In today’s turbulent environment, communication is at the top of everyone’s needed-skills list. In today’s turbulent environment, communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication

2 In today’s turbulent environment, communication is at the top of everyone’s needed-skills list. In today’s turbulent environment, communication is at the top of everyone’s needed-skills list. Effective communication, both within the organization and with people outside the company, is a major challenge and responsibility for managers. Effective communication, both within the organization and with people outside the company, is a major challenge and responsibility for managers.

3 vs. The ability to communicate is the primary factor that distinguishes human beings from animals. And it is the ability to communicate well that distinguishes one individual from another. The ability to communicate is the primary factor that distinguishes human beings from animals. And it is the ability to communicate well that distinguishes one individual from another.

4 What is Communication? Process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior. Process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior. The interpersonal transfer of information and understanding from one person to another The interpersonal transfer of information and understanding from one person to another A linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback A linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback

5 Communication is the sharing of thoughts, feelings, messages and information. Communication is the sharing of thoughts, feelings, messages and information. It usually takes at least two people to communicate. We might be the one doing the sharing or we might be the one on the receiving end. So, communication means understanding what others are saying and also being understood when we are talking. It usually takes at least two people to communicate. We might be the one doing the sharing or we might be the one on the receiving end. So, communication means understanding what others are saying and also being understood when we are talking.

6 Communication is the process whereby speech, signs or actions transmit information from one person to another. Communication is the process whereby speech, signs or actions transmit information from one person to another. Communication It is a 2-way interaction between two parties to transmit information and mutual understanding between themselves It is a 2-way interaction between two parties to transmit information and mutual understanding between themselves

7 Key Ingredients of Communication Participants Participants Common medium or language Common medium or language Transmission of some message or information Transmission of some message or information Understanding or interpretation of that message Understanding or interpretation of that message

8 Functions of Communication

9 Basic Communication Process

10 Sender: The sender is the initiator of the message. Sender: The sender is the initiator of the message. Encoding: Encoding is the process of translating the intended meaning into symbols (which includes words and gestures). Encoding: Encoding is the process of translating the intended meaning into symbols (which includes words and gestures). Message: The message is the encoding process outcome, which consists of verbal and nonverbal symbols that have been developed to convey meaning to the receiver. Message: The message is the encoding process outcome, which consists of verbal and nonverbal symbols that have been developed to convey meaning to the receiver.

11 Medium: It is the method used to convey the message to the intended receiver (such as by telephone, , reports). Factors to consider when selecting a medium include relative speed, cost, convenience, intelligibility, timing, feedback options, and documentation. Medium: It is the method used to convey the message to the intended receiver (such as by telephone, , reports). Factors to consider when selecting a medium include relative speed, cost, convenience, intelligibility, timing, feedback options, and documentation. Receiver: The receiver is the person with whom the message is exchanged. Receiver: The receiver is the person with whom the message is exchanged.

12 Decoding: It is the process of translating the symbols into the interpreted message. In effective communication, the sender and receiver achieve a common meaning. Decoding: It is the process of translating the symbols into the interpreted message. In effective communication, the sender and receiver achieve a common meaning. Noise: It is any factor in the communicating process that interferes with exchanging messages and achieving common meaning. Noise: It is any factor in the communicating process that interferes with exchanging messages and achieving common meaning. Feedback: is the basic response of the receiver to the interpreted message. During feedback, the receiver becomes the sender. It also provides preliminary information to the sender about the success of the communication. Feedback: is the basic response of the receiver to the interpreted message. During feedback, the receiver becomes the sender. It also provides preliminary information to the sender about the success of the communication.

13 Dimensions of Communication Dimensions DownwardUpward Horizontal/ Lateral Diagonal/ Crosswise

14 Downward Communication involves people operating at higher levels communicating with those at lower levels. Downward Communication involves people operating at higher levels communicating with those at lower levels. Upward Communication involves supplying information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels. Upward Communication involves supplying information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels.

15 Communication taking place between persons who are subordinates working under the same person or those who are working on the same level is called lateral communication. Communication taking place between persons who are subordinates working under the same person or those who are working on the same level is called lateral communication. Diagonal communication includes flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships. Diagonal communication includes flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships.

16 Channels of Communication FORMALINFORMAL

17 Formal Communication Means of communication normally controlled by managers or people occupying similar positions in the organization. Means of communication normally controlled by managers or people occupying similar positions in the organization. Eg. Exec.A Exec.B Exec.C Eg. Exec.A Exec.B Exec.C Content of communication relates to organization’s activity. Content of communication relates to organization’s activity. The messages are transmitted by the authorized ones, on official channels which arrive to the ones who need to react or take action. The messages are transmitted by the authorized ones, on official channels which arrive to the ones who need to react or take action. Adherence to formal system of authorities and responsibilities and hierarchical structure. Adherence to formal system of authorities and responsibilities and hierarchical structure.

18 Informal Communication Informal Communication Communication arising out of al those channels of communication that fall outside the formal channels is known as informal communication. Communication arising out of al those channels of communication that fall outside the formal channels is known as informal communication. Built around the social relationships of members of the organization. Built around the social relationships of members of the organization. These are not officially sanctioned. These are not officially sanctioned. Informal communication takes place due to the individual needs of the members of an organization and subsists in every organization. Informal communication takes place due to the individual needs of the members of an organization and subsists in every organization. Informal communication does not follow authority lines as in the case of formal communication. Informal communication does not follow authority lines as in the case of formal communication. It is also known as grapevine. It is also known as grapevine.

19 What is a “Grapevine”??? It is an informal channel of communication. It is an informal channel of communication. Called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Such informal channels tend to develop when individuals interacts with other people in organization. Such informal channels tend to develop when individuals interacts with other people in organization. Exists along with the formal channels in the organization. Exists along with the formal channels in the organization. Exists more at lower levels of organizations. Exists more at lower levels of organizations.

20 Advantages of Grapevine Carries and spreads information rapidly. Carries and spreads information rapidly. Quick feedback can be obtained. Quick feedback can be obtained. The grapevine is a supplement in those cases where formal communication does not work. The grapevine is a supplement in those cases where formal communication does not work. Renders psychological satisfaction. Renders psychological satisfaction.

21 Disadvantages of Grapevine Less credible than formal channels. Less credible than formal channels. At times, partial information is carried and is based on rumours. At times, partial information is carried and is based on rumours. The grapevine may hamper the goodwill of the organization as it may carry false negative information. The grapevine may hamper the goodwill of the organization as it may carry false negative information. The productivity of employees may be hampered as they spend more time talking rather than working. The productivity of employees may be hampered as they spend more time talking rather than working.

22 Formal vs. Informal Communication FORMALINFORMAL Formal channels are followed. No line of authority is followed. Generally in writing. Usually oral. Responsibility can be fixed. Responsibility fixation is difficult. Formed to serve organizational needs. Formed to serve personal needs.

23 Types of Communication Communication Verbal (use of words to communicate) Non- Verbal (communication by means of elements and behaviors that are not coded into words

24 VERBAL COMMUNICATION WRITTENORAL

25 Non-Verbal Communication Kinesics/ Body Language (Facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, appearance, body posture, etc.) Paralanguage/ Para Linguistics (Speaking speed, pitch variation, pause, volume variation, etc.)

26 Facial Expressions Convey Emotions

27 Barriers to communication Communication- Life blood of all business. Communication- Life blood of all business. No communication, no business. A communication becomes successful only if the receiver understands what the sender is truing to convey. A communication becomes successful only if the receiver understands what the sender is truing to convey. When the message is not clearly understood, one should understand that he is facing barrier to communication. When the message is not clearly understood, one should understand that he is facing barrier to communication. Barriers to effective communication could cause roadblocks in your professional and personal life and it could be one of the major hurdles in achieving your professional goals. Barriers to effective communication could cause roadblocks in your professional and personal life and it could be one of the major hurdles in achieving your professional goals.

28 Various Communication barriers can be stated as follows:  Noise : Noise is unwanted sound. Noise is unwanted sound. Primarily occurs at the transmission level. Primarily occurs at the transmission level. It is an interference that occurs in a signal and prevents you from hearing sounds properly. It is an interference that occurs in a signal and prevents you from hearing sounds properly. Example: sound of machines and engines in a factory. Example: sound of machines and engines in a factory.

29  Cultural Barriers : Cultural differences often cause communication problems. Cultural differences often cause communication problems. Same set of words, symbols, phases, may mean different things to people from different countries and different cultural backgrounds. Same set of words, symbols, phases, may mean different things to people from different countries and different cultural backgrounds.

30  Emotional Barriers : Encoding and decoding of messages depends to quite some extent on one’s emotional state at a particular time. Encoding and decoding of messages depends to quite some extent on one’s emotional state at a particular time. Example: A message received when one is angry is likely to be interpreted in a very different manner than when one is calm and composed. Example: A message received when one is angry is likely to be interpreted in a very different manner than when one is calm and composed.

31  Semantic Problems: Communication is transmission of meanings. Communication is transmission of meanings. Problems arising out of transmission/ expression of meanings are called semantic problems. Problems arising out of transmission/ expression of meanings are called semantic problems. Communication s based on words and words are liable to be used in different ways. Communication s based on words and words are liable to be used in different ways. It is important for the sender to encode the message in such a way that the receiver decodes it to get the intended meaning. It is important for the sender to encode the message in such a way that the receiver decodes it to get the intended meaning. There should be clarity, simplicity and brevity to minimise chances of multiple interpretations. There should be clarity, simplicity and brevity to minimise chances of multiple interpretations.

32  Selective Perception : The receivers selectively see and hear depending upon their needs, motivations, background, experience and other personal characteristics. The receivers selectively see and hear depending upon their needs, motivations, background, experience and other personal characteristics. Projection of own interests and expectations into the communication process. Projection of own interests and expectations into the communication process.

33  Filtering The sender manipulates information in such a way that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver. The sender manipulates information in such a way that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver. Example: a manager likes to tell his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear. Example: a manager likes to tell his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear. Tendency of people at lower level to condense and synthesize information. Tendency of people at lower level to condense and synthesize information. Result of filtering- the man the top never gets objective information. Result of filtering- the man the top never gets objective information.

34  Loss by Transmission: Messages/ information gets diluted or and becomes less accurate, as it passes from one person to another. Messages/ information gets diluted or and becomes less accurate, as it passes from one person to another.  Poor Retention: Human memory may not always retain what is told to it. Human memory may not always retain what is told to it.

35  Poor Listening: At times, people are too much involved in their own problems and pampering their own egos. At times, people are too much involved in their own problems and pampering their own egos. As a result they are really not interested in the speaker. As a result they are really not interested in the speaker. Major barrier to communication. Major barrier to communication.

36  Language Barriers : It is a figurative phrase used primarily to indicate the difficulties faced when people, who have no language in common, attempt to communicate with each other. It is a figurative phrase used primarily to indicate the difficulties faced when people, who have no language in common, attempt to communicate with each other.

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38 Clarity of Purpose: We must make a careful analysis of what exactly we wish to communicate. Clarity of Purpose: We must make a careful analysis of what exactly we wish to communicate. Common set of Symbols: Encoding/ decoding should be done with symbols that are familiar to the sender and the receiver. Common set of Symbols: Encoding/ decoding should be done with symbols that are familiar to the sender and the receiver. Active Listening: Active or participative listening is important, as effective communication is a joint responsibility of both the sender and the receiver. Active Listening: Active or participative listening is important, as effective communication is a joint responsibility of both the sender and the receiver.

39 Politeness: Connection between what is said and how it is said influences the reaction of the receiver. Authority should be exercised with grace. Politeness encourages participative communication. Politeness: Connection between what is said and how it is said influences the reaction of the receiver. Authority should be exercised with grace. Politeness encourages participative communication. Eliminate Noise: Effort must be made to eliminate the element of noise that distorts communication. Eliminate Noise: Effort must be made to eliminate the element of noise that distorts communication.

40 Use Feedback: It will let the sender know that whether the message has been rightly understood by the receiver. It will reduce misunderstandings and inaccuracies. Use Feedback: It will let the sender know that whether the message has been rightly understood by the receiver. It will reduce misunderstandings and inaccuracies. Completeness: A message must be complete leaving, as far as possible, no scope for guesswork. Completeness: A message must be complete leaving, as far as possible, no scope for guesswork. Controlling Emotions: For effective communication, emotions should be kept under control. Controlling Emotions: For effective communication, emotions should be kept under control.

41 Conciseness: Completeness does not men inclusion of unnecessary details or diversions. Effective communication is concise, crisp, clear and well focused. Conciseness: Completeness does not men inclusion of unnecessary details or diversions. Effective communication is concise, crisp, clear and well focused. Proper use of body language: It is of paramount importance, especially in oral communication. There must be- good eye contact with the person to whom we are talking; hand/ feet movement must be graceful; good body posture; etc. Proper use of body language: It is of paramount importance, especially in oral communication. There must be- good eye contact with the person to whom we are talking; hand/ feet movement must be graceful; good body posture; etc.

42 Avoiding connotations and ambiguities: Semantic problems can be solved by using simple language and avoiding connotations. Avoiding connotations and ambiguities: Semantic problems can be solved by using simple language and avoiding connotations. Socio-psychological aspect: the sender and the receiver must make a conscious effort to understand each other’s cultural and socio-psychological background. Socio-psychological aspect: the sender and the receiver must make a conscious effort to understand each other’s cultural and socio-psychological background. Golden Rule: “First Understand, then be understood”

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