2In today’s turbulent environment, communication is at the top of everyone’s needed-skills list.Effective communication, both within the organization and with people outside the company, is a major challenge and responsibility for managers.
3vs.The ability to communicate is the primary factor that distinguishes human beings from animals. And it is the ability to communicate well that distinguishes one individual from another.
4What is Communication?Process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior.The interpersonal transfer of information and understanding from one person to anotherA linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback
5Communication is the sharing of thoughts, feelings, messages and information. It usually takes at least two people to communicate. We might be the one doing the sharing or we might be the one on the receiving end. So, communication means understanding what others are saying and also being understood when we are talking.
6Communication is the process whereby speech, signs or actions transmit information from one person to another.It is a 2-way interaction between two parties to transmit information and mutual understanding between themselves
7Key Ingredients of Communication ParticipantsCommon medium or languageTransmission of some message or informationUnderstanding or interpretation of that message
10Sender: The sender is the initiator of the message. Encoding: Encoding is the process of translating the intended meaning into symbols (which includes words and gestures).Message: The message is the encoding process outcome, which consists of verbal and nonverbal symbols that have been developed to convey meaning to the receiver.
11Medium: It is the method used to convey the message to the intended receiver (such as by telephone, , reports). Factors to consider when selecting a medium include relative speed, cost, convenience, intelligibility, timing, feedback options, and documentation.Receiver: The receiver is the person with whom the message is exchanged.
12Decoding: It is the process of translating the symbols into the interpreted message. In effective communication, the sender and receiver achieve a common meaning.Noise: It is any factor in the communicating process that interferes with exchanging messages and achieving common meaning.Feedback: is the basic response of the receiver to the interpreted message. During feedback, the receiver becomes the sender. It also provides preliminary information to the sender about the success of the communication.
14Downward Communication involves people operating at higher levels communicating with those at lower levels.Upward Communication involves supplying information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels.
15Communication taking place between persons who are subordinates working under the same person or those who are working on the same level is called lateral communication.Diagonal communication includes flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships.
17Formal CommunicationMeans of communication normally controlled by managers or people occupying similar positions in the organization.Eg. Exec.A Exec.B Exec.CContent of communication relates to organization’s activity.The messages are transmitted by the authorized ones, on official channels which arrive to the ones who need to react or take action.Adherence to formal system of authorities and responsibilities and hierarchical structure.
18Informal Communication Communication arising out of al those channels of communication that fall outside the formal channels is known as informal communication.Built around the social relationships of members of the organization.These are not officially sanctioned.Informal communication takes place due to the individual needs of the members of an organization and subsists in every organization.Informal communication does not follow authority lines as in the case of formal communication.It is also known as grapevine.
19What is a “Grapevine”??? It is an informal channel of communication. Called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels.Such informal channels tend to develop when individuals interacts with other people in organization.Exists along with the formal channels in the organization.Exists more at lower levels of organizations.
20Advantages of Grapevine Carries and spreads information rapidly.Quick feedback can be obtained.The grapevine is a supplement in those cases where formal communication does not work.Renders psychological satisfaction.
21Disadvantages of Grapevine Less credible than formal channels.At times, partial information is carried and is based on rumours.The grapevine may hamper the goodwill of the organization as it may carry false negative information.The productivity of employees may be hampered as they spend more time talking rather than working.
22Formal vs. Informal Communication Formal channels are followed.No line of authority is followed.Generally in writing.Usually oral.Responsibility can be fixed.Responsibility fixation is difficult.Formed to serve organizational needs.Formed to serve personal needs.
27Barriers to communication Communication- Life blood of all business.No communication, no business.A communication becomes successful only if the receiver understands what the sender is truing to convey.When the message is not clearly understood, one should understand that he is facing barrier to communication.Barriers to effective communication could cause roadblocks in your professional and personal life and it could be one of the major hurdles in achieving your professional goals.
28Various Communication barriers can be stated as follows: Noise :Noise is unwanted sound.Primarily occurs at the transmission level.It is an interference that occurs in a signal and prevents you from hearing sounds properly.Example: sound of machines and engines in a factory.
29Cultural Barriers :Cultural differences often cause communication problems.Same set of words, symbols, phases, may mean different things to people from different countries and different cultural backgrounds.
30Emotional Barriers :Encoding and decoding of messages depends to quite some extent on one’s emotional state at a particular time.Example: A message received when one is angry is likely to be interpreted in a very different manner than when one is calm and composed.
31Semantic Problems:Communication is transmission of meanings.Problems arising out of transmission/ expression of meanings are called semantic problems.Communication s based on words and words are liable to be used in different ways.It is important for the sender to encode the message in such a way that the receiver decodes it to get the intended meaning.There should be clarity, simplicity and brevity to minimise chances of multiple interpretations.
32Selective Perception : The receivers selectively see and hear depending upon their needs, motivations, background, experience and other personal characteristics.Projection of own interests and expectations into the communication process.
33FilteringThe sender manipulates information in such a way that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver.Example: a manager likes to tell his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear.Tendency of people at lower level to condense and synthesize information.Result of filtering- the man the top never gets objective information.
34Loss by Transmission:Messages/ information gets diluted or and becomes less accurate, as it passes from one person to another.Poor Retention:Human memory may not always retain what is told to it.
35Poor Listening:At times, people are too much involved in their own problems and pampering their own egos.As a result they are really not interested in the speaker.Major barrier to communication.
36Language Barriers :It is a figurative phrase used primarily to indicate the difficulties faced when people, who have no language in common, attempt to communicate with each other.
38Clarity of Purpose: We must make a careful analysis of what exactly we wish to communicate. Common set of Symbols: Encoding/ decoding should be done with symbols that are familiar to the sender and the receiver.Active Listening: Active or participative listening is important, as effective communication is a joint responsibility of both the sender and the receiver.
39Politeness: Connection between what is said and how it is said influences the reaction of the receiver. Authority should be exercised with grace. Politeness encourages participative communication.Eliminate Noise: Effort must be made to eliminate the element of noise that distorts communication.
40Use Feedback: It will let the sender know that whether the message has been rightly understood by the receiver. It will reduce misunderstandings and inaccuracies.Completeness: A message must be complete leaving, as far as possible, no scope for guesswork.Controlling Emotions: For effective communication, emotions should be kept under control.
41Conciseness: Completeness does not men inclusion of unnecessary details or diversions. Effective communication is concise, crisp, clear and well focused.Proper use of body language: It is of paramount importance, especially in oral communication. There must be- good eye contact with the person to whom we are talking; hand/ feet movement must be graceful; good body posture; etc.
42Avoiding connotations and ambiguities: Semantic problems can be solved by using simple language and avoiding connotations.Socio-psychological aspect: the sender and the receiver must make a conscious effort to understand each other’s cultural and socio-psychological background.Golden Rule: “First Understand, then be understood”