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3-1 Managerial Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Copyright © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "3-1 Managerial Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Copyright © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 3-1 Managerial Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Copyright © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 4

2 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3-2 Learning Objectives 1. Define ethics and explain how ethical behavior relates to behavior governed by law and free choice. 2. Explain the utilitarian, individualism, moral rights, and justice approaches for evaluating ethical behavior. 3. Describe how individual and organizational factors shape ethical decision making. 4. Define corporate social responsibility and how to evaluate it along economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary criteria.

3 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3-3 Learning Objectives (contd.) 5. Describe four organizational approaches to environmental responsibility, and explain the philosophy of sustainability. 6. Discuss how ethical organizations are created through ethical leadership and organizational structures and systems. 7. Identify important stakeholders for an organization and discuss how managers balance the interests of various stakeholders.

4 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3-4 Ethics The code of moral principles and values that govern the behaviors of a person or group with respect to what is right or wrong.

5 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3-5 Ex. 4.1 Three Domains of Human Action Amount of Explicit Control High Low Domain of Certified Law (Legal Standard) Domain of Ethics (Social Standard) Domain of Free Choice (Personal Standard)

6 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3-6 Ethical Dilemma  An ethical dilemma arises in a situation concerning right or wrong when values are in conflict. Right and wrong cannot be clearly identified.

7 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3-7 Criteria for Ethical Decision Making  Most ethical dilemmas involve  A conflict between needs of the part & whole.  The individual versus the organization.  The organization versus society as a whole.

8 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3-8 Four Considerations in Ethical Decision Making  Utilitarian Approach  Individualism Approach  Moral-Rights Approach  Justice Approach

9 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3-9 Utilitarian Approach  Moral behavior produces the greatest good for the greatest number.  Computations can be very complex, simplifying them is considered appropriate.  Critics fear a “Big Brother” approach and ask if the common good is squeezing the life out of the individual.

10 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Individualism Approach  Acts are moral when they promote the individual's best long-term interests.  Individual self-direction paramount.  Individualism is believed to lead to honesty & integrity since that works best in the long run.

11 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Moral Rights Approach Asserts human beings have fundamental rights and liberties. Moral decisions are those that best maintain the rights of those people affected by them. An ethical decision is one that avoids interfering with the fundamental rights of others.

12 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved “Moral Rights” Considerations The right of free consent The right to privacy The right of freedom of conscience The right of free speech The right to due process The right to life & safety

13 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Justice Approach  Moral decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairness, and impartiality.

14 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Justice Approach (contd.) Distributive justice requires that different treatment of people not be based on arbitrary characteristics. Procedural justice requires that rules be administered fairly. Compensatory justice argues that individuals should be compensated for the cost of their injuries by the party responsible.

15 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Ex. 4.2 Three Levels of Personal Moral Development SOURCES: Based on L. Kahlberg, “Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach, in Moral Development and Behavior: Theory, Research, and Social Issues, ed. T. Lickona (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976), 31-53; and Jill W. Graham, “Leadership, Moral Development and Citizenship Behavior,” Business Ethics Quarterly 5, no. 1 (January 1995),

16 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Ex. 4.4 Questions for Analyzing a Company’s Cultural Impact on Ethics (Adapted)  Identify the organization’s heroes.  What are some important organizational rituals?  What are the ethical messages sent to new entrants into the organization—must they obey authority at all costs?  Does analysis of organizational stories and myths reveal individuals who stand up for what is right, or is conformity the valued characteristic?  Does language exist for discussing ethical concerns?  What informal socialization processes exist? SOURCE: Linda Klebe Trevino, “A Cultural Perspective on Changing and Developing Organizational Ethics,” in Research in Organizational Change and Development, ed. R. Woodman and W. Pasmore (Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press, 1990), 4.

17 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Social Responsibility  Management’s obligation to make choices and take actions that will contribute to the welfare and interests of society as well as the organization.  Many social responsibilities issues are ambiguous with respect to right and wrong.

18 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Shades of Corporate Green Ex. 4.6 The Shades of Corporate Green Activist Approach Actively conserve the environment Stakeholder Approach Address multiple stakeholder concerns Market Approach Respond to customers Legal Approach Satisfy legal requirements regarding environmental conservation Copyright © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. SOURCE: Based on R.E. Freeman, J. Pierce, and R. Dodd, Shades of Green: Ethics and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).

19 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Ex. 4.7 Criteria of Corporate Social Performance SOURCES: Based on Archie B. Carroll, “A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance,” Academy of Management Review 4(1979), 499; and “The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Corporate Stakeholders,” Business Horizons 34 (July-August 1991), 42.

20 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Ex. 4.9 The Three Pillars of an Ethical Organization SOURCE: Adapted from Linda Klebe Trevino, Laura Pincus Hartman, and Michael Brown, “Moral Person and Moral Manager,” California Management Review 42, No. 4 (Summer 2000),

21 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Code of Ethics A formal statement of the company’s values concerning ethics and social issues; it communicates to employees what the company stands for.

22 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Ethical Structures  Ethics committees – a group of executives appointed to oversee company ethics  Ethics training programs – help employees deal with ethical questions and translate the values stated in a code of ethics into everyday behavior

23 © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Ethical Structures (contd.)  Chief ethics officer – a company executive who oversees all aspects of ethics and legal compliance, including establishing and broadly communicating standards, ethics training, dealing with exceptions or problems, and advising senior managers in the ethical and compliance aspects of decisions.


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