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06-11 Training Materials Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1

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1 06-11 Training Materials Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Click anywhere on page to view show in its entirety TRAINING HANDS-ON Section 1 Scenario Background Scenario Explanation Event Begins – Initial Size-up First-in Crews Second Alarm Crews Section 2 CBIRF/CST Assets Unified Command Section 3 Branch Level Command Unified vs. Branch Level Command Rescue Strategy Logistics Section 6 (cont.) Scene Security Patient Trans./ Haz-Med Response Section 7 Chemical Recog. & Treat. Public Notification Demobilization Post-Drill Evaluation Discussion Questions Quiz & Answers EVOLUTIONS 2000 Section 8 Kramer vs. Kramer Section 4 Entry Teams Decon/Medical Treatment Section 5 Modes of Operation Extracting Victims Accountability Search Markings Following the Plan Section 6 Haz-Mat Suiting Officer Haz-Mat Safety Officer Haz-Mat Entry Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

2 Working Fire Training 06-11 Training Materials
LEGAL DISCLAIMER All training methods and procedures presented in this Working Fire Training (WFT) video program and training materials are based on IFSTA, NFPA, NIOSH, OSHA and all other relevant industry regulations and standards and are presented as a part of generally accepted and acknowledged practices in the U.S. Fire Service. WFT should be used under the supervision of certified trainers in conjunction with national, state, and local training standards and protocols, and the standard operating guides and procedures of the Subscriber. WFT is intended to be an ancillary source of training information and should not be used as the sole source of training for any emergency service organization. WFT accepts no responsibility for how the Subscriber implements or integrates this program into the Subscriber’s own training program, nor does the use of this program by the Subscriber imply that WFT approves or endorses any specific training methods presented by the Subscriber to its own organization. WFT accepts no responsibility for the correct understanding or application of its training methods and procedures by emergency service personnel who view this program; nor for any performance or lack of performance by emergency service personnel who may view this program and use or apply these training methods and procedures incorrectly; nor does it accept any liability for injuries or deaths of emergency service personnel who may view this program and use or apply such training methods and procedures incorrectly. By presenting this program for viewing to its organization’s members, the Subscriber, and by viewing or reading materials presented by WFT, the members and students of the Subscriber, agree to hold harmless WFT, the University of Cincinnati, VFIS, and any persons or organizations who participate in the creation and/or presentation of this training material from any legal action which might result from any line-of-duty injuries or deaths of the Subscriber’s members or any other emergency service personnel who view this program and who may use or apply such training methods and procedures incorrectly. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

3 06-11 Training Materials Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Working Fire Training breaks away from its usual format this month as we have done in the past for coverage of significant large scale disasters or Weapons of Mass Destruction simulated events: the Oklahoma City Bombing 911 at Ground Zero the University WMD simulation in our July issue of 2002, and the Katrina Disaster, covered earlier this year. This month and next month, we cover Exercise St. Louis - a large WMD scenario which not only involved local resources but state and federal response assets as well. If an intense or protracted disaster or WMD event occurs in your area, you'll be working with these out-of-town teams so here's a chance to see them in action and how they'll be working with your responders. The event was conducted in Olivette, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

4 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After watching this segment, the student shall understand: the structure and function of CBIRF and CST how these teams are mobilized and how they integrate with local first responders. CODES, STANDARDS & REGULATIONS Presidential Decision Directives 39 and 62, and eventually Defense Reform Initiative Directive 25. NFPA 471, Hazardous Materials Incident Response. 29 CFR 1910, 28 CFR Chapter 1, Part 23. The Office For Domestic Preparedness Guidelines For Homeland Security: Prevention and Deterrence, June 2003, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

5 06-11 Training Materials Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Scenario Background The scenario simulated a high-profile summit meeting for governmental officials and other dignitaries. At such an event, it would be normal for the Marines to send along its Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF) and have them pre-staged there. It would also be part of the plan to pre-stage the 7th Missouri Civil Support Team, an arm of the National Guard. Both groups have their specialties in haz-mat response, haz-med treatment, and the monitoring, detection, and sampling of foreign chemical substances or agents. One of the focal points of the exercise was the interaction of civilian and military response teams. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

6 06-11 Training Materials Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Scenario Background At the meeting, a simulated airborne substance was released and formed the basis of the response. At the same time, a simulated bomb was to go off in an adjacent parking garage resulting in a structure collapse. Due to the lack of space to realistically and effectively train on both scenarios, the garage collapse was simulated at stone quarry in the area. The start time of both events was synchronized so they would run concurrently. The garage collapse scenario will be covered in detail in next month’s program, 06-12, along with analysis of both scenarios and information on how to plan your own area WMD event, complete with related planning documents. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

7 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Scenario Explanation Scenario Intent To test the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Homeland Security Response Team including federal and state units and their interaction with local first responders. Scenario Simulation A large-scale political "summit" meeting of national significance where many political figures and elected officials would be present. This included federal and state military assets, local haz-mat response teams, and local first responders from the jurisdiction in which the meeting was held. A simultaneous bombing and collapse of an adjacent parking garage. This was simulated at a stone quarry a few miles away. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

8 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Scenario Explanation (cont.) The event would have observers who would later report on the scenario's outcome. Event Begins – Initial Size-up Radio reports of people coming out, gasping for air, possibly reacting to a hazardous chemical or biological agent and a possible explosion.. A three-person first responder team is sent in to investigate. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

9 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Event Begins – Initial Size-up (cont.) Critical Decisions: Be prepared to deal with crowd control and unruly individuals who may be scared or panicked! Police who may be on scene will probably not have donned appropriate PPE and as a result, may not be effective as they may become symptomatic. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

10 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
First-In Crews The first-arriving officer will make a decision regarding the exposure parameters of the situation, rope off the area, and set up a cold-warm-hot zone. As an incident command structure develops, he/she'll inform the incident commander of what he's discovered, the gravity of the situation, and a recommendation of how to escalate the response. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

11 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
First-In Crews (cont.) Critical Decisions: First arriving teams knowing that they're responding to some sort of chemical or biological agent should be thinking about how they are going to respond – or IF they are going to respond. "Am I adding to the greater good by approaching the victims or will I become one myself?" We might have to work against our instinct to run in and assist or risk becoming a victim ourselves. At the very least, be asking questions like, "Which way is the wind blowing? Am I equipped and prepared (PPE) to really help?" Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

12 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
First-In Crews (cont.) First responders will be assessing patients, trying to ascertain what they are dealing with. If they find they are dealing with some kind of hazardous material or chemical agent, they should call for gross decon to be set up and perhaps a water stream to move any vapor they may encounter. A second alarm is activated, mobilizing more EMS units. Arriving EMS units assess patients and discover they have symptoms of a vaporous haz-mat exposure. They set up a triage area for the affected patients. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

13 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
First-In Crews (cont.) EMS responders are in the same possible jeopardy as first responding fire/rescue units –and maybe even more so, as they have to deal with patients. They also should be aware of the issues of becoming a casualty and protect themselves accordingly. Second-Alarm Crews Second-alarm crews are informed by first-in crews that a possible explosion and an unknown chemical/biological agent release did occur on site. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

14 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Second-Alarm Crews (cont.) In this jurisdiction, nearly all structural firefighters have access to Level B PPE so they can enter and make a live victim rescue. The feeling is that the firefighters will have to go in anyhow; therefore, they should be protected to as high a degree as possible. This is not to make haz-mat technicians of firefighters, but to improve the outcome where firefighters are trying to save lives. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

15 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Second-Alarm Crews (cont.) Second-in crews commanders, if they see that the first responders are being affected by the agent, have to make a decision: Do they order their crews in to assist or stand back and evaluate, perhaps performing some sort of gross decon using a ladder truck first? Or do they wait until specifically trained teams with proper PPE come in to identify the chemical agent and extract the victims who are still viable? Interoperable communications will help assist making these decisions as it can quickly be communicated that there are injured civilians and/or firefighters and what the staging point needs to be. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

16 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Federal & State Assets – CBIRF / CST Two assets were available on site since this was a simulated federal summit meeting: CBIRF (Chemical Biological Incident Response Force) and The 7th (Missouri) CST (Civil Support Team). CBIRF is a Marine Corps unit based outside Washington, DC that specifically does hazardous materials response for recon and decon and it also has a large medical, heavy rescue, and extrication component. It primarily functions around large-scale national/political events of significance such as the event simulated here. CBIRF response time is about 72 hours; were a jurisdiction to have an incident that lasted that long. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

17 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Federal & State Assets – CBIRF / CST (cont.) At the state level, another, closer asset is the 7th CST, based out of Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri. They look to build close associations with fire departments in the state. There are approximately 12 CST units around the country. CST can respond in under two hours and in a longer incident, could be of great assistance to local haz-mat squads and first responders. The simulated event here allowed staging of the CBIRF and CST in advance, foregoing their respective response times, so all participating units could train together. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

18 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Responsibilities In the pre-staging of this scenario, the command post determined that CBIRF would be in charge of decontamination and assist in the medical evacuation and treatment of all patients. CBIRF is equipped to decon hundreds of victims per hour, many more than could be handled by regular haz-mat or first responder decon. It can function at the platoon level separately or be integrated together at the branch level or at the command level to work with civilian and other federal assets. Once on scene, CBIRF can deploy in 90 minutes. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

19 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Responsibilities (cont.) In this scenario, the 7th CST focused on chemical agent detection sampling. CST goes around the state encouraging first-hand relationships with local first responders so they can be mobilized when needed, more directly and more quickly, without an authorization from the governor. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

20 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Unified Command Unified Command had also been pre-staged on-site near the summit meeting location as would have been the case had this been a real event. This included a large RV mobile command unit housing representatives from the FBI, CBIRF, CST, state highway department, local police, local haz-mat command, local fire response commander, and overall Region C mutual aid representatives. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

21 Scenario Safety Officer Chuck Marsonette Click video to view
06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Unified Command (cont.) Unified Command had also been pre-staged on-site near the summit meeting location as would have been the case had this been a real event. Unified Command was made up of a unified commander and upper level officers and officials (click video): i) local law enforcement and the FBI ii) EMS iii) haz-mat and haz-med iv) CBIRF and CST v) Regional Mutual Aid (Missouri Region C) representatives vi) other agencies as needed; i.e. state department of transportation, Red Cross, etc. 3. Description of who’s in the RV Scenario Safety Officer Chuck Marsonette Click video to view Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

22 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Unified Command (cont.) The National Incident Management System was employed and the command post also housed communications on the fireground and tactical interoperability of radios. As it developed, the incident outgrew the command post, part of which was moved to a nearby school. It still had two-way radio and phone communication with the actual physical command post in the RV mobile command unit and with Branch level command on the response ground This allowed the key Unified Commanders to stay in the communications realm and make decisions away from the interruptions and confusion of the actual incident management area. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

23 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Branch Level Command On the response ground, all of the agencies represented at Unified Command were represented here, with the ability to execute tactically: A mid-level supervisor for law enforcement A battalion chief for the fire branch A haz-mat branch officer A haz-med officer (the medical component of the hazardous materials area) A representative from CBIRF and CST. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

24 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Unified Command vs. Branch Level Command Unified Command concerns itself with concerns that are more strategic and logistically global: Do we have enough resources on scene? Are there enough strike teams? Do we need to bring in a haz-mat team from a different state? What about logistical and financial decisions; for example, planning the feeding and housing of responders over many days, finance, etc.? The FBI is in the unified command post and it looks at the incident from a federal/terrorism viewpoint, trying to determine what federal assets it may need, taking evidence, and the investigation of terrorism if it's present. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

25 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Unified Command vs. Branch Level Command (cont.) Overall, the Unified Command Post is an overarching umbrella that is tasked with supplying the logistical resources the branch level needs and providing strategic direction for the incident. Many things discussed and decided at this level are never communicated to the Branch Level. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

26 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Unified Command vs. Branch Level Command (cont.) The Branch Level Command will concern itself with many things that Unified Command doesn't need to concern itself with. Branch Commanders are trusted to make tactical decisions about matters and issues that don't need Unified Command oversight. i.) For example, once provided with sufficient manpower in staging (arranged for by Unified Command), the Branch Level will deploy that manpower as it sees fit. If Unified Command opinions or permissions are needed, Branch Command will call for them. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

27 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Rescue Strategy CBIRF, the local haz-hat response team and CST have come up with a plan. The plan involves sectoring both sides of the building into north and south sectors. CBIRF’s agent detectors will go around on the north side simultaneously with CST members on the south side who will also take samples if they find anything. Both sides will be followed by CBIRF extractors and local firefighters who will start removing people. Rapid Intervention Teams will be put in service as backup. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

28 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Rescue Strategy (cont.) CBIRF, both medical and recon units, CST, local haz-mat response, and first-arriving 2nd alarm crews queue up in the warm zone up for entry. Remember: first-in crews, having become symptomatic, have been taken out of service and brought to Decon. Branch level officers for all of these units are all unified at Branch Level Command, to coordinate the deployment of their respective units. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

29 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Rescue Strategy (cont.) Staged Drill Scenario: Keep in mind that everyone is pre-staged and ready to deploy. There has to be some simulation for trying to get everyone through an entry point in a certain amount of time so everyone has a chance to get trained. In a real scenario, there would be staging with personnel used over a larger time frame. Reminder: there is a backup team for every team that enters in an incident this large. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

30 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Logistics
Assets must be coordinated as they arrive on the scene, either as they arrive in real life or from pre-staging as they were for this event. They must be introduced at both the unified command level and the unified branch level. A unified branch level is a necessity for managing the availability time frame, the personnel that can enter and their backup teams. Reminder: there is a backup team for every team that enters in an incident this large. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

31 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Entry Teams After all the assets have been organized for entry, structural firefighters in Level B suits, haz-mat team and CBIRF will enter. Rescue teams will enter concurrently with Recon terms. The main mission is to: extract victims from the building and identify the chemical or exposure present. Rescue is the first priority, but both enter together. Recon will not get involved in the mission of victim extrication. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

32 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Entry Teams (cont.) Critical Decision: Because of their different missions, Rescue and Recon will communicate separately. Communications Ops should set up separate radio channels for these missions! Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

33 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Entry Teams (cont.) Regarding the identification of the chemical present, CBIRF and CST take the lead, placing air monitors outside and inside the structure. These detection personnel wear Level A suits. The placing of air monitors is important for deciding exactly the location and boundaries of the cold-warm-hot zones and how large these zones should be. Changes in wind conditions and density of the substance or agent may also help determine this. The medical component of the CBIRF and the civilian "haz-med" component was tasked with the medical treatment of the extracted victims as well. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

34 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Entry Teams (cont.) As the CBIRF Recon Team enters the "room of source" of the agent or vapor: it brings with it different technologies that can test samples and develop results right in the room and it also can send them back to their mobile lab for more thorough identification. i.) Both CBIRF and CST set up mobile labs on site. ii.) See the training materials last month for details on these technologies and testing solutions. Should the detection team identify the chemical or agent, they will try to mitigate it, perhaps by moving it out of the building, diluting it, or by establishing antidotes. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

35 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Entry Teams (cont.) Meanwhile, the medical team (CBIRF and civilian haz-med) will investigate signs and symptoms which may also shed light on the chemical or agent involved. FYI: The chemical agent present was actually created by CBIRF chemists for testing in a drastically diluted form that, for the sake of realism, would still trigger the detection monitors so teams could practice their response. This information is communicated simultaneously to both branch level and unified level command. Were it to be communicated separately to each area, that would greatly increase the time for responsive action and medical treatment. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

36 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Decon/Medical Treatment Decon is handled by the CBIRF Decon Team. Victims are conducted through Decon and the CBIRF and/or the haz-med medical treatment area where they can be cleaned and packaged. They are then brought to the Cold Zone where they can then be transported via ambulance. Communications regarding the substance/agent upon its identification will be forwarded to the medical treatment area for their use. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

37 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Modes of Operation Teams who prepare for incidents like this assume the worst-case scenario first and proceed in that mode and only de-accelerate once the substance/agent has been identified. Assuming the worst-case scenario means everyone goes through Decon. In terms of pharmaceuticals, we assume the worst and prepare to have those treatments ready. As the chemical is identified through the mobile lab process, we then can formulate a treatment plan for the patients. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

38 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Modes of Operation (cont.) In the detection process, determinations of identification are confirmed by using different tests and technologies. Some test fluids, some test vapors. Some use ionizing radiation. So when we reach a conclusion, we have done so with more than one test or technique. Extracting Victims This is a widely researched and debated issue. Non-ambulatory: Some prefer using a Sked stretcher, sometime incorporated with wheeled dollies or sleds to move victims depending upon the distance or ground surface. A Stokes could also be used. Use any available conveyance to move victims that might be on-scene. These will eventually be decontaminated or incinerated. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

39 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Extracting Victims (cont.) Walking wounded: These can be walked to the Decon area which will get them there faster. Walking will also reduce the effects of the chemical on their bodies. This is a war zone-like situation. The fastest way to extract a victim is always the right way; however, this would be modified if there were substantial physical injuries incurred. A transfer occurs as extractors move victims from the hot zone to Decon personnel in the warm zone. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

40 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Accountability Accountability is just as important here as it is on fireground. There is a designated person on both the military and civilian side who tracks all victims as they are removed. These personnel should wear Powered Air Purifying Respirators or PAPRs. i.) These allow long-term use in zones where outside air cannot be breathed without some kind of purification. ii.) PAPRs also avoid the discomfort and air bottle restrictions of SCBA. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

41 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Search Markings Search markings are important for avoiding the time-wasting of repeated searchings of the same areas and reducing the unnecessary exposure of searchers and their equipment to areas that have been previously searched. Following the Plan Following branch level orders and the plan for entry and accountability in haz-mat situations must be followed to the letter! Freelancing can not be tolerated as it could prove fatal! Personnel with specific skills are deployed to perform specific jobs as part of the plan. If they deviate from that, bad consequences can result, possibly including injury or death. Safety, as always, is paramount! Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

42 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Haz-Mat Suiting Officer The Haz-Mat Suiting Officer is charged with making sure that all technicians are suited properly, that they're equipment is checked, that they’re paired up, and briefs them on their mission. The Suiting Officer also keeps track of entry teams on air down range and has appropriate back up personnel ready to relieve them. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

43 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Haz-Mat Safety Officer The role of the Haz-Mat Safety Officer is to make sure all units, before they go down range, are briefed on the possible exposure they might encounter, any obstacles or hazards that have been identified by anyone within the unified command system, whether it be large pools of water or chemicals, temperatures, etc. (For example, as this scenario was conducted in August, there was a high-heat hazard.) It's also the Safety Officer's job to monitor rehab as personnel come out and make sure they get rehydrated and hydrated as they go in. He/she will communicate directly with Haz-Mat Branch Command Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

44 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Haz-Mat Entry Haz-mat entry is similar to structural firefighting. You never want to enter empty-handed. Always bring: tools lights intrinsically safe radios tools for extraction such as skeds or wheeled carts. There will be no time to go out and bring in tools that you forgot. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

45 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Haz-Mat Entry (cont.) If a heavy rescue-type extraction -- for example, a wall collapse -- were to take place in a haz-mat environment, this could be arranged. It would take a haz-mat technician with heavy rescue training and the necessary equipment which would not normally be brought in such a situation. To prepare for this, it's a good idea to cross-train haz-mat and heavy rescue/structural collapse technicians and bring their assets together at the Branch level for coordination and entry. Attention Training Officers: Next month's volume, 06-12, will feature the other component of this incident - a simulated collapsed parking garage adjacent to the summit meeting building. This component will discuss in greater detail the combination of haz-mat and heavy rescue/structural collapse. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

46 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Scene Security We take for granted that our security will be taken care of by uniformed police or that people will obligingly stop at the yellow barrier. This is not the case. Remember, this is a simulated terrorist act and scene security can continue to be threatened. Police forces should have some members who are trained to the haz-mat operations level don Level B suits and operate in a downrange environment for a period of time depending on a number of factors like weather conditions. Interlopers may try to infiltrate the scene for any number of reasons. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

47 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Scene Security (cont.) In this incident we have a perimeter security team in place, coordinated through the Law Enforcement Branch Officer who, like the Haz-Mat Branch and Fire Branch, are paired up with their counterparts at the Unified Branch level. In this incident, there was an unauthorized breach of the perimeter by someone who was possibly involved in the planning of the chemical release. He was found to be uncredentialed in the warm zone and was contaminated, along with officers in street uniforms, who went in there to apprehend him. All had to be decontaminated. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

48 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Patient Transport/ Haz-Med Response This scenario was designed to simulate the use of MCI Ambulance, a local strike team of ambulances of MCI level 1-5 which can generate levels of response, with each one containing five ambulances, much like a multiple alarm response. The MCI Ambulance concept allows redeployment of ambulances in quantity at very short notice - all that's needed is a staging location. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

49 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Patient Transport/Haz-Med Response (cont.) Many different agencies provided ambulances, both fire departments, ambulance districts, and private ambulance services that supplement some of the 911 responses in the area. Ambulances were pre-staged and called for as the Medical Branch needed them (the number of victims was unknown to the Medical Branch until reports started coming in). Patients were transported from the cold zone and delivered to a simulated ER physician who took a patient report. The ambulances were then recycled back to the scenario. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

50 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Patient Transport/Haz-Med Response (cont.) The area for growth for haz-med is in WMD preparedness where the chemicals involved will be more open to the environment and impact more people, as opposed to medical response in basic haz-mat responses. The haz-med area needs to become more efficient. In addition, local physicians have given clearance for medicine to be administered in mass quantities by haz-med teams during such events. Specially trained “haz-medics” will be able to go down range and treat people in hot environments, something the basic street paramedic cannot do. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

51 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Patient Transport/Haz-Med Response (cont.) The CBIRF and CST medical component train occasionally with the local departments engaged in this scenario. This brings the latest training concepts and techniques to local haz-med teams. Where possible, all jurisdictions should attempt to arrange joint training such as this. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

52 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Chemical Recognition and Treatment In addition to the results returned from the mobile labs on scene regarding the chemicals or agents that may be involved, feedback from the treating hospitals regarding patient signs, symptoms, blood values, etc. is also very important back at the scenario site. Information on the success of antidotes given at the hospital could be used to provide treatment for responders back on site or a different kind of decontamination. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

53 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Public Notification What does the public need to know regarding the spread of this chemical? Weather conditions, movement and spread of the chemical as determined by plume ray software, for example, will all give indications as to how many civilians may be affected and in what direction. The public will also want to know if they will be decontaminated and/or medicated. A regional perspective will have to be examined to minimize the effects of the chemical. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

54 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Demobilization Demobilization is one of the most overlooked components in large incidents. It should be planned for and addressed early on in the incident with a demobilization unit as it is a large logistical issue. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

55 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Demobilization (cont.) A demobilization plan involves, among other things: demobilizing personnel who have been there the longest; instead of reutilizing them replacing them with fresher personnel going down range making sure participants are rehabbed debriefing them upon release checking to see if they need any prophylactic medication for exposure handling their clothes and supplying them with new ones, if necessary checking to see if there enough room and roads to exit the area, etc. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

56 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Demobilization (cont.) In this incident, participants had to sign out and fill out a comment card, reacting to the drill. Scenario planners learned a lot about the participants' experience relating to communications and the signing-in process which is always an issue at a large scenario or drill. Post-Drill Evaluation The chaos of a drill of this size was expected; how well the teams worked together was not, especially at the Unified level, trying to mesh so many different sets of assets that don't normally train together. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

57 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Post-Drill Evaluation (cont.) Command structure and language used at the Branch level was understood by all. There was some advanced training between the military and civilian teams during the week prior to the drill and that helped a lot. One area for improvement was not all agencies entered through a common entry point; also, perhaps an additional Accountability person would have helped. Sustainability over the course of a scenario is always something to take a look at. There is no question that if this scenario occurred for real in the future, those personnel involved would be much better prepared. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

58 06-11 Training Materials Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1
Hands-On Discussion The commanders involved in this month’s training pose some discussion questions that you can use as discussion-starters in your own department’s training sessions. How will your department handle these scenarios? Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

59 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On Discussion
Training Officer Chuck Marsonette, Exercise St. Louis, Scenario Safety Officer 1. What is the state of your jurisdiction’s readiness for responding to a large-scale WMD or disaster event? Do you train with mutual aid partners for events of this size and scale? If not, you should. 2. When working through a scenario such as this, concentrate on teamwork, communications, and everyone knowing his or her role. 3. Remember that WMD events are just a variation on any large mass-casualty or disaster event that you might have. This training is still beneficial for every department on that basis alone. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

60 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On Discussion
Chief Robin Jobe, Exercise St. Louis, Unified Incident Commander 1. One of the keys to making a scenario run smoothly is the coordination and integration between Unified and Branch Command. From a tactical aspect, Branch Command really runs the incident once the basic response plan is in place. Unified command is there to anticipate and provide the Branch’s logistical needs. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

61 06-11 Training Materials Hands-On Discussion
Chief Robin Jobe, Exercise St. Louis, Unified Incident Commander 2. Work out arrangements with logistical support partners. If you needed a bulldozer, could you get one quickly? Work on this in the area of utilities, heavy construction, sanitation (portable johns) and food preparation. Add to this list as you think the exercise through. 3. Even if your department doesn’t own Level A suits, you can still be protected from most threats wearing Level B. See about acquiring higher-level PPE through a DHS grant as an assist to local funding. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

62 Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Quiz
Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ 1. True or False: One of the first things incoming crews do is set up a hot-warm-cold zone. 2. True or False: There’s no way you can become a casualty if you wear protective PPE. 3. True or False: Second-in crews should rush in, especially if first-in crews are being affected by a chemical agent. 4. True or False: CBIRF is great for Recon and Decon but has no medical capability Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

63 Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Quiz
Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ 5. True or False: CBIRF might have more expertise than CST, but they will take longer to arrive. 6. True or False: CST is helpful but you have to get the governor’s approval to use them. 7. True or False: If Unified Command is the Chief Executive Officer, then Branch Command is the Chief Operating Officer Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

64 Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Quiz
Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ 8. True or False: Duplicate representatives of response agencies are represented at Unified and Branch Command. 9. True or False: The rescue strategy in this scenario of taking samples while also extracting people is a concentration of too many resources in one place. 10. True or False: Once patients are transported to the hospital, their ambulances can still be useful back in the emergency zone. (Answers on Slide 71) Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

65 Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Quiz
Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 1.  There is a backup team for which of the following? a. CBIRF b. CST c. Haz-Mat d. Haz-Med e. All of the above. 2. Which would be most helpful for concurrent team missions? a. Wearing same type of PPE b. Separate radio frequencies c. Using joint command d. Accountability checks e. None of the above. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

66 Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Quiz
Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 3. In this scenario, which is the correct order? a. Enter–Sample/Detect–Monitor b. Rescue–Extract–Monitor–Sample c. Detection–Monitor/Sample–Extract d. Monitor–Detection/Sample–Extract e. All of the above. 4. Which is the best description of the Unified Command–Branch Command Relationship? a. UC gets it; BC uses it b. UC calls; BC answers c. UC commands it; BC obeys d. UC corrects; BC performs e. None of the above. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

67 Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Quiz
Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 5. What is the proper approach in disaster events? a. No presumptions; react to evidence b. Go slow, then ramp up to meet the threat c. Assume the worst, then de-escalate d. Don’t do anything until you know for sure e. All of the above. 6. What is NOT used in extraction? a. Skeds b. Stokes c. Dollies d. Search dogs e. None of the above. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

68 Hands-On: Exercise St. Louis, Pt. 1 Quiz
Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 7. What’s best for long-term working conditions? a. SCBA b. PAPRs c. SABA d. SCUBA e. All of the above. 8. Haz-Mat Suiting Officer does which of the following? a. Explains safety hazards b. Performs accountability c. Alerts Unified Command d. Deals with haz-med e. None of the above. (Answers on Slide 71) Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

69 06-11 Training Materials Evolutions 2000: Continuing Education
If you’re enrolled in the Open Learning Fire Science Program at the University of Cincinnati, complete written responses to the following three essay questions to earn one college credit hour for watching Working Fire Training. Kramer vs. Kramer WMD/Disaster Scenarios 1. What is the major difference in your opinion between a drill involving a “Weapons of Mass Destruction” (WMD) scenario and a more conventional drill. 2. How can fire departments and other emergency response organizations prepare for incidents involving “Weapons of Mass Destruction” when it is possible they will themselves be massively destroyed? 3. Describe a major multi-agency drill conducted in your area (or some other jurisdiction with which you are familiar) and list the key lessons learned. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

70 06-11 Training Materials Evolutions 2000: Continuing Education
Send your responses to: Professor Bill Kramer University of Cincinnati College of Applied Science 2220 Victory Parkway, ML #103 Cincinnati, Ohio ENROLLMENT INFORMATION: For more information on enrolling in the Open Learning program to gain college credit, call Working Fire Training at for a brochure or, to register directly, call the University of Cincinnati at Associates and Bachelors programs are available. Call to have your transcripts evaluated. Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11

71 06-11 Training Materials Thanks so much for viewing Working Fire Training! See you next month – stay safe! TRAINING Answers: Hands-On – St. Louis Exercise, Pt. 1: Quiz on Slides True 2. False 3. False 4. False 5. True 6. False 7. True 8. True 9. False True Hands-On – St. Louis Exercise, Pt. 1: Quiz on Slides e b d a c d b 8 e Emergency Services, LLC/ Copyright 2006 / Volume 06-11


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