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Unit 4 Review 1450 CE—1750 CE. 1. How was the global trade network of the 15th century different from that of previous eras? A.There was no trade between.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Review 1450 CE—1750 CE. 1. How was the global trade network of the 15th century different from that of previous eras? A.There was no trade between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 Review 1450 CE—1750 CE

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3 1. How was the global trade network of the 15th century different from that of previous eras? A.There was no trade between civilizations prior to the 15th century. B.Trade prior to the 15th century was limited to the Western Hemisphere. C.In previous eras, most attention was given to the development of larger regional economies and cultural zones, rather than a truly global network. D.Trade in previous eras was almost entirely in the hands of the West. E.It was controlled by the Chinese due to their naval presence in the Indian Ocean.

4 1. How was the global trade network of the 15th century different from that of previous eras? A.There was no trade between civilizations prior to the 15th century. B.Trade prior to the 15th century was limited to the Western Hemisphere. C.In previous eras, most attention was given to the development of larger regional economies and cultural zones, rather than a truly global network. D.Trade in previous eras was almost entirely in the hands of the West. E.It was controlled by the Chinese due to their naval presence in the Indian Ocean.

5 2. The initiative for Western exploration and conquest came from the kingdom of A.Portugal. B.Spain. C.France. D.Sicily. E.Venice.

6 2. The initiative for Western exploration and conquest came from the kingdom of A.Portugal. B.Spain. C.France. D.Sicily. E.Venice.

7 3. What was the purpose of the early English voyages to North America? A.To establish colonies B.To create a fortified port and trading region C.To discover a northwest passage to India D.To drive the Spanish from the Americas E.To convert natives to Catholicism

8 3. What was the purpose of the early English voyages to North America? A.To establish colonies B.To create a fortified port and trading region C.To discover a northwest passage to India D.To drive the Spanish from the Americas E.To convert natives to Catholicism

9 4. In what way were the early Dutch and British exploration and trade projects different from those of the Iberian nations? A.The expeditions of Spain and Portugal did not enjoy government support. B.Dutch and British exploration owed much to private initiative of merchant groups and the formation of chartered trading companies. C.Dutch and British exploratory expeditions were independent of their respective governments. D.The Dutch and British operated joint explorations in the names of both governments while Portugal and Spain competed in the competition for conquest. E.The Dutch and British projects were financed with banking capital from Italy and the Florentines.

10 4. In what way were the early Dutch and British exploration and trade projects different from those of the Iberian nations? A.The expeditions of Spain and Portugal did not enjoy government support. B.Dutch and British exploration owed much to private initiative of merchant groups and the formation of chartered trading companies. C.Dutch and British exploratory expeditions were independent of their respective governments. D.The Dutch and British operated joint explorations in the names of both governments while Portugal and Spain competed in the competition for conquest. E.The Dutch and British projects were financed with banking capital from Italy and the Florentines.

11 5. As part of the “Colombian Exchange,” which of the following was a European contribution to the Americas? A.Bullion B.Raw materials C.Horses D.Corn E.Potatoes

12 5. As part of the “Colombian Exchange,” which of the following was a European contribution to the Americas? A.Bullion B.Raw materials C.Horses D.Corn E.Potatoes

13 6. Despite Japan’s official policy of isolation, the Dutch were able to gain special access to the port of A.Osaka. B.Kyoto. C.Kure. D.Nagasaki. E.Yokohama.

14 6. Despite Japan’s official policy of isolation, the Dutch were able to gain special access to the port of A.Osaka. B.Kyoto. C.Kure. D.Nagasaki. E.Yokohama.

15 7. Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between Asian civilizations and the world commercial network of the 16th and 17th centuries is NOT accurate? A.Asian civilizations had ample political strength and economic sophistication to avoid dependent status. B.East Asia constituted the civilization that remained most fully and consciously external to the world economy. C.China depended on extensive government regulation to keep European activities in check. D.China was able, thanks to the existence of its coastal navy, to prevent the establishment of European ports. E.Most of the silver mined and exported by the Spanish ended up in China in order for the Spanish to purchase Chinese manufactured goods.

16 7. Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between Asian civilizations and the world commercial network of the 16th and 17th centuries is NOT accurate? A.Asian civilizations had ample political strength and economic sophistication to avoid dependent status. B.East Asia constituted the civilization that remained most fully and consciously external to the world economy. C.China depended on extensive government regulation to keep European activities in check. D.China was able, thanks to the existence of its coastal navy, to prevent the establishment of European ports. E.Most of the silver mined and exported by the Spanish ended up in China in order for the Spanish to purchase Chinese manufactured goods.

17 8. The British East India Company through negotiation with local Mughal princes gained a station at A.Goa. B.Calcutta. C.Bombay. D.Delhi. E.Ceylon.

18 8. The British East India Company through negotiation with local Mughal princes gained a station at A.Goa. B.Calcutta. C.Bombay. D.Delhi. E.Ceylon.

19 9. Why did the southern colonies of the Atlantic seaboard win importance before those farther north? A.Gold was discovered within the southern colonies of the Atlantic seaboard. B.The harsh climate of the northern colonies left those regions virtually unsettled. C.Only the southern colonies were able to eliminate the native Indian population. D.Cultivation of cash crops produced by coercive labor emerged there. E.The need to defend the southern colonies against Spanish settlers.

20 9. Why did the southern colonies of the Atlantic seaboard win importance before those farther north? A.Gold was discovered within the southern colonies of the Atlantic seaboard. B.The harsh climate of the northern colonies left those regions virtually unsettled. C.Only the southern colonies were able to eliminate the native Indian population. D.Cultivation of cash crops produced by coercive labor emerged there. E.The need to defend the southern colonies against Spanish settlers.

21 10. In characterizing the period from 1450 to 1750 in the West, which of the following statements is NOT accurate? A.What was once an agricultural society had become a predominantly manufacturing economy. B.Government powers had expanded as nation-states began to evolve. C.Science came to form the centerpiece of Western intellectual life. D.The popular outlook, including ideas about personality and family as well as concepts of nature, had shifted. E.The idea of Christian unity started to decline which led to religious wars.

22 10. In characterizing the period from 1450 to 1750 in the West, which of the following statements is NOT accurate? A.What was once an agricultural society had become a predominantly manufacturing economy. B.Government powers had expanded as nation-states began to evolve. C.Science came to form the centerpiece of Western intellectual life. D.The popular outlook, including ideas about personality and family as well as concepts of nature, had shifted. E.The idea of Christian unity started to decline which led to religious wars.

23 11. Which of the following sequences lists the major developments of Western civilization in proper sequence? A.Protestant Reformation, Renaissance, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment B.Absolute monarchy, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Protestant Reformation C.Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment D.Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Enlightenment, absolute monarchy E.Absolute monarchy, Enlightenment, Protestant Reformation, Renaissance

24 11. Which of the following sequences lists the major developments of Western civilization in proper sequence? A.Protestant Reformation, Renaissance, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment B.Absolute monarchy, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Protestant Reformation C.Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment D.Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Enlightenment, absolute monarchy E.Absolute monarchy, Enlightenment, Protestant Reformation, Renaissance

25 12. Which of the following was NOT a religious proposition advanced by Martin Luther? A.Sale of indulgence, or grants of salvation, for money was wrong. B.Only faith could gain salvation. C.Monasticism was wrong. D.Priests should practice celibacy. E.People should read the Bible in their own language.

26 12. Which of the following was NOT a religious proposition advanced by Martin Luther? A.Sale of indulgence, or grants of salvation, for money was wrong. B.Only faith could gain salvation. C.Monasticism was wrong. D.Priests should practice celibacy. E.People should read the Bible in their own language.

27 13. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the reason why Luther picked up widespread support among the German elite? A.Luther proposed moving the papacy from Rome to Germany. B.Luther’s support for a more centralized German government under the control of the Holy Roman emperor struck a responsive chord in German nationalism. C.German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories. D.Luther proposed that indulgences should be collected by the Holy Roman emperor instead of the pope. E.Luther was seen as anti-Muslim and many German princes saw a way to expand their power into eastern Europe.

28 13. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the reason why Luther picked up widespread support among the German elite? A.Luther proposed moving the papacy from Rome to Germany. B.Luther’s support for a more centralized German government under the control of the Holy Roman emperor struck a responsive chord in German nationalism. C.German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories. D.Luther proposed that indulgences should be collected by the Holy Roman emperor instead of the pope. E.Luther was seen as anti-Muslim and many German princes saw a way to expand their power into eastern Europe.

29 14. What new religious order was associated with the Catholic Reformation? A.Benedictines B.Jesuits C.Calvinists D.Dominicans E.Franciscans

30 14. What new religious order was associated with the Catholic Reformation? A.Benedictines B.Jesuits C.Calvinists D.Dominicans E.Franciscans

31 15. Who used astronomical observation and mathematical calculation to disprove the Hellenistic belief that the Earth was the center of the universe? A.Galileo B.Copernicus C.Ptolemy D.Francis Bacon E.Isaac Newton

32 15. Who used astronomical observation and mathematical calculation to disprove the Hellenistic belief that the Earth was the center of the universe? A.Galileo B.Copernicus C.Ptolemy D.Francis Bacon E.Isaac Newton

33 16. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the view of Deists? A.While there may be a divinity, its role is only to set natural laws in motion. B.God can be found in all elements of creation, whether plant, animal, or mineral. C.The authority of the church is paramount, and all political power is derived from divine sanction. D.The institutional church has failed Western society, and it is necessary for the reestablishment of the church through new institutions founded by the state. E.God establishes governments on Earth, and kings are his instruments.

34 16. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the view of Deists? A.While there may be a divinity, its role is only to set natural laws in motion. B.God can be found in all elements of creation, whether plant, animal, or mineral. C.The authority of the church is paramount, and all political power is derived from divine sanction. D.The institutional church has failed Western society, and it is necessary for the reestablishment of the church through new institutions founded by the state. E.God establishes governments on Earth, and kings are his instruments.

35 17. Which of the following descriptions most accurately defines mercantilism? A.Mercantilism was a scientific theory that attempted to limit the growing dominance of merchants within society. B.Mercantilism held that government should promote the internal economy in order to improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations. C.Mercantilism was an economic philosophy that argued that natural laws would determine the flow of goods according to supply and demand. D.Mercantilism argued that the money supply should be freed from the supply of bullion and based instead on the flow of goods within regional markets. E.Mercantilism is the idea that all trade should be international and free of any restraints.

36 17. Which of the following descriptions most accurately defines mercantilism? A.Mercantilism was a scientific theory that attempted to limit the growing dominance of merchants within society. B.Mercantilism held that government should promote the internal economy in order to improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations. C.Mercantilism was an economic philosophy that argued that natural laws would determine the flow of goods according to supply and demand. D.Mercantilism argued that the money supply should be freed from the supply of bullion and based instead on the flow of goods within regional markets. E.Mercantilism is the idea that all trade should be international and free of any restraints.

37 18. Which of the following states stood apart from the trend toward absolute monarchy in the 17 th century and retained a parliamentary regime? A.France B.Prussia C.Spain D.Austria-Hungary E.Britain

38 18. Which of the following states stood apart from the trend toward absolute monarchy in the 17 th century and retained a parliamentary regime? A.France B.Prussia C.Spain D.Austria-Hungary E.Britain

39 19. What political center served as the focal point for the Russian liberation from the Mongols? A.Kiev B.Duchy of Moscow C.St. Petersburg D.Principate of Novgorod E.Crimean peninsula

40 19. What political center served as the focal point for the Russian liberation from the Mongols? A.Kiev B.Duchy of Moscow C.St. Petersburg D.Principate of Novgorod E.Crimean peninsula

41 20. What government did Ivan the Great claim to have succeeded as the “third Rome”? A.The Byzantine Empire B.The Abbasid Empire C.The Ottoman Empire D.The Umayyad Empire E.Holy Roman Empire

42 20. What government did Ivan the Great claim to have succeeded as the “third Rome”? A.The Byzantine Empire B.The Abbasid Empire C.The Ottoman Empire D.The Umayyad Empire E.Holy Roman Empire

43 21. Politically, what aspects of Western culture did Peter the Great emulate in Russia? A.Parliamentary government B.Aristocratic control of the bureaucracy C.Royal control over the bureaucracy and reorganized military D.Republicanism E.Separation of church and state

44 21. Politically, what aspects of Western culture did Peter the Great emulate in Russia? A.Parliamentary government B.Aristocratic control of the bureaucracy C.Royal control over the bureaucracy and reorganized military D.Republicanism E.Separation of church and state

45 22. In what way did Peter the Great shift the foreign policy interests of Russia? A.Peter the Great initiated the Russian invasion of China. B.Peter abandoned the Russian policies of expansion in favor of consolidation at the center. C.Peter allied himself with the traditional Russian enemy, the Ottoman Empire. D.Peter’s wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden indicated a westward shift in Russian expansion. E.Peter began Russian expansion into North America and Japan.

46 22. In what way did Peter the Great shift the foreign policy interests of Russia? A.Peter the Great initiated the Russian invasion of China. B.Peter abandoned the Russian policies of expansion in favor of consolidation at the center. C.Peter allied himself with the traditional Russian enemy, the Ottoman Empire. D.Peter’s wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden indicated a westward shift in Russian expansion. E.Peter began Russian expansion into North America and Japan.

47 23. Peter the Great established a new capital for Russia at A.Kiev. B.Moscow. C.Novgorod. D.St. Petersburg. E.Ekaterinburg.

48 23. Peter the Great established a new capital for Russia at A.Kiev. B.Moscow. C.Novgorod. D.St. Petersburg. E.Ekaterinburg.

49 24. What was Catherine the Great’s attitude toward the program of Westernization? A.Catherine flirted vigorously with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, but failed to take steps to abolish serfdom. B.Catherine rejected the concepts of Westernization in favor of a distinctive Russian culture. C.Catherine earned the title of Enlightened monarch by fully embracing the ideas of the French Enlightenment, including the abolition of the serfs. D.Catherine was eager to continue the policy of Westernization, but was unable to attract Western philosophers to backward Russia. E.She was more interested in the process of Asianization and reforming the aristocracy.

50 24. What was Catherine the Great’s attitude toward the program of Westernization? A.Catherine flirted vigorously with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, but failed to take steps to abolish serfdom. B.Catherine rejected the concepts of Westernization in favor of a distinctive Russian culture. C.Catherine earned the title of Enlightened monarch by fully embracing the ideas of the French Enlightenment, including the abolition of the serfs. D.Catherine was eager to continue the policy of Westernization, but was unable to attract Western philosophers to backward Russia. E.She was more interested in the process of Asianization and reforming the aristocracy.

51 25. What was one of the primary limitations on the expansion of the agricultural economy? A.The lack of cheap labor B.The lack of markets for Russian surpluses C.Lack of technological improvement D.The lack of estate agricultural systems in Russia E.The lack of available and arable land

52 25. What was one of the primary limitations on the expansion of the agricultural economy? A.The lack of cheap labor B.The lack of markets for Russian surpluses C.Lack of technological improvement D.The lack of estate agricultural systems in Russia E.The lack of available and arable land

53 26. How was the commercial experience of the Portuguese extended to the Americas? A.The Portuguese were familiar with the routes to the Far East that resulted in the circumnavigation of the globe. B.The Portuguese were responsible for the use of galleys in the Atlantic passage. C.The Portuguese experience in Africa and their involvement in slave trading was extended to the Americas. D.The Portuguese introduction of tobacco estate agriculture into the Caribbean was a significant factor in American colonization. E.The Portuguese began commercial trade after the Spanish discovered gold in the Americas.

54 26. How was the commercial experience of the Portuguese extended to the Americas? A.The Portuguese were familiar with the routes to the Far East that resulted in the circumnavigation of the globe. B.The Portuguese were responsible for the use of galleys in the Atlantic passage. C.The Portuguese experience in Africa and their involvement in slave trading was extended to the Americas. D.The Portuguese introduction of tobacco estate agriculture into the Caribbean was a significant factor in American colonization. E.The Portuguese began commercial trade after the Spanish discovered gold in the Americas.

55 27. What group of Indians supplied agricultural labor for the Spaniards in the Caribbean? A.Aztec B.Lakota C.Maya D.Inca E.Taino

56 27. What group of Indians supplied agricultural labor for the Spaniards in the Caribbean? A.Aztec B.Lakota C.Maya D.Inca E.Taino

57 28. What accounted for the majority of the population loss suffered by Native Americans after the European arrival? A.Losses in warfare B.Enslavement C.Epidemic diseases D.Failure of marriage patterns among the Indians E.Internal civil conflicts

58 28. What accounted for the majority of the population loss suffered by Native Americans after the European arrival? A.Losses in warfare B.Enslavement C.Epidemic diseases D.Failure of marriage patterns among the Indians E.Internal civil conflicts

59 29. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the nature of the economy in Spanish America? A.The majority of people in Latin America were rapidly organized into a light industrial economy intended to produce goods for American society. B.Although the majority of people were engaged in agriculture, the whole Spanish commercial system was organized around the mining economy. C.Latin America received almost its entire food supply from Europe, because the Spanish colonies were entirely geared to the production of sugar on estate agricultural systems. D.The agricultural economy of Latin America absorbed virtually its entire population because of the absence of large domesticated animals prior to 1800. E.Most people made their living in manufacturing, with a small segment working in the agricultural sector.

60 29. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the nature of the economy in Spanish America? A.The majority of people in Latin America were rapidly organized into a light industrial economy intended to produce goods for American society. B.Although the majority of people were engaged in agriculture, the whole Spanish commercial system was organized around the mining economy. C.Latin America received almost its entire food supply from Europe, because the Spanish colonies were entirely geared to the production of sugar on estate agricultural systems. D.The agricultural economy of Latin America absorbed virtually its entire population because of the absence of large domesticated animals prior to 1800. E.Most people made their living in manufacturing, with a small segment working in the agricultural sector.

61 30. The Spanish convoy system that controlled trade with the Americas was made possible by the development of A.the astrolabe. B.galleons. C.oared galleys. D.gunpowder. E.lateen sail.

62 30. The Spanish convoy system that controlled trade with the Americas was made possible by the development of A.the astrolabe. B.galleons. C.oared galleys. D.gunpowder. E.lateen sail.

63 31. The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 divided the world into spheres of influence belonging to A.Portugal and Castile. B.Spain and France. C.Portugal and Spain. D.Spain and England. E.Mexico and Peru.

64 31. The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 divided the world into spheres of influence belonging to A.Portugal and Castile. B.Spain and France. C.Portugal and Spain. D.Spain and England. E.Mexico and Peru.

65 32. The vice royalties of New Spain and Peru were divided into 10 judicial divisions controlled by superior courts, or A.consulados. B.audiencias. C.obrajes. D.encomiendas. E.cortes.

66 32. The vice royalties of New Spain and Peru were divided into 10 judicial divisions controlled by superior courts, or A.consulados. B.audiencias. C.obrajes. D.encomiendas. E.cortes.

67 33. What was the primary difference between the Spanish and Portuguese empires? A.Portuguese colonies did not have the heavy influence of the Catholic church found in Spanish colonies. B.Portuguese colonies lacked the bureaucratic structure that characterized the Spanish colonies after the middle of the 16th century. C.Unlike the Spanish empire that was almost exclusively American, the Portuguese empire included colonies and outposts in Asia and Africa as well as Brazil. D.The Portuguese colony of Brazil was more intellectually independent of the mother country than were the Spanish colonies in Latin America. E.The Portuguese treated their slaves better than did the Spanish due to the influence of the Catholic church.

68 33. What was the primary difference between the Spanish and Portuguese empires? A.Portuguese colonies did not have the heavy influence of the Catholic church found in Spanish colonies. B.Portuguese colonies lacked the bureaucratic structure that characterized the Spanish colonies after the middle of the 16th century. C.Unlike the Spanish empire that was almost exclusively American, the Portuguese empire included colonies and outposts in Asia and Africa as well as Brazil. D.The Portuguese colony of Brazil was more intellectually independent of the mother country than were the Spanish colonies in Latin America. E.The Portuguese treated their slaves better than did the Spanish due to the influence of the Catholic church.

69 34. What was the basis for the social hierarchy that developed in the Americas? A.Wealth B.The prestige associated with one’s occupation C.Racial origins D.The Spanish cultural hierarchy E.Education

70 34. What was the basis for the social hierarchy that developed in the Americas? A.Wealth B.The prestige associated with one’s occupation C.Racial origins D.The Spanish cultural hierarchy E.Education

71 35. What European nation first established direct contact with black Africa? A.Spain B.England C.Italy D.Portugal E.France

72 35. What European nation first established direct contact with black Africa? A.Spain B.England C.Italy D.Portugal E.France

73 36. What was the African contribution to the “Colombian Exchange”? A.Large mammals B.Tapioca C.Slaves D.Manioc E.Potatoes

74 36. What was the African contribution to the “Colombian Exchange”? A.Large mammals B.Tapioca C.Slaves D.Manioc E.Potatoes

75 37. In what manner did the Portuguese seize most of the slaves that were transported from Africa? A.They captured them in raids into the African interior. B.They traded for them with African rulers. C.As a result of the defeat of most of the African kingdoms, the Portuguese obtained a ready supply of slaves. D.They purchased them from the Muslim slave traders of the east African trading cities. E.They traded for slaves from other European powers such as France and England.

76 37. In what manner did the Portuguese seize most of the slaves that were transported from Africa? A.They captured them in raids into the African interior. B.They traded for them with African rulers. C.As a result of the defeat of most of the African kingdoms, the Portuguese obtained a ready supply of slaves. D.They purchased them from the Muslim slave traders of the east African trading cities. E.They traded for slaves from other European powers such as France and England.

77 38. What development led to an intensification of the Portuguese involvement in the African slave trade? A.The extension of the agricultural system in Europe B.The Black Death, which decreased the available supply of labor in Europe C.The development of sugar plantations on the Atlantic island of Madeira D.The growth of the Ottoman Empire E.Spanish reconquista and the establishment of New Granada

78 38. What development led to an intensification of the Portuguese involvement in the African slave trade? A.The extension of the agricultural system in Europe B.The Black Death, which decreased the available supply of labor in Europe C.The development of sugar plantations on the Atlantic island of Madeira D.The growth of the Ottoman Empire E.Spanish reconquista and the establishment of New Granada

79 39. What was the term utilized for the commercial arrangement by which African slaves were shipped to the Americas, sugar and tobacco were carried to Europe, and European manufactured goods were transported to Africa? A.The “Colombian Exchange” B.Mercantilism C.Triangular trade D.The “Atlantic Express” E.The “Four Corners”

80 39. What was the term utilized for the commercial arrangement by which African slaves were shipped to the Americas, sugar and tobacco were carried to Europe, and European manufactured goods were transported to Africa? A.The “Colombian Exchange” B.Mercantilism C.Triangular trade D.The “Atlantic Express” E.The “Four Corners”

81 40. In what way did the European slave trade enable centralizing states to expand more rapidly? A.Slaves were traded for firearms that allowed expanding states to overpower their neighbors, resulting in more slaves. B.The Europeans rapidly created military alliances and added their armies to those of their slave-trading allies. C.The European slave trade weakened the states of central and western Africa, allowing the centralizing states of eastern Africa to expand without competition. D.The slave trade was restricted to the coasts, leaving the political units of interior Africa free of European interference. E.The slave trade declined in the cross-Sahara trade routes leading to the introduction of stronger Muslim kingdoms.

82 40. In what way did the European slave trade enable centralizing states to expand more rapidly? A.Slaves were traded for firearms that allowed expanding states to overpower their neighbors, resulting in more slaves. B.The Europeans rapidly created military alliances and added their armies to those of their slave-trading allies. C.The European slave trade weakened the states of central and western Africa, allowing the centralizing states of eastern Africa to expand without competition. D.The slave trade was restricted to the coasts, leaving the political units of interior Africa free of European interference. E.The slave trade declined in the cross-Sahara trade routes leading to the introduction of stronger Muslim kingdoms.

83 41. On the east coast of Africa, the Swahili trading cities A.were decimated following European naval attacks. B.fell entirely within the orbit of the Portuguese global trade network. C.continued their commerce in the Indian Ocean with both the Portuguese and the Ottoman Turks. D.were unique in Africa because of their refusal to participate in the slave trade. E.abandoned trade with Islam in favor of trade with the Europeans.

84 41. On the east coast of Africa, the Swahili trading cities A.were decimated following European naval attacks. B.fell entirely within the orbit of the Portuguese global trade network. C.continued their commerce in the Indian Ocean with both the Portuguese and the Ottoman Turks. D.were unique in Africa because of their refusal to participate in the slave trade. E.abandoned trade with Islam in favor of trade with the Europeans.

85 42. What area of Africa was least affected by the slave trade? A.The savanna and the Sudan B.Southern Africa C.Central and west Africa D.East Africa E.West Africa

86 42. What area of Africa was least affected by the slave trade? A.The savanna and the Sudan B.Southern Africa C.Central and west Africa D.East Africa E.West Africa

87 43. How were the British colonies of the southern Atlantic coast of North America different from the Latin American colonies? A.There was no slavery there. B.Although urban slavery was common, there was no plantation agricultural system on the North American mainland. C.Manumission of slaves tended to be more common in the British colonies. D.The British colonies depended less on imported Africans because of the positive rate of growth among the slaves. E.The British colonies were primarily industrial.

88 43. How were the British colonies of the southern Atlantic coast of North America different from the Latin American colonies? A.There was no slavery there. B.Although urban slavery was common, there was no plantation agricultural system on the North American mainland. C.Manumission of slaves tended to be more common in the British colonies. D.The British colonies depended less on imported Africans because of the positive rate of growth among the slaves. E.The British colonies were primarily industrial.

89 44. The original base of the Ottoman Turks was A.Mesopotamia. B.Syria. C.the Balkans. D.Anatolia. E.Persia.

90 44. The original base of the Ottoman Turks was A.Mesopotamia. B.Syria. C.the Balkans. D.Anatolia. E.Persia.

91 45. The Janissaries were A.religious leaders under the control of the Ottoman state. B.powerful members of the scholar-gentry aristocracy within the Ottoman Empire who dominated regional administration. C.slave troops of the Ottomans forcibly conscripted as adolescents from conquered territories. D.eunuchs from the royal family charged with care of the imperial harem. E.Islamic judges not subject to state authority but only answered to the caliphs in Bagdad.

92 45. The Janissaries were A.religious leaders under the control of the Ottoman state. B.powerful members of the scholar-gentry aristocracy within the Ottoman Empire who dominated regional administration. C.slave troops of the Ottomans forcibly conscripted as adolescents from conquered territories. D.eunuchs from the royal family charged with care of the imperial harem. E.Islamic judges not subject to state authority but only answered to the caliphs in Bagdad.

93 46. Which of the following was NOT a cause for the decline of the Ottoman Empire? A.Local officials began to retain increasing amounts of revenue for their own purposes. B.Oppressive demands of local officials caused the peasantry to abandon their holdings and flee. C.The ability of individual sultans to rule declined. D.The addition of European military technology such as light artillery made the Janissaries so powerful that they could challenge the authority of the sultan. E.Western Europe grew more powerful and challenged their existence.

94 46. Which of the following was NOT a cause for the decline of the Ottoman Empire? A.Local officials began to retain increasing amounts of revenue for their own purposes. B.Oppressive demands of local officials caused the peasantry to abandon their holdings and flee. C.The ability of individual sultans to rule declined. D.The addition of European military technology such as light artillery made the Janissaries so powerful that they could challenge the authority of the sultan. E.Western Europe grew more powerful and challenged their existence.

95 47. Which of the following represents a difference between the declines of the Abbasids and the Ottomans? A.Only the Ottoman Empire suffered from the intervention of mercenary soldiers in politics. B.Only the Abbasids declined as a result of revolts by peasants and townsmen oppressed by the landed classes. C.Only the Ottomans failed to develop a principle of succession leading to civil strife. D.The Ottomans were at a much greater disadvantage as a result of the more potent threat from the West. E.The Abbasid decline was much more gradual than that of the Ottoman Empire.

96 47. Which of the following represents a difference between the declines of the Abbasids and the Ottomans? A.Only the Ottoman Empire suffered from the intervention of mercenary soldiers in politics. B.Only the Abbasids declined as a result of revolts by peasants and townsmen oppressed by the landed classes. C.Only the Ottomans failed to develop a principle of succession leading to civil strife. D.The Ottomans were at a much greater disadvantage as a result of the more potent threat from the West. E.The Abbasid decline was much more gradual than that of the Ottoman Empire.

97 48. Which of the following represents a difference between the origins of the Ottomans and the Safavids? A.The Safavids originated from a Turkish nomadic group. B.The Safavids represented a highly militant strain of Islam. C.The Safavids were originally frontier warriors. D.The Safavids represented the Shi’a strain of Islam. E.The Safavids were of Chinese origin.

98 48. Which of the following represents a difference between the origins of the Ottomans and the Safavids? A.The Safavids originated from a Turkish nomadic group. B.The Safavids represented a highly militant strain of Islam. C.The Safavids were originally frontier warriors. D.The Safavids represented the Shi’a strain of Islam. E.The Safavids were of Chinese origin.

99 49. Why was the battle of Chaldiran in 1514 so important? A.The battle established the military supremacy of the Safavids over the Ottomans and marked the end to eastern expansion of the Ottoman Empire. B.The Safavids were dealt a devastating defeat that checked the westward advance of Shi’ism and decimated the ranks of the Turkic warriors who had built the Safavid empire. C.The combined armies of the Safavids and Ottomans defeated the Mughal armies and ended the policy of expansion undertaken by the Mughal emperors of India. D.The defeat of the Safavids by a Western army reduced the Islamic empire to economic dependency on the West and military inferiority to the other Muslim empires. E.It signaled the beginning of Islamic regional dominance which would lead to the beginning of secular type governments in the Middle East.

100 49. Why was the battle of Chaldiran in 1514 so important? A.The battle established the military supremacy of the Safavids over the Ottomans and marked the end to eastern expansion of the Ottoman Empire. B.The Safavids were dealt a devastating defeat that checked the westward advance of Shi’ism and decimated the ranks of the Turkic warriors who had built the Safavid empire. C.The combined armies of the Safavids and Ottomans defeated the Mughal armies and ended the policy of expansion undertaken by the Mughal emperors of India. D.The defeat of the Safavids by a Western army reduced the Islamic empire to economic dependency on the West and military inferiority to the other Muslim empires. E.It signaled the beginning of Islamic regional dominance which would lead to the beginning of secular type governments in the Middle East.

101 50. The founder of the Mughal dynasty was A.Timur. B.Akbar. C.Mehmet II. D.Abbas. E.Babur.

102 50. The founder of the Mughal dynasty was A.Timur. B.Akbar. C.Mehmet II. D.Abbas. E.Babur.

103 51. What was the critical feature of Akbar’s new religion, the Din-i-Ilahi? A.It attempted to blend elements of the many faiths with which he was familiar as a means of reconciling Hindus and Muslims. B.It sought to purify the Islamic faith and remove Hindu influences by adopting many of the Sufi teachings already extant in India. C.Like the Safavids to whom early members of the Mughal dynasty fled in exile, Akbar adopted militant Shi’ism. D.Although it retained the formal appearance of Islam, the popular aspects of the new religion were almost entirely Buddhist. E.It was very similar to Zoroastrianism but included elements of Christianity and Judaism.

104 51. What was the critical feature of Akbar’s new religion, the Din-i-Ilahi? A.It attempted to blend elements of the many faiths with which he was familiar as a means of reconciling Hindus and Muslims. B.It sought to purify the Islamic faith and remove Hindu influences by adopting many of the Sufi teachings already extant in India. C.Like the Safavids to whom early members of the Mughal dynasty fled in exile, Akbar adopted militant Shi’ism. D.Although it retained the formal appearance of Islam, the popular aspects of the new religion were almost entirely Buddhist. E.It was very similar to Zoroastrianism but included elements of Christianity and Judaism.

105 52. What was the impact of Aurangzeb’s religious policies? A.Aurangzeb’s religious policies gravely weakened the internal alliances between Hindus and Muslims and disrupted the social peace that Akbar had established. B.Aurangzeb’s religious policies succeeded in removing Buddhism from India. C.The emperor succeeded in reestablishing the political and social dominance of the Hindu majority in India. D.Aurangzeb’s introduction of Christianity to India began the process by which millions of Indians were converted to the new religion. E.More freedom for all religious groups with the exception of Christians

106 52. What was the impact of Aurangzeb’s religious policies? A.Aurangzeb’s religious policies gravely weakened the internal alliances between Hindus and Muslims and disrupted the social peace that Akbar had established. B.Aurangzeb’s religious policies succeeded in removing Buddhism from India. C.The emperor succeeded in reestablishing the political and social dominance of the Hindu majority in India. D.Aurangzeb’s introduction of Christianity to India began the process by which millions of Indians were converted to the new religion. E.More freedom for all religious groups with the exception of Christians

107 53. The ultimate task of all the explorations launched by the Europeans from the 14th century onward was A.finding a sea link between Europe and the wealthy civilizations of Asia. B.establishing European political dominion over all of Asia. C.perfecting European knowledge of navigation and astronomy. D.spreading knowledge of European civilization to Asia. E.winning their long-standing competition with Islam.

108 53. The ultimate task of all the explorations launched by the Europeans from the 14th century onward was A.finding a sea link between Europe and the wealthy civilizations of Asia. B.establishing European political dominion over all of Asia. C.perfecting European knowledge of navigation and astronomy. D.spreading knowledge of European civilization to Asia. E.winning their long-standing competition with Islam.

109 54. Which of the following products was associated with the Indian zone of the Asian sea trading network? A.Tapestry B.Cotton textiles C.Carpets D.Paper E.Spices

110 54. Which of the following products was associated with the Indian zone of the Asian sea trading network? A.Tapestry B.Cotton textiles C.Carpets D.Paper E.Spices

111 55. What was the nature of the sea routes in the Asian trading network? A.Well-established routes directly crossing the major oceans were maintained from ancient times. B.Most of the navigation consisted of sailing along the coastlines and avoiding open seas. C.Only the Chinese and Arabs practiced navigation in the Asian trading network. D.The only sea-going routes crossed the Indian Ocean from the Swahili ports of east Africa to India. E.They were restricted to the South China Sea and the Sea of Japan.

112 55. What was the nature of the sea routes in the Asian trading network? A.Well-established routes directly crossing the major oceans were maintained from ancient times. B.Most of the navigation consisted of sailing along the coastlines and avoiding open seas. C.Only the Chinese and Arabs practiced navigation in the Asian trading network. D.The only sea-going routes crossed the Indian Ocean from the Swahili ports of east Africa to India. E.They were restricted to the South China Sea and the Sea of Japan.

113 56. What trade did the Portuguese intend to monopolize within the Asian trading network? A.Slaves B.Ivory C.Spices D.Cotton textiles E.Lumber

114 56. What trade did the Portuguese intend to monopolize within the Asian trading network? A.Slaves B.Ivory C.Spices D.Cotton textiles E.Lumber

115 57. In what sense was the Spanish conversion of the Filipinos similar to their experience in the Americas? A.All Christian tenets were taught in the language of the indigenous peoples. B.Filipino conversion to Christianity was predicated on political equality with the Spanish conquerors. C.Like the Amerindians, the Filipinos’ brand of Christianity represented a creative blend of earlier beliefs and practices with Christianity. D.Few Filipinos were converted to Christianity. E.Filipinos were easily converted to Protestant faiths.

116 57. In what sense was the Spanish conversion of the Filipinos similar to their experience in the Americas? A.All Christian tenets were taught in the language of the indigenous peoples. B.Filipino conversion to Christianity was predicated on political equality with the Spanish conquerors. C.Like the Amerindians, the Filipinos’ brand of Christianity represented a creative blend of earlier beliefs and practices with Christianity. D.Few Filipinos were converted to Christianity. E.Filipinos were easily converted to Protestant faiths.

117 58. Where were foreigners permitted to do business in China during the Ming era? A.At any port B.Only at the Ming capital at Beijing C.At Macao and Canton D.Nowhere E.At Hong Kong

118 58. Where were foreigners permitted to do business in China during the Ming era? A.At any port B.Only at the Ming capital at Beijing C.At Macao and Canton D.Nowhere E.At Hong Kong

119 59. What group successfully asserted its control over China following the collapse of the Ming dynasty? A.The Mongols B.The Hsiung-nu C.The Uighurs D.The Portuguese E.The Jurchens or Manchus

120 59. What group successfully asserted its control over China following the collapse of the Ming dynasty? A.The Mongols B.The Hsiung-nu C.The Uighurs D.The Portuguese E.The Jurchens or Manchus

121 60. Which of the following was NOT a policy imposed as a result of Japanese isolation in the 17 th century? A.Christianity was banned and Christians were persecuted. B.Foreign traders were confined to the island of Deshima in Nagasaki Bay. C.Neo-Confucian philosophy gave way to the influence of thinkers who championed the school of “National Learning.” D.The Japanese elite abandoned all contact with Western learning and technological advance. E.Western books were banned.

122 60. Which of the following was NOT a policy imposed as a result of Japanese isolation in the 17 th century? A.Christianity was banned and Christians were persecuted. B.Foreign traders were confined to the island of Deshima in Nagasaki Bay. C.Neo-Confucian philosophy gave way to the influence of thinkers who championed the school of “National Learning.” D.The Japanese elite abandoned all contact with Western learning and technological advance. E.Western books were banned.


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