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IE496 Industrial Engineering Internship Dr. Barnes March 3, 2008 Lecture #7.

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Presentation on theme: "IE496 Industrial Engineering Internship Dr. Barnes March 3, 2008 Lecture #7."— Presentation transcript:

1 IE496 Industrial Engineering Internship Dr. Barnes March 3, 2008 Lecture #7

2 Ethics – Part 1 The study of the characteristics of morals. The study of the characteristics of morals. Engineering Ethics – Engineering Ethics – Rules and standards governing conduct of engineers.Rules and standards governing conduct of engineers. A body of philosophy indicating ways that engineers should conduct themselves in their professional capacity.A body of philosophy indicating ways that engineers should conduct themselves in their professional capacity.

3 Why study? Several notorious cases – Achieved great attention and led engineers to gain an increased sense of professional responsibilities. Achieved great attention and led engineers to gain an increased sense of professional responsibilities. Led to an awareness of the importance of ethics, how engineers have far reaching impact on society. Led to an awareness of the importance of ethics, how engineers have far reaching impact on society.

4 Goal Sensitize you to the important ethical issues before you have to confront them. Sensitize you to the important ethical issues before you have to confront them. Moral autonomy – Moral autonomy – To think critically and independently about moral issues.To think critically and independently about moral issues. To apply this moral thinking to situations that arise in professional engineering practice.To apply this moral thinking to situations that arise in professional engineering practice.

5 Where is line drawn between ethical – unethical decision? Where does an engineering team strike the balance between safety and affordability and, simultaneously, the ability of the company to sell a product and make a profit? Where does an engineering team strike the balance between safety and affordability and, simultaneously, the ability of the company to sell a product and make a profit? Example – Ford Pinto 1978 Example – Ford Pinto 1978 Car designed with a rear gas tank that frequently exploded on contact.Car designed with a rear gas tank that frequently exploded on contact. Design was cost-effective and allowed car to be sold at a competitive price.Design was cost-effective and allowed car to be sold at a competitive price.

6 Origins of today’s ethics Ancient Greeks - especially Socrates, Aristotle Ancient Greeks - especially Socrates, Aristotle Judeo – Christian tradition Judeo – Christian tradition Islam Islam Buddhists Buddhists Hindus Hindus The Western ethics of today have principally evolved from first two.

7 Origins - continued LawPhilosophyReligion Ethical Behavior – grounded in concern for others

8 Ethics and religion Some people’s ethics are based in religion (however, nominally religious people may not be ethical). Some people’s ethics are based in religion (however, nominally religious people may not be ethical). Persons who are ethical don’t have to be religious. Persons who are ethical don’t have to be religious.

9 Ethics and law Engineering and business are governed by laws at the international, federal, state and local levels.

10 Ethics and law - continued Things that are legal might be considered unethical – e.g., releasing a known toxic material that is unregulated into the air. Things that are legal might be considered unethical – e.g., releasing a known toxic material that is unregulated into the air. As an engineer, you are minimally safe if you follow the law. As an engineer, you are minimally safe if you follow the law.

11 Personal vs. Business Ethics Personal ethics deal with how we treat others in our day-to-day lives. Personal ethics deal with how we treat others in our day-to-day lives. Professional (business) ethics often involves choices on an organizational level rather than a personal level. Professional (business) ethics often involves choices on an organizational level rather than a personal level.

12 Ethics problems Rarely have a correct answer that everyone will come up with. Rarely have a correct answer that everyone will come up with. There will be a range of solutions that are clearly right, some of which will be better than others. There will be a range of solutions that are clearly right, some of which will be better than others. There will be a range of solutions that are clearly wrong. There will be a range of solutions that are clearly wrong.

13 4 Ethical Theories Utilitarianism Utilitarianism Duty Ethics Duty Ethics Rights Ethics Rights Ethics Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics

14 Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873) John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873) Individual actions should be judged on whether the most good was produced in a given situation. Individual actions should be judged on whether the most good was produced in a given situation. Rules should be broken if doing so will lead to the most good. Rules should be broken if doing so will lead to the most good.

15 Utilitarianism has given us – Techniques familiar to engineers – Risk – benefit analysis Risk – benefit analysis Cost – benefit analysis Cost – benefit analysis

16 Duty ethics Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) Duty ethics – ethical acts are the result of proper performance of one’s duties. Duty ethics – ethical acts are the result of proper performance of one’s duties. Be honest, be fair, don’t cause suffering. Be honest, be fair, don’t cause suffering.

17 Rights ethics John Locke (1632 – 1704) John Locke (1632 – 1704) People have fundamental rights that other people have a duty to respect. People have fundamental rights that other people have a duty to respect. Humans have a right to – Humans have a right to – Life Liberty Property

18 Virtue ethics What kind of people should we be? What kind of people should we be? Actions are right if they support good character qualities – virtues: responsibility, honesty, competence, loyalty. Actions are right if they support good character qualities – virtues: responsibility, honesty, competence, loyalty. Actions are wrong if they support bad character qualities – vices: dishonesty, disloyalty, irresponsibility. Actions are wrong if they support bad character qualities – vices: dishonesty, disloyalty, irresponsibility.

19 Engineering is a profession Work that requires sophisticated skills, the use of judgment, and the exercise of discretion. Work that requires sophisticated skills, the use of judgment, and the exercise of discretion. Membership requires extensive formal education. Membership requires extensive formal education. Special societies or organizations Special societies or organizations Set standards for admissions to the profession.Set standards for admissions to the profession. Set standards of conduct for its members.Set standards of conduct for its members. Enforces the standards.Enforces the standards. The practice results in significant public good. The practice results in significant public good.

20 Code of Ethics Provides a framework for ethical judgment. Provides a framework for ethical judgment. Expresses commitment to ethical conduct. Expresses commitment to ethical conduct. Defines the roles and responsibilities of professionals. Defines the roles and responsibilities of professionals.

21 Order of an Engineer I am an Engineer, in my profession I take deep pride. To it I owe solemn obligations. Since the Stone Age, human progress has been spurred by the engineering genius. Engineers have made usable Nature’s vast resources of material and energy for Humanity's [Mankind’s] benefit. Engineers have vitalized and turned to practical use the principles of science and the means of technology. Were it not for this heritage of accumulated experience, my efforts would be feeble.

22 Order of an Engineer – continued As an Engineer, I pledge to practice integrity and fair dealing, tolerance and respect, and to uphold devotion to the standards and the dignity of my profession, conscious always that my skill carries with it the obligation to serve humanity by making the best use of Earth’s precious wealth. As an Engineer, I shall participate in none but honest enterprises. When needed, my skill and knowledge shall be given without reservation for the public good. In the performance of duty and in fidelity to my profession, I shall give the utmost.

23 NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers Preamble Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare. Engineers must perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct.

24 NSPE - I. Fundamental Canons Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall: 1. Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public. 2. Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. 4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5. Avoid deceptive acts. 6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness of the profession.

25 NSPE - II. Rules of Practice 1.Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. 4.Engineers shall act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.Engineers shall avoid deceptive acts.

26 1. Engineers shall be guided in all their relations by the highest standards of honesty and integrity. 2. Engineers shall at all times strive to serve the public interest. 3. Engineers shall avoid all conduct or practice that deceives the public. 4. Engineers shall not disclosure, without consent, confidential information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former client or employer, or public body on which they serve. NSPE - III. Professional Obligations

27 NSPE - III. Professional Obligations - continued 5. Engineers shall not be influenced in their professional duties by conflicting interests. 6 Engineers shall no attempt to obtain employment or advancement or professional engagements by untruthfully criticizing other engineers, or by other improper or questionable methods. 7. Engineers shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation, prospects, practice, or employment of other engineers. Engineers who believe others are guilty of unethical or illegal practice shall present such information to the proper authority for action.

28 NSPE - III. Professional Obligations - continued 8. Engineers shall accept personal responsibility for their professional activities, provided, however, that engineers may seek indemnification for services arising out of their for other than gross negligence, where the engineer’s interests cannot otherwise be protected. 9. Engineers shall give credit for engineering work to those to whom credit is due, and will recognize the proprietary interests of others.

29 Case – Pentium microprocessor Chip design flawed, 1994 Reports in newspapers, magazines. Reports in newspapers, magazines. How situation progressed – How situation progressed – 1 st – denied problem.1 st – denied problem. Next – said they knew about it, said difficulty was only in limited situations.Next – said they knew about it, said difficulty was only in limited situations. Finally – public outcry – chips replaced when requested.Finally – public outcry – chips replaced when requested.

30 Space Shuttle – Challenger, 1986 The shuttle exploded shortly after take-off, all aboard died. O-ring on solid booster failed, hot gases leaked and blew up a liquid fuel tank. Pre-launch pressure – Pre-launch pressure – Popular – schoolteacher on team.Popular – schoolteacher on team. Postponed a few times.Postponed a few times. Budget was under review.Budget was under review. Engineer recommended no launch; overruled by management. Engineer recommended no launch; overruled by management. Temperature a concern – Temperature a concern – Previous low for a launch was 53 o F.Previous low for a launch was 53 o F. Designed to operate as low as 31 o F.Designed to operate as low as 31 o F. Expected temperature at launch was 29 o F.Expected temperature at launch was 29 o F.

31 Info source Engineering Ethics, 2 nd Edition, Charles B. Fleddermann,Chapters 1 – 3, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.


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