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Project Management A Managerial Approach Chapter 1 Projects in Contemporary Organizations.

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Presentation on theme: "Project Management A Managerial Approach Chapter 1 Projects in Contemporary Organizations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Management A Managerial Approach Chapter 1 Projects in Contemporary Organizations

2 zProject Management has emerged because the characteristics of our turn-of- the-century society demands the development of new methods of management zMany forces have fostered the emergence and expansion of Project Management

3 Forces Of Project Management z3 Paramount Forces driving Project Management: y1. The exponential expansion of human knowledge y2. The growing demand for a broad range of complex, sophisticated, customized goods and services y3. The evolution of worldwide competitive markets for the production and consumption of goods and services zAll 3 forces combine to mandate the use of teams to solve problems that used to be solvable by individuals

4 Objectives of a Project z3 Project Objectives: yPerformance yTime yCost zExpectations of clients are not an additional target, but an inherent part of the project specifications

5 Objectives of a Project z3 Project Objectives:

6 The Professionalism of Project Management zComplexity of problems facing the project manager zGrowth in number of project oriented organizations yThe Project Management Institute (PMI) was established in 1969 yBy 1990 it had 7,500 members y5 years later, over 17,000 members yAnd by 1998, it had exploded to over 44,000 members zThis exponential growth is indicative of the rapid growth in the use of projects zAlso reflects the importance of PMI as a force in the development of project management as a profession

7 Project Management Institute

8 Recent Changes in Managing Organizations zThe process of managing organizations has been impacted by three revolutionary changes y1. Accelerating replacement of traditional, hierarchical management by participatory management y2. Currently witnessing the adoption of the “systems approach” (sometimes called “systems engineering”) y3. Organizations establishing projects as the preferred way to accomplish the many specific changes that must be made when the organization attempts to alter its strategy

9 The Definition of a “Project” zMust make a distinction between terms: yProgram - an exceptionally large, long-range objective that is broken down into a set of projects yTask - set of activities comprising a project yWork Packages - division of tasks yWork Units - division of work packages zIn the broadest sense, a project is a specific, finite task to be accomplished

10 Characteristics of a Project zHave a purpose zHave a life cycle zInterdependencies zUniqueness zConflict

11 Why Project Management? zCompanies have experienced: yBetter control yBetter customer relations yShorter development times yLower costs yHigher quality and reliability yHigher profit margins ySharper orientation toward results yBetter interdepartmental coordination yHigher worker morale

12 Why Project Management? zCompanies have also experienced some negatives: yGreater organizational complexity yIncreased likelihood of organizational policy violations yHigher costs yMore management difficulties yLow personnel utilization

13 The Project Life Cycle zStages of a Conventional Project: ySlow beginning yBuildup of size yPeak yBegin a decline yTermination

14 The Project Life Cycle Chapter 1-13

15 The Project Life Cycle zTime distribution of project effort is characterized by slow-rapid-slow

16 The Project Life Cycle zOther projects also exist which do not follow the conventional project life cycle zThese projects are comprised of subunits that have little use as a stand alone unit, yet become useful when put together

17 The Project Life Cycle zUnlike the more conventional life cycle, continued inputs of effort at the end of the project produce significant gains in returns

18 The Project Life Cycle zIt is essential for the Project Manager to understand the characteristics of the life cycle curve for his project zThe distinction between the two life cycles plays a critical role in the development of budgets and schedules for the project

19 The Project Life Cycle zRisk during project life cycle yWith most projects there is some uncertainty about the ability to meet project goals yUncertainty of outcome is greatest at the start of a project yUncertainty decreases as the project moves toward completion

20 Risk During Project Life Cycle zUncertainty decreases as the project moves toward completion

21 Textbook Structure zStructure of the text follows the life cycle of projects yText divided into 3 main sections: xPart I - Project Initiation xPart II - Project Implementation xPart III - Project Termination

22 Summary zThe Project Management Institute (PMI) was founded in 1969 to foster the growth and professionalism of project management zProject management is now being recognized as a valuable “career path” in many organizations, as well as a way to gain valuable experience within the organization

23 Summary zThe three primary forces behind project management are: y1. The growing demand for complex, customized goods and services y2. The exponential expansion of human knowledge y3. The global production-consumption environment

24 Summary zThe three prime objectives of project management are: y1. To meet specified performance y2. To do it within specified costs y3. Complete on schedule zTerminology follows in this order: program, project, task, work package, work unit

25 Summary zProjects are characterized by a singleness of purpose, a definite life cycle, complex interdependencies, some or all unique elements, and an environment of conflict zProject management, though not problem-free, is the best way to accomplish certain goals

26 Summary zProjects often start slow, build up speed while using considerable resources, and then slow down as completion nears zThis text is organized along the project life cycle concept: yProject Initiation (Chapters 2-6) yProject Implementation (Chapters 7-11) yProject Termination (Chapters 12-13)

27 Projects in Contemporary Organizations Questions?

28 Projects in Contemporary Organizations Picture Files

29 Projects in Contemporary Organizations Figure 1-1

30 Projects in Contemporary Organizations Figure 1-2

31 Projects in Contemporary Organizations Figure 1-3

32 Projects in Contemporary Organizations Figure 1-4

33 Projects in Contemporary Organizations Figure 1-5

34 Projects in Contemporary Organizations Figure 1-6


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