Teacher Commitment key factor determining outcomes for teacher attrition, turnover, absenteeism, and performance. teachers who are less committed make fewer plans to improve their quality of teaching. Committed teachers search for better teaching methods (Collie, Shapka and Perry, 2011)
Teacher Commitment the extent to which the teachers accept the goals and values of the school the amount of effort they are willing to exert for the school desire to remain within the school. (Ware and Kitsantas, 2011)
Teacher Commitment sense of professionalism Organizational Commitment - dedication and loyalty to the teaching profession (Jepson and Forrest, 2006) more than the desire to remain within an organization but more broadly as the desire to continue to grow and learn within a professional community (Cherkowski, 2012)
Teacher Commitment more than simple loyalty. Commitment involves an employee’s willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization, degree of goal and value congruency with the organization and desire to maintain membership (Aydin, Sarier and Uysal, 2011)
Factors that Influence Teacher Commitment Teachers’ experience School Administration and Management – The Principal – Teacher Empowerment – Teacher Efficacy Peers
Factors that Influence Teacher Commitment School climate Stress Gender
Research Questions What are the perceptions of teachers regarding teacher commitment? What are the perceptions of school administrators regarding teacher commitment?
Research Questions How do perceptions on teacher commitment vary based on age, civil status and number of years employed in current educational institution? How can teacher commitment be sustained?
Theoretical Framework Engages with the school community (extends beyond classroom) Gives paramount importance to the students’ needs Shows work efficacy Embraces the school’s vision and mission Readily accepts tasks/ assignments Values professional development Invests visible and invisible time Teacher Commitment
Presentation and Analysis Indicator of Teacher Commitment DescriptionPerformance Indicator from School Sample Invests visible and invisible time (Crosswell, 2006) *Gives time for students beyond work hours *Gives time for colleagues beyond work hours *Spends time for parents beyond work hours *Spends time preparing for class (in school and at home) *Spends time preparing for school activities beyond work hours *Task Management *Working Relations Management *Community Development
Presentation and Analysis Indicator of Teacher Commitment DescriptionPerformance Indicator from School Sample Values professional development (Crosswell, 2006) *Shows willingness to share strategies with colleagues *Shows willingness to learn from colleagues. *Pursues graduate work *Attends seminars/ workshops *Shows openness to coaching and mentoring from colleagues/ admin *Self- Development *Working Relations Management
Presentation and Analysis Indicator of Teacher Commitment DescriptionPerformance Indicator from School Sample Engages with the school community (extends beyond classroom) (Crosswell, 2006) (Celep, 2000) *Participates in school programs (required and not required) *Initiates projects/ programs for parents, office staff and other members of the community *Confers with members of the community when there is a need *Relates with members of the community (not just co-teachers) Helps community members (not just co-teachers) *Community Development *Task Management *Working Relations Management
Presentation and Analysis Indicator of Teacher Commitment DescriptionPerformance Indicator from School Sample Readily accepts tasks/ assignments (Chan, 2006) (Celep, 2000) *Willing to take on new responsibilities *Accepts tasks beyond job description *Undertakes assignments even if they are not related to teaching inside the classroom *Eager to engage in additional tasks *Self- Development
Presentation and Analysis Indicator of Teacher Commitment DescriptionPerformance Indicator from School Sample Gives paramount importance to the students’ needs (Crosswell, 2006) (Celep, 2000) (Fox, 1964) *Adjusts lesson/ instruction based on students’ needs *Implements innovative classroom strategies to facilitate student learning *Always meets with students with special needs and/or concerns (academic or otherwise) *Shows concern for the total development of the student *Prepares and implements lessons that provide opportunities for student achievement *Task Management
Presentation and Analysis Indicator of Teacher Commitment DescriptionPerformance Indicator from School Sample Shows work efficacy (Coladarci, 1992)/ (Christine Joffres & Margaret Haughey, 2001) (Celep, 2000) *Accomplishes given tasks with little supervision *Cooperates with colleagues to accomplish tasks *Punctual in submitting work *Punctual in reporting for work *Submits work with little or no revisions needed *Task Management *Working Relations Management *Self- Development
Presentation and Analysis Indicator of Teacher Commitment DescriptionPerformance Indicator from School Sample Embraces the school’s vision and mission (Ross and Gray, 2006) (Celep,2000) *Work towards fulfilment of school’s goals *Works towards school’s improvement *Works towards actualizing schools values *Participates in school projects in line with the school’s vision and mission *Follows all school rules and regulations *Community Development
Methodology Questionnaire was made (Perception on Teacher Commitment) 44 items 1 open-ended question: “In your opinion, how can teacher commitment be sustained?”
Methodology Questionnaire was distributed in the month of September 60 out of 42 were returned 35 grade school teachers 7 administrators
Methodology Average scores for each indicator
Graph 1: Perceptions on Teacher Commitment of Single and Married Teachers
Graph 2: Perceptions on Teacher Commitment of Permanent and Probationary Teachers
Graph 3: Perceptions on Teacher Commitment of Grade School Teachers and Administrators
ResponsesTally Rewards system affirmation for work and positive feedback benefits incentives 20 Proper Compensation10 Working Environment Nurturing environment, both professionally and personally Favorable working environment Balance of work and play 9 Support for teachers on professional growth6
ResponsesTally Support, management and leadership of Administration Support from the administration Consistency in implementing policies Consultative decision-making/ Teachers should be part of the planning and execution of school projects/activities Ideal mentors/coordinators who are qualified and equipped to do the work 6 Realistic tasks and deadlines5 Having a venue to articulate concerns without being judged 3 Sufficient attention to scheduling classes2
Conclusions and Recommendations Probationary teachers scored high on work efficacy as an indicator of teacher commitment. RECOMMENDATION: school administration guide probationary teachers into becoming more efficient in their work to sustain their commitment. This is is also in line with the study of Joffrees and Haughey in 2001 that commitment may decline due to low feeling of self-efficacy (feeling unsuccessful)
Conclusions and Recommendations RECOMMENDATION: the school administration continue to provide for venues/ activities that will bring all faculty to embrace the school’s vision and mission
Conclusions and Recommendations RECOMMENDATION: professional development be a focus of the administration. supported by the study of Crosswell in 2006 - maintaining professional development is an important part of teacher commitment. Maintaining professional development may also be connected to work efficacy of faculty members.
Conclusions and Recommendations RECOMMENDATION: school administration may work on these areas of teacher commitment: work efficacy maintaining professional development embracing the school’s vision and mission.
Conclusions and Recommendations As a result of the open-ended question, In your opinion, how can teacher commitment be sustained? The following are the recommendations of the researcher: – A form of affirmation/ reward system may be implemented. – Compensation of teachers may be revisited – Support, management and leadership of administrators be felt by the teachers
Conclusions and Recommendations It is worthy to note that these suggested approaches to sustain teacher commitment are realistic and practicable compared to other aspects that are difficult to change like reducing the class size and redesigning the school’s teaching philosophy.