Presentation on theme: "Film The Impact of Movie Images. Film Technology The following video highlights the important technology movements of film.video Important fact: – Around."— Presentation transcript:
Film Technology The following video highlights the important technology movements of film.video Important fact: – Around 1880 English photographer Eadweard Muybridge was the first to project moving pictures by manipulating photographs and make them look like they were moving at the same time – Late 1880 Thomas Edison decides to merge phonograph technology and moving images to create talking pictures. However, when progress was not fast enough he passed it on to his assistant, William Kennedy Dickson – In 1884 George Eastman (founder of Kodak) developed first large film roll. Later Hannibal Goodwin, a minister, improved on the invention by using celluloid that could hold chemicals sensitive to light which solved a major problem: It enables a strip of film to move through a camera in rapid successions – Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince is credited to have invented the first motion picture camera using this Eastman’s roll. – By 1890 Dickson combined Edison’s light bulb and Goodwin’s celluloid and created the kinetograph camera and the single person viewing system called kinetoscope – Around 1895, Edison’s creates a system called vitascope that can project longer lenghts of film, thus spring the hint og motion pictures as a mass medium
Early Films Narrative Films: Films that tell stories French magician and inventor George Melies, opened the first public movie theater in 1896. – The Vanishing Lady (1896) The Vanishing Lady (1896) The arrival of Nickelodeons, a form of movie theater whose name combines the admission price with the Greek word “theater,” was a major development because it brought makeshift storefronts to the public for viewing By 1910s, movies had become a major industry
The Rise of Hollywood Edison’s Trust: Cartel of major U.S. and French producers. Made to control the patents of technology so they could control the profits of movies – Exclusive deal with Eastman who would only supply them Independent productions moved to Hollywood to escape the Trust because of the cheap labor, diverse scenery and mild climate Adolph Zukor (Paramount Pictures) and William Fox (Twentieth Century Fox) figured out ways to bypass the Trust. Suit by Fox led to the breakup of the Trust for trade voilations
The Rise of Hollywood Continues Entrepreneurs like Zukor developed other tactics for controlling the industry. Vertical integration of all three levels of the movie business – Production – Distribution – Exhibition Turned the film industry into an oligopoly, a market situation in which each of a few producers affects but does not control the market.
Production Actors – Originally anonymous – Industry eventually understood the value of creating stars such as Mary Pickford. Mary Pickford, known then as “America’s sweetheart” helped elevate the financial status of actors due to her major popularity. – First female to make $1 million dollar in a year and gained freedom to take artistic role – Left Zukor to form United Artists, which fellow actor Charlin Chaplin However, studio system controlled creative talent in the industry.
Distribution & Exhibition Film exchange system – In exchange for providing short films, movie companies received a percentage of ticket-gate receipts. Block booking distribution – Exhibitors had to rent marginal films in order to get films with big stars. Marketing of American films in Europe Controlling exhibition – Edison’s Trust – Required theaters to purchase licenses or be locked out Zukor bought up theaters and later built movie palaces. – Mid-city movie theaters – The Big Five (Paramount, MGM, Warner Brother, Twentieth Century Fox, and RKO) and the Little Three (Columbia, Universal, & United Artist) formed a powerful oligopoly.
Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era D.W. Griffith – Single most important director in Hollywood’s early days – The Birth of a Nation The Birth of a Nation First feature-length film First blockbuster However, very rastic Popular silent era films – Napoleon, Ben-Hur, and The Ten Commandments
The Development of Hollywood Style Hollywood narratives – Two basic components Story Discourse Hollywood genres – Grouping by genre achieves two goals Product standardization (same product to imitate) Product differentiation (different product to appeal to others)
The Development of Hollywood Style Cont. Three ingredients give Hollywood movies their distinctive flavor: narrative, genre, and author (or director). 1. Hollywood Narratives. The two basic components of the narrative are the story (what happens to whom) and the discourse (how the story is told). 2. Hollywood Genres. By making films that fall into popular genres, the movie industry provides familiar models that can be imitated. Two related economic goals are product standardization and product differentiation. 3. Hollywood “Authors.” Although hundreds of people contribute to a film’s production, the director serves as the main
Outside the Hollywood System The documentary tradition Cinema verité: French: “truth cinema” – French film movement of the 1960s that showed people in everyday situations with authentic dialogue and naturalness The rise of independent films – Known as indies – Made on a shoestring budget and shown in small venues and film festivals – Independent film festivals important for discovering new talent
Moving to the Suburbs Transformation from a wartime economy and a surge in consumer production had a significant impact on moviegoing. – Money spent on consumer products instead of movie tickets – People married younger, so fewer couples were dating. – Television explosion in the late 50s
Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment Introduction of cable and videocassettes in 1970s changed movie exhibition. – Video market was a financial bonanza for movie industry. – Traditional video rental market is declining. – Future of video rental is in Internet distribution.
Production, Distribution, and Exhibition Today Movie studios have six major sources of income. – Box-office receipts – DVD sales, rentals, and downloads – Pay-per-view, premium cable, etc. – Foreign markets – Distributing indie films – Licensing and product placement Began diversifying in the 1980s – Heavy promotion and synergy – Flood of corporate merger
Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Digital Turn Movie industry has quickly embraced Internet distribution. – Services include Hulu, Netflix, Xfinity, YouTube, and CinemaNow. – Increasingly available on smartphones and tablets 2012: first year digital outpaced physical DVDs for BluRays Internet essential for marketing: For example, videos created on YouTube to highlight the best in films videos created on YouTube