Presentation on theme: "FEUDALISMS COMPARED: MEDIEVAL JAPAN AND WESTERN EUROPE."— Presentation transcript:
FEUDALISMS COMPARED: MEDIEVAL JAPAN AND WESTERN EUROPE
WHAT IS FEUDALISM? Political and economic system in Medieval Western Europe, Zhou China, and Shogunate Japan whereby a lord grants lands and protection to a vassal in exchange for loyalty, military service.
TERMS : LORD, VASSAL, FIEF
PAST INFLUENCES FEUDAL EUROPE Christianity Classical Rome German Heritage JAPAN Imperial China Confucianism
RISE OF FEUDALISM In Europe: External invasions; ineffectiveness, lack of national, centralized authority; arose prior to 1000 CE; dead by 1500 CE In Japan: Isolation of emperor, his family in capital; Rivalries between Court nobility, provincial lords and clans; arose around 1100 CE, died with Meiji Restoration in 1867 CE
POLITICAL STRUCTURES In Europe: Multiple states, fragmented; decentralized, competing political entities; multiple loyalties In Japan: Centralized, military dictatorship; no overlapping, multiple loyalties
FEUDAL STATES FRANCE H.R. EMPIRE
FEUDAL SOCIETY Social hierarchy based on noble aristocracy, land ownership, birth; social divisions based on types of labor, gender; society largely rural with few cities; 3 major classes
THOSE WHO FIGHT Feudalism was a local military solution to a national political reality. Warriors had to furnish weapons, horses Lord - Daimyo Knights - Samurai Fief - Shugo
GREAT LORDS DAIMYO Local administration Local administration Local justice, taxes Local justice, taxes Feudal armies, castles Feudal armies, castles Constant warfare Constant warfare Hereditary nobles Hereditary nobles Independent realms Independent realms
CODES OF CONDUCT Bushido and Chivalry Samurai means servant; bushido means Way of the Warrior; be loyal, fight, die for lord; koku payment Chivalry derived from Cheval (horse) - knights furnished own horse, armor; paid; defend women, church, poor, fight as last resort
THOSE WHO PRAY JAPAN Numerous faiths: Buddhism, Shinto, Confucianism Zen Buddhism became samurai favorite Zen Buddhism became samurai favorite Clergy, faith only had limited influence Clergy, faith only had limited influence FEUDAL EUROPE FEUDAL EUROPE Age of Faith: Church, Pope paramount Church owns land, part of government Church owns land, part of government Church administers education, social welfare Church leadership open to all classes, women
THOSE WHO WORK JAPAN Peasants produce food Peasants produce food Possessed some rights to land Villages self-governing Villages self-governing Protected by daimyo, samurai FEUDAL EUROPE FEUDAL EUROPE Serfs = lowest class Serfs = lowest class 1/3 to 1/5 of produce to lord 1/3 to 1/5 of produce to lord Few rights, often did not own land Often used as soldiers Often used as soldiers
GENDER ROLES FEUDAL EUROPE FEUDAL EUROPE Aristocratic women isolated, Aristocratic women isolated, marginalize in roles. If woman managed land, became nun, acquired rights. JAPAN JAPAN Aristocratic women were more equal to husbands; owned land without male interference; could inherit, sue; samurai women encouraged to fight.
ECONOMICS BOTH Agriculture dominant Not monetarized economies ManorialismSelf-sufficientSerfsWheat Shoen Shoen traded PeasantsRice
THOSE OUTSIDE Towns, Merchant, Artisans: Towns, Merchant, Artisans: In Europe, became wealthy and influential - defied the system. In Japan, considered lowest class - gained some influence under Tokugawa Shoguns
URBAN LIFE JAPAN JAPAN Castle towns Guilds Guilds FEUDAL EUROPE Free cities, leagues Free cities, leagues Merchants, guilds Merchants, guilds Town charters Town charters Learning centers Learning centers
DIFFERENCES JAPAN JAPAN Emperor, Shogun Emperor, Shogun Centralized feudalism Centralized feudalism Religion not in government Religion not in government Group loyalty Group loyalty FEUDAL EUROPE FEUDAL EUROPE The Pope, the Papacy The Pope, the Papacy Shared common faith Shared common faith Feudal contract(s) Feudal contract(s)
DIFFERENT ENDS EUROPE Monarchs asserted authority: taxes, weapons Commerce, middle class ended feudalism Fratricidal warfare decimated aristocracy Charters(grant of overseas territories), advisory parliaments expanded JAPAN Feudalism ended voluntarily Feudalism remained strong throughout Ended as a result of West, Meiji Restoration Samurai, culture absorbed into mainstream
By the 15 th Century EuropeJapan Kingdoms became increasingly centralized( England, France, Spain and Portugal) Italian city-states( Venice, Florence, Genoa, Milan) became the center of Mediterranean trade (Spice trade) A new spirit of exploration led many new alternative routes of exploration and would be financed through new banking institutions New culture would transform Western Europe into a rebirth or Renaissance Would be increasingly isolated and withdrawn from world trade Under various shogunates ( ) Japan would become increasingly decentralized under feudal civil unrest, The Tokugawa Shogunate ( )would finally centralize Japan in the port of Edo (now Tokyo) where they would close their doors (Toku go-away) to foreigners and forbid Japanese from leaving. This would limit Japanese technological progress while the “West” became more powerful. The ports would eventually be “opened up” bt the “West” in 1857.
Comp From in both Japan and Western Europe, the lack of a centralized government led To the rise of a system where landed aristocracy would exchange land for military protection For loyalty and service (feudalism), both would lead to the rise of a militaristic warrior class (Samurai and knight) whose code of loyalty (Bushido and Chivalry) would emphasize the importance Of discipline and honor in warfare. Western Europe, however, would be dominated by the hegemony Of the Roman Catholic Church leading the decline of feudalism due to the Crusades and the trade it Brought to Western Europe. Japan, however, would have multiple faith of Neoconfucianism, Taoism And Zen Buddhism seamlessly blending with the indigenous Shintoism to remain isolated by The Tokugawa Shogunate until forcibly open by the United States’ Matthew Perry in 1857,
LINKS Internet Medieval Sourcebook Internet East Asia History Sourcebook Knight/Samurai - Lord/Daimyo Comparative Feudalism Project