Presentation on theme: "International Relations"— Presentation transcript:
1International Relations Introduction toInternational RelationsNationalism, Civilization, and ConflictsJaechun Kim
2Nationalism The difference between “state” and “nation” revisited.. What is nationalism? Definition?System of belief or ideology in which the welfare of the nation is considered paramount.Collective state of mind in which people believe their primary duty is to the nation…
3Implications of Nationalism for IR: Upsides and Downsides Upside: Provides the cohesiveness necessary for the modern nation state… bonds that hold modern nation states…Downside: National self-interest often excludes the rights of other nations… can be source of international conflicts...Nationalism is a relatively recent phenomenon French RevolutionNationalism became a factor in iR in late 19th century
4French revolution and nationalism French Revolution and “popular sovereignty” tapped full blown nationalism in Europe…Louis the 14th – I am the state! (l’etat, c’est moi!)No, we people are the state…! (Popular Sovereignty)Owner of the nation Love for the nation!In sum, nationalistic sentiment was unleashed by French Revolution…After the F R, fervent nationalism started to spread across the Europe…competing national claims contributed to the outbreak of both World Wars…
5Nationalism as a “movement”… National self-determination became a movement after WWI…W. Wilson also justified national self-determination in 14 points…Nationalism and IRSeeds for both interstate and intrastate conflicts…Interstate wars because of competing national claims…Intrastate wars because of “secessionist” movement… e.g. BalkanNo finality in the definition and formation of nations!
6Culture and Civilization as a Moving Force in International Relations What is culture? Definition of culture?The integrated system of socially acquired values, beliefs, and rules of conduct which delimit the range of accepted behaviors in any given societyCulture distinguishes societies from one another…
7Culture and Nation: How are they different? Which is a bigger concept?Culture is not an easy concept to “operationalize” in researchdifficult to use it as an analytic toolmultifaceted concept including wide range of phenomena; amorphous concept…Isolating “culture” is difficult!
8Definition of civilization Civilization - culture writ largeThe highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity that people haveThe broadest construction of cultural identity
9Eight distinct(?) civilizations (S. Huntington) Western, Sinic, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, Buddhist, and AfricanPredominance of Western culture in modern era…The significance of culture and civilization in the post-Cold War era (S. Huntington)The End of History – Francis FukuyamaThe combination of liberal democracy and market-based capitalist economy – Liberalism – had drawn a finishing line in the history of political and social development…Liberalism is the end product of history… no other alternative!
10Clash of Civilization – S P Huntington Ideological struggle may have been over, but civilizational struggle will be on the riseCultural differences had been suppressed during the Cold War…Samuel Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72 No , P
11Huntington in Detail…Clash of civilization is a part of historic developmentConflict has been the essence of historical development…conflict between feudal lords (before Westphalian system) conflict between the monarchs (early period of Westphalian system) conflict between the nations (WWI and WWII) ideological clash (Cold War) clash of civilization
12“the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarilyeconomic. The great division among humankindand dominating source of conflict will becultural…The fault lines between civilizations willbe the battle lines of the future” S. P. Huntington
13The rise of civilization clash has coincided with other 4 historical developments. They are: the relative decline of the WestThe rise of the Asian economy and its associated cultural affirmation, with China poised to become the greatest power in historya population explosion in the Muslim world, and the associated resurgence of Islamthe impact of globalization
14Globalization and Civilizational Differences Globalization optimists – similar cultural identity on the rise…! True?Despite Globalization, local cultures will survive…limited appeal of Western civilizationBecause of Globalization, people will be exposed to different cultures and feel alienated…World is becoming a smaller place, with civilizational consciousness leading to animosity.
15The hegemony of the Western culture is most contested by Sinic and Islamic cultures Sinic or Asian culture vs. Western culture?Islam culture vs. Western culture?
16Sinic-Islamic connection? While ideological division of Europe has disappeared the cultural division between Western Christianity and Islam has re-emerged.“The most prominent form of this co-operation is Confucian-Islamic connection, that has emerged to challenge Western interests, values and powers”China is rapidly increasing its military spending with modernization of its armed forces. It is purchasing weapons from the former Soviet Union and is also a major exporter of arms and weapon technology..“A Confucian-Islamic military connection has thus come into being to counter military power of the West.”
17“In the short term it is clearly in the interests of the West to promote greater co-operation andunity within its own civilization particularlybetween its European and North AmericanComponents…to limit the expansion ofmilitary strength of Confucian and Islamicstates; to exploit differences and conflictsamong Confucian and Islamic States; tosupport other civilizations, groups,sympathetic to Western values and interests”- S. P. Huntington
18Fahreed Zakaria on 911 and Islamic Fundamentalism Does the nature of international conflict in the post-Cold War conform to Huntington’s thesis?Fahreed Zakaria on 911 and Islamic FundamentalismWhy did 911 take place?Because something’s wrong with them (Islam)…Paul Johnson – Islam is violent..Others – not really…Because something’s wrong with us (the US)…
19Zakaria finds the answer in the failed statehood of the middle eastern countries… Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan…Failed statehood combined with huge population growth…