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Academic Conversations. Brainstorm What types of conversations are most interesting to your students? How do they start? How are they maintained? If students.

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Presentation on theme: "Academic Conversations. Brainstorm What types of conversations are most interesting to your students? How do they start? How are they maintained? If students."— Presentation transcript:

1 Academic Conversations

2 Brainstorm What types of conversations are most interesting to your students? How do they start? How are they maintained? If students were to have a “scholarly” conversation (i.e. classroom talk that fosters critical thinking and content understandings), what would you: see? hear? hope for?

3 What are Academic Conversations? Academic conversations… are sustained and purposeful conversations about school topics use core conversation skills: elaborate and clarify support ideas with examples build on and/or challenge a partner’s ideas paraphrase synthesize conversation points help students focus on and explore an important question, idea, or topic

4 Why Teach Conversation Skills? Or what to say when the administrators want to know why your classroom is always so loud! Oral language is a cornerstone on which we build our literacy and learning throughout life. Warning: Just because students are talking does not mean that the interaction has any depth of thinking or negotiation of meaning.

5 Quotation Café…  Gives pairs a chance to predict, synthesize, and interpret  Requires students to use academic terms to support their ideas Set up:  Choose important quotations from the text that students will read. Put them on separate paper strips or note cards.  Distribute a quotation to each student.  Show the title of the text, read the first part of the text aloud, and/or show an image or two from the text.  Explain that the purpose of the activity is to form an idea of what the text will be about as they talk to different partners.  Students circulate and find one partner at a time with whom to discuss each quotation and predict what the text will be about. Strategy: Quotation Cafe

6 All Great Ideas Begin by Talking Out Loud : Redesigning Classroom Conversations

7 https://wisc.adobeconnect.com/_a /p2gavpn3fog/?launcher=false&fcsContent=tr ue&pbMode=normalhttps://wisc.adobeconnect.com/_a /p2gavpn3fog/?launcher=false&fcsContent=tr ue&pbMode=normal Webinar An academic conversation goes beyond casual conversation. The goal is for the participants to reach a new understanding of a school topic through the use of specific conversational skills. Each partner must listen and speak, elaborate, clarify, challenge, paraphrase, and summarize what his/her partner says, and determine the outcome of the conversation. What is an Academic Conversation?

8 Effective conversations – Both partners talk – Critical and creative thinking – Welcome controversy and conflict – Recognize and reduce ambiguity – Follow norms – Encourage thinking based on rules of the discipline – Use opportunities for transfer of knowledge and skills – Provide choice and ownership Getting Started

9 We listen to each other We share our own ideas and explain them We respect another’s ideas, even if they are different We let others finish explaining an idea without interrupting We take turns and share air time Conversation Norms

10 Questions ask for specific information. Try these: Can you elaborate on…? What do you mean by…? Can you tell me more about…? What makes you think that? Can you clarify the part about …? Can you be more specific? How so? How/Why is that important? I wonder if …? I’m a little confused about the part… Elaborate and Clarify: Questions

11 The Hunt for Deep Ideas. What makes you stop & think? Write quotations on cards. Plan the conversation on an organizer Evaluate the support (quality) of examples on a continuum: Support Ideas with Examples: Teaching IdeaExample The Red Sox are a great team.They won the World Series eight times. (1903, 1912, 1915, 1916, 1918,2004,2007, 2013) They have 74 players in the Hall of Fame. IDEA Weak supportMed Support Strong support

12 Elaborate and Clarify: Frames by Grade Level 3-5 GradeQuestionsAnswers 3 What do you mean by…? Tell me more about…. Can you elaborate on…? I wonder how/if…. What makes you think that? Can you be more specific? How does that connect to…? Why is that important? I mean… By that I meant…. I think that… It’s similar to when… In other words… According to.… It’s important because… I believe that… 4-5 What do you mean by…? Tell me more about…. Can you elaborate on…? I wonder how/if…. What makes you think that? Can you be more specific? How does that connect to…? Why is that important? I’m confused about the part…. Can you clarify the part about…? I mean… By that I meant…. I think that… It’s similar to when… In other words… According to… It’s important because… I believe that… An analogy for this might be… More specifically, it is…because…

13 Questions Can you give me an example from the text? Can you show me where it says that? What is the evidence for that? Why do you say that? Like what? Answers For example, … In the text (on page..) it said … For instance, … According to… In this situation… Support Ideas with Examples

14 Questions What have we discussed so far? How can we bring this all together? What can we agree on? What are the main points? What was the original question? Answers So, you are saying that… Let me see if I understand you. In other words, … What I’m hearing is… Synthesize Conversation Points

15 Read two texts, opposing views Two-minute Opinion Share – Give the partners a controversial question. – Assign one partner A, one B – A gets 1 minute to defend her/her side of the question – B must challenge A’s position – Third minute is for consensus Build – and use – a set of norms Build on &/or Challenge a Partner’s Ideas: Teaching

16 Questions Can you add to that idea? Do you agree? How does that connect to…? What are some other ideas? Answers I want to add to your point that… Connecting to that, … Another way to look at that is… If __________, then __________. I wonder if…. Build on and/or Challenge a Partner’s Ideas

17 We listen to each other We share our own ideas and explain them We respect another’s ideas, even if they are different We respectfully disagree and try to see the other view We let others finish explaining an idea without interrupting We try to come to some agreement in the end We take turns and share air time Conversation Norms - Challenge

18 Students place their own personal arrow where their opinion falls. Opinion Continuum Jelly beans are better than M&Ms. YesNo

19 Integrating Critical and Creative Thinking Strategies

20 It is not about whose viewpoint is “right”... it is getting to deeper understandings with new and broader perspectives Three types of argument: 1.Social Arguments 2.Literacy Argument 3.Nonfiction Topic

21 Social Arguments Should chocolate milk be allowed in schools? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjxpeAom5HU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQ4wGDl56Zg Should soda be sold in school vending machines?

22 Literary Arguments Giving Tree – is tree weak or strong? Children learn to be more nuanced Lead to deeper understandings of abstract ideas Example: Socratic Seminar, er.php?viewnode=194301d2a52ff

23 The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I – I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that, the passing there Had worn them really about the same, In Robert Frost’s poem, “The Road Not Taken” is the poet ambivalent, self-assured, regretful, or adventuresome? How does this poem connect to the focus on increasing academic conversations in your school?

24 Nonfiction Argument What they know comes from the text Requires student to sort, weigh, and evaluate evidence Reasoning coupled with evidence Examples: Structured Academic Controversy, Debate

25 Academic Controversy Have you learned the lessons only of those who admired you, and were tender with you, and stood aside for you? Have you not learned great lessons from those who braced themselves against you, and disputed passage with you? Walt Whitman, 1860

26 Scaffolding Academic Controversy According to ______ barbed wire is _______ because____________. While ________ felt that barbed wire was _________, ________ felt that it ___________.. It was the __________’s opinion that barbed wire led to _______.

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28 Academic Controversy exists when one student’s idea, information, conclusions, theories, and opinions are incompatible with those of another, and the two seek to reach an agreement. (Johnson & Johnson, 1995) Aristotle called this deliberate discourse - the discussion of advantages and disadvantages of proposed actions aimed at synthesizing novel solutions.

29 Student Talk vs. Teacher Talk ACADEMIC CONVERSATIONS TRADITIONAL CLASS DISCUSSIONS 97% student talk97% teacher talk Average student response – seconds Average student response – 2-3 seconds No teacher approval or disapproval Teacher judgment; emphasis on correctness Thinking is paramount, backed up with textual evidence Rightness is paramount; thinking ends when someone is right Students listen primarily to peers Students listen primarily to teacher Student ownership for “flow”Teacher ownership for “flow”

30 Student Talk vs. Teacher Talk ACADEMIC CONVERSATIONS TRADITIONAL CLASS DISCUSSIONS 97% student talk97% teacher talk Average student response – seconds Average student response – 2-3 seconds No teacher approval or disapproval Teacher judgment; emphasis on correctness Thinking is paramount, backed up with textual evidence Rightness is paramount; thinking ends when someone is right Students listen primarily to peers Students listen primarily to teacher Student ownership for “flow”Teacher ownership for “flow”

31 Learn to speak to each other with minimal mediation by facilitator. Learn discussion skills Invest in process through sharing experience. Become aware of problems like factions and dominance. Work together to enable all members to speak. Work together to listen to each other and the text. Examine their assumptions and perspectives and how they differ from those of the text and one another. Begin to change their opinions because of what others say. Learn how to share leadership with the teacher. Learn how to lead the group. 1 Participation 2 Cooperation 3 Listening 4 Leadership Journey to Student Driven Academic Conversation

32 How might I apply this information in my school? What resources and support might I need? What professional development might my teachers need? Who at my school can help lead the way?

33 Stand Up, Hand Up, Pair Up 1)What is the purpose of using academic conversations? 2)Describe how you could support moving from talk to discourse in your building.  Conversation prompts:  Can you elaborate on that?  Please give an example.  I was wondering what you meant by…  To build on what you said… Conversation starters: I would ____ in order to ______. If ___, I would use _____.

34 To succeed in life, students should be able to write and speak with clarity, and to read and listen with comprehension. Language and thought are inextricably connected, and as students develop their linguistic skills, they hone the quality of their thinking and become intellectually and socially empowered. - Ernest Boyer, Carnegie Foundation

35 Students take on more responsibility to deepen the conversations: Whole Brain Teaching: Teach/OK Pairs invite singletons to join them Pairs change If one pair member won’t talk, other member may join another pair Each pair monitors itself – point value (eventually) – Baseline and improvement data Students monitor conversations with checklists Recognition for great conversations Deepen the Practice

36 Disputes Which skills could move this conversation forward? – “The Red Sox are a great team.” – “The Yankees are better.” – “The Red Sox by far.” – “You don’t know anything.” Accumulation Which skills could move this conversation forward? – and then…and then… and then… – Information is added, but there is no critical questioning Watch for:

37 Procedural talk Which skills could move this conversation forward? – Students talk about what they should be doing or discussing, who should be next, etc. rather than exploring the topic. Watch for:

38 Essential Questions: What 21 st century collaboration skills are needed to sustain purposeful conversations and to enable students to be successful members of society? How do we move students beyond “talk” to academic conversations? How do conversation skills transfer to academic reading and writing in all content areas? How can academic conversations demonstrate Depth of Knowledge? Big Idea: Collaborative academic conversations empower students to communicate well in a variety of situations.

39 Speaking and Listening Anchor Standards Comprehension and Collaboration 1.Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 2.Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 3.Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

40 Independent Academic Conversations Elaborate & Clarify Paraphrase Support Ideas with Evidence Build on and/or challenge partner’s ideas Synthesize 5 Core Conversation Skills Kagan/Cooperative Learning SIOP Strategies Pair Share Save the Last Word Take a Side Conversation Lines and Circles Structured Interactions of “Collaboration” Individual Seat Work

41 Directions for Interview Grid— Example of a Structured Interaction Walk around the room interviewing three other people using the questions on the grid. Have them explain their answers. Paraphrase the responses you hear and record it on the grid.

42 Interview Grid Name What is one thing you would never do and why? If you could change one thing in your life what would it be and why? When you think back on your summer vacation, what one thing still makes you smile and why?

43 Debrief discussion Did you use the skills? How did your discussion include the 5 Core Conversation Skills? – Elaborate & Clarify – Paraphrase – Support Ideas with Evidence – Build on and/or challenge partner’s ideas – Synthesize Brainstorm individually on the back side of the interview form, then share with your elbow partner. After 4 minutes selected participants will be asked to summarize.

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46 Informal: ask students how many skills they used More formal: Skill checklist on clipboard – Teacher roams, checks some or all conversations – One student listens and checks 2 talkers. Rotate. (Who checks the checker?) Assessment

47 “Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21 st Century.” National Research Council, 2012

48 If these are the skills, how do we currently meet the demands of the 21 st Century? Turn and talk

49 How does engaging in productive academic conversations meet the demands of the 21 st Century? As a group, sort the advantages of academic conversation into categories.

50 1. Language and Literacy Advantages Conversation builds: academic language vocabulary literacy skills communication skills

51 2. Cognitive Advantages Conversation: builds critical thinking skills promotes different perspectives and empathy fosters creativity fosters skills for negotiating meaning

52 3. Content Learning Advantages Conversation: cultivates connections helps students co-construct understandings helps teachers assess learning

53 4. Social and Cultural Advantages Conversation: builds relationships makes lessons more culturally relevant fosters equity

54 5. Psychological Advantages Conversation: fosters engagement and motivation builds confidence and academic identity builds student voice and empowerment

55 Connect with your own teaching partners Decide how you will apply one or more of these skills IT IS OK TO TAKE IT SLOW – Try one skill at a time – Stick with it for awhile until if feels natural – There is no hurry, there’s just taking the next step Thank you for your time today! Pick a Content Area

56 What are collaborative academic conversations? “Academic conversations are back and forth dialogues in which students focus on a topic and explore it by building, challenging, and negotiating relevant ideas. They push students to think and learn in lasting ways.” Jeff Zwiers and Marie Crawford Academic Conversations

57 CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.1 Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.1

58 Establishing Norms for Collaborative Academic Conversations 1.Listen to others attentively 2. Now, brainstorm (by yourself or with a course alike partner) some of the norms to promote effective academic conversations in your classroom. Consider incorporating schoolwide norms as well.

59 Between now and then… Create norms for Collaborative Academic Conversations with your students Provide time for students to practice these norms in a collaborative setting (pairs, trios, groups, class discussions…) Be prepared to share: – What have been the positives with establishing and maintaining norms in your classroom? – What have been the challenges? – What changes still need to be made?

60 Next Steps Application of Five Core Skills Connecting to Theoretical Framework & Academic Language Creating Conversational Prompts

61 x Academic Conversation Skills Placemat © Jeff Zwiers

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