2BrainstormWhat types of conversations are most interesting to your students? How do they start? How are they maintained?If students were to have a “scholarly” conversation (i.e. classroom talk that fosters critical thinking and content understandings), what would you:see? hear? hope for?
3What are Academic Conversations? are sustained and purposeful conversations about school topicsuse core conversation skills:elaborate and clarifysupport ideas with examplesbuild on and/or challenge a partner’s ideasparaphrasesynthesize conversation pointshelp students focus on and explore an important question, idea, or topic
4Why Teach Conversation Skills Why Teach Conversation Skills? Or what to say when the administrators want to know why your classroom is always so loud!Oral language is a cornerstone on which we build our literacy and learning throughout life.Warning: Just because students are talking does not mean that the interaction has any depth of thinking or negotiation of meaning.
5Strategy: Quotation Cafe Gives pairs a chance to predict, synthesize, and interpretRequires students to use academic terms to support their ideas•Set up:Choose important quotations from the text that students will read. Put them on separate paper strips or note cards.Distribute a quotation to each student.Show the title of the text, read the first part of the text aloud, and/or show an image or two from the text.Explain that the purpose of the activity is to form an idea of what the text will be about as they talk to different partners.Students circulate and find one partner at a time with whom to discuss each quotation and predict what the text will be about.
6All Great Ideas Begin by Talking Out Loud: Redesigning Classroom Conversations
7What is an Academic Conversation? An academic conversation goes beyond casual conversation. The goal is for the participants to reach a new understanding of a school topic through the use of specific conversational skills. Each partner must listen and speak, elaborate, clarify, challenge, paraphrase, and summarize what his/her partner says, and determine the outcome of the conversation.https://wisc.adobeconnect.com/_a /p2gavpn3fog/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal Webinar
8Getting Started Effective conversations Both partners talk Critical and creative thinkingWelcome controversy and conflictRecognize and reduce ambiguityFollow normsEncourage thinking based on rules of the disciplineUse opportunities for transfer of knowledge and skillsProvide choice and ownership
9Conversation Norms We listen to each other We share our own ideas and explain themWe respect another’s ideas, even if they are differentWe let others finish explaining an idea without interruptingWe take turns and share air time
10Elaborate and Clarify: Questions Questions ask for specific information. Try these:Can you elaborate on…?What do you mean by…?Can you tell me more about…?What makes you think that?Can you clarify the part about …?Can you be more specific?How so?How/Why is that important?I wonder if …?I’m a little confused about the part…
11Support Ideas with Examples: Teaching The Hunt for Deep Ideas. What makes you stop & think? Write quotations on cards.Plan the conversation on an organizerEvaluate the support (quality) of examples on a continuum:IdeaExampleThe Red Sox are a great team.They won the World Series eight times. (1903, 1912, 1915, 1916, 1918,2004,2007, 2013)They have 74 players in the Hall of Fame.IDEAWeak support Med Support Strong support
12Elaborate and Clarify: Frames by Grade Level 3-5 QuestionsAnswers3What do you mean by…?Tell me more about….Can you elaborate on…?I wonder how/if….What makes you think that?Can you be more specific?How does that connect to…?Why is that important?I mean…By that I meant….I think that…It’s similar to when…In other words…According to .…It’s important because…I believe that…4-5I’m confused about the part….Can you clarify the part about…?According to…An analogy for this might be…More specifically, it is…because…Movements: move arms apart, point with hands together
13Support Ideas with Examples QuestionsCan you give me an example from the text?Can you show me where it says that?What is the evidence for that?Why do you say that?Like what?AnswersFor example, …In the text (on page..) it said …For instance, …According to…In this situation…
14Synthesize Conversation Points QuestionsWhat have we discussed so far?How can we bring this all together?What can we agree on?What are the main points?What was the original question?AnswersSo, you are saying that…Let me see if I understand you.In other words, …What I’m hearing is…
15Build on &/or Challenge a Partner’s Ideas: Teaching Read two texts, opposing viewsTwo-minute Opinion ShareGive the partners a controversial question.Assign one partner A, one BA gets 1 minute to defend her/her side of the questionB must challenge A’s positionThird minute is for consensusBuild – and use – a set of norms
16Build on and/or Challenge a Partner’s Ideas QuestionsCan you add to that idea?Do you agree?How does that connect to…?What are some other ideas?AnswersI want to add to your point that…Connecting to that, …Another way to look at that is…If __________, then __________.I wonder if….
17Conversation Norms - Challenge We listen to each otherWe share our own ideas and explain themWe respect another’s ideas, even if they are differentWe respectfully disagree and try to see the other viewWe let others finish explaining an idea without interruptingWe try to come to some agreement in the endWe take turns and share air time
18Opinion Continuum Jelly beans are better than M&Ms. YesNoStudents place their own personal arrow where their opinion falls.
19Integrating Critical and Creative Thinking Strategies Carol
20Three types of argument: Social Arguments It is not about whose viewpoint is “right” it is getting to deeper understandings with new and broader perspectivesThree types of argument:Social ArgumentsLiteracy ArgumentNonfiction TopicCarol
21Social Arguments Should chocolate milk be allowed in schools? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjxpeAom5HUhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQ4wGDl56ZgShould soda be sold in school vending machines?Carol
22Literary Arguments Giving Tree – is tree weak or strong? Children learn to be morenuancedLead to deeper understandingsof abstract ideasExample: Socratic Seminar,Carol
23The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost In Robert Frost’s poem, “The Road Not Taken” is the poet ambivalent, self-assured, regretful, or adventuresome?How does this poem connect to the focus on increasing academic conversations in your school?The Road Not Taken by Robert FrostTwo roads diverged in a yellow wood,And sorry I could not travel bothAnd be one traveler, long I stoodAnd looked down one as far as I couldTo where it bent in the undergrowthThen took the other, as just as fair,And having perhaps the better claim,Because it was grassy and wanted wear;Though as for that, the passing thereHad worn them really about the same,And both that morning equally layIn leaves no step had trodden black.Oh, I kept the first for another day!Yet knowing how way leads on to way,I doubted if I should ever come back.I shall be telling this with a sighSomewhere ages and ages hence:Two roads diverged in a wood, and I –I took the one less traveled by,And that has made all the difference.Carol’s example Socratic Dialogue
24Nonfiction Argument What they know comes from the text Requires student to sort, weigh, and evaluate evidenceReasoning coupled with evidenceExamples: Structured Academic Controversy, DebateCarol
25Academic ControversyHave you learned the lessons only of those who admired you, and were tender with you, and stood aside for you?Have you not learned great lessons from those who braced themselves against you, and disputed passage with you?Walt Whitman, 1860DarinaAnother instructional strategy that involves conversations around divergent ideas –Structure
26Scaffolding Academic Controversy It was the __________’s opinion that barbed wire led to _______.While ________ felt that barbed wire was _________, ________ felt that it ___________..DarinaExample from 7th grade Social StudiesAccording to ______ barbed wire is _______ because____________.
28Academic Controversy exists when one student’s idea, information, conclusions, theories, and opinions are incompatible with those of another, and the two seek to reach an agreement. (Johnson & Johnson, 1995)Aristotle called this deliberate discourse - the discussion of advantages and disadvantages of proposed actions aimed at synthesizing novel solutions.DarinaSo take a look at this quote and how might it relate to the previous examples –The Walt Whitman quotePictures of the use of barbed wireHow, in structuring and scaffolding conversation, has student knowledge and learning been impacted?Both examples show perspectives and controversies…
29Student Talk vs. Teacher Talk ACADEMIC CONVERSATIONSTRADITIONAL CLASS DISCUSSIONS97% student talk97% teacher talkAverage student response – 8-12 secondsAverage student response – 2-3 secondsNo teacher approval or disapprovalTeacher judgment; emphasis on correctnessThinking is paramount, backed up with textual evidenceRightness is paramount; thinking ends when someone is rightStudents listen primarily to peersStudents listen primarily to teacherStudent ownership for “flow”Teacher ownership for “flow”KarenTake a look at this data comparing the traditional format for teacher led classes and discussions vs. teacher facilitating student conversation.???Think of the teachers in your school – which do you see as academic v. traditional
30Student Talk vs. Teacher Talk ACADEMIC CONVERSATIONSTRADITIONAL CLASS DISCUSSIONS97% student talk97% teacher talkAverage student response – 8-12 secondsAverage student response – 2-3 secondsNo teacher approval or disapprovalTeacher judgment; emphasis on correctnessThinking is paramount, backed up with textual evidenceRightness is paramount; thinking ends when someone is rightStudents listen primarily to peersStudents listen primarily to teacherStudent ownership for “flow”Teacher ownership for “flow”KarenTake a look at this data comparing the traditional format for teacher led classes and discussions vs. teacher facilitating student conversation.???Think of the teachers in your school – which do you see as academic v. traditional
31Academic Conversation Journey to Student DrivenAcademic Conversation4Leadership3ListeningLearn how to share leadership with the teacher.Learn how to lead the group.2 Cooperation1ParticipationWork together to listen to each other and the text.Examine their assumptions and perspectives and how they differ from those of the text and one another.Begin to change their opinions because of what others say.Become aware of problems like factions and dominance.Work together to enable all members to speak.KarenLearn to speak to each other with minimal mediation by facilitator. Learn discussion skills Invest in process through sharing experience.
32How might I apply this information in my school? KarenHow might I apply this information in my school?What resources and support might I need?What professional development might my teachers need?Who at my school can help lead the way?
33Stand Up, Hand Up, Pair UpWhat is the purpose of using academic conversations?Describe how you could support moving from talk to discourse in your building.Conversation prompts:Can you elaborate on that?Please give an example.I was wondering what you meant by…To build on what you said…Karen – Stand Up, Hand Up, Pair upConversation starters:I would ____ in order to ______.If ___, I would use _____.
34To succeed in life, students should be able to write and speak with clarity, and to read and listen with comprehension. Language and thought are inextricably connected, and as students develop their linguistic skills, they hone the quality of their thinking and become intellectually and socially empowered.- Ernest Boyer, Carnegie FoundationCarol
35Deepen the PracticeStudents take on more responsibility to deepen the conversations:Whole Brain Teaching: Teach/OKPairs invite singletons to join themPairs changeIf one pair member won’t talk, other member may join another pairEach pair monitors itself – point value (eventually)Baseline and improvement dataStudents monitor conversations with checklistsRecognition for great conversations
36Watch for: Disputes Accumulation “The Red Sox are a great team.” Which skills could move this conversation forward?“The Red Sox are a great team.”“The Yankees are better.”“The Red Sox by far.”“You don’t know anything.”Accumulationand then…and then… and then…Information is added, but there is no critical questioning
37Watch for: Procedural talk Which skills could move this conversation forward?Students talk about what they should be doing or discussing, who should be next, etc. rather than exploring the topic.
38Big Idea: Collaborative academic conversations empower students to communicate well in a variety of situations.Essential Questions:What 21st century collaboration skills are needed to sustain purposeful conversations and to enable students to be successful members of society?How do we move students beyond “talk” to academic conversations?How do conversation skills transfer to academic reading and writing in all content areas?How can academic conversations demonstrate Depth of Knowledge?(3 minutes)
39Speaking and Listening Anchor Standards Comprehension and CollaborationPrepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
405 Core Conversation Skills Structured Interactions of “Collaboration” IndependentAcademic ConversationsElaborate & ClarifyParaphraseSupport Ideas with EvidenceBuild on and/or challenge partner’s ideasSynthesize5 Core Conversation SkillsKagan/Cooperative LearningSIOP StrategiesPair ShareSave the Last WordTake a SideConversation Lines and CirclesStructured Interactions of “Collaboration”Individual Seat Work
41Directions for Interview Grid— Example of a Structured Interaction Walk around the room interviewing three other people using the questions on the grid. Have them explain their answers.Paraphrase the responses you hear and record it on the grid.(1 minute)
42Interview Grid Name What is one thing you would never do and why? What is one thing you would never do and why?If you could change one thing in your life what would it be and why? When you think back on your summer vacation, what one thing still makes you smile and why?
43Debrief discussion Did you use the skills? How did your discussion include the 5 Core Conversation Skills?Elaborate & ClarifyParaphraseSupport Ideas with EvidenceBuild on and/or challenge partner’s ideasSynthesizeBrainstorm individually on the back side of the interview form, then share with your elbow partner. After 4 minutes selected participants will be asked to summarize.Which skills did they use to get their partners to explain their answers.
44Why do we need students to have academic conversations? We are not going to answer the second question yet, but we are going to acknowledge these are the questions they will be having.How do we have time for academic conversations with everything else we need to do in our classrooms?
45How would our students respond to this question How would our students respond to this question? Are our students prepared to answer this questions?Lead into next slide.
46Assessment Informal: ask students how many skills they used More formal: Skill checklist on clipboardTeacher roams, checks some or all conversationsOne student listens and checks 2 talkers. Rotate. (Who checks the checker?)
47“Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century.” National Research Council, 2012
48If these are the skills, how do we currently meet the demands of the 21st Century? Turn and talk TURN AND TALK…call on a few volunteers to share
49How does engaging in productive academic conversations meet the demands of the 21st Century? As you are categorizing the benefits of Academic Conversations, we argue that one way to meet these demands that are being asked from employers and universities is through productive Academic Conversations. The work of Jeff Zweirs from Stanford University is guiding our work on Academic Conversations, where talks about the benefits of Academic Conversations. As you work on the sorts with your groups, talk about how AC meets the demandsAs a group, sort the advantages of academic conversation into categories.
501. Language and Literacy Advantages Conversation builds:academic languagevocabularyliteracy skillscommunication skillsEach also meets the Theoretical Framework categories and 21st Century SkillsAcademic language: People learn language as they are exposed to it and use it in real situations. Listening, talking, and negotiating meaning are crucial for language development. Conversations allow students to practice these skills. As students learn and begin to use new vocabulary and language they negotiate meaning and refine their conversations to make them better and more clear.Vocabulary is best learned when using it in authentic conversations. Using vocabulary in speaking and writing increases students’ long-term knowledge of the vocabulary. During conversations, people adjust their understanding of vocabulary based on experiences and knowledge learned form others.Literacy skills: Oral language is the foundation for reading and writing. Conversations build oral language. Conversations give students the opportunity to share and refine their ideas. Many reading skills, predicting, summarizing, clarifying, interpreting, and making inferences, are practiced through conversations.Oral language and communication skills: “The ability to listen, express, and build meaning with others form a cornerstone for learning.” Many students are not exposed to oral academic language at home so they need more practice and exposure in school. Students also need to be taught communication skills that are used daily, such as argumentation skills, group discussion skills, listening skills, and valuing talk and clarity.
512. Cognitive Advantages Conversation: builds critical thinking skills promotes different perspectives and empathyfosters creativityfosters skills for negotiating meaningEach also meets the Theoretical Framework categories and 21st Century SkillsConversation Builds Critical Thinking Skills (COG)In order to be CCR, students can’t just be consumers of facts whose sole purpose is to raise test scoresAcademic conversations help them to develop their intellectual agility, or their ability to think on their feet in “real-time”Academic agility allows them to quickly process and respond to unanticipated comments while examining, scrutinizing, validating, and shaping the ideas being discussedThinking about facts and communicating about them, allows the information to be learned in lasting waysReal time cognitive agility is vital for future successConversation Promotes Different Perspectives and Empathy (COG)Conversation encourages students to get to know one another and exposes them to a range of opinions, ideas, and worldviewsAll of our important ideas are unfinished, and constantly being revised as a result of our experiences and interactions with othersProductive conversation requires that the participants be interested and respectful of different perspectivesConversation gives students practice in thinking about their partner’s needs, wants, values, and feelings which is a real-life skill needed to solve many social and political problems they may face in the futureFosters creativity: The stages of creativity include defining the issue and brainstorming the possible solutions.Negotiating meaning: Negotiating meaning by comprehension checking, “Is that clear?” and paraphrasing, “Are you saying that…?”Focusing on a topic: We are competing for the students attention. Conversation helps builds focusing stamina.
523. Content Learning Advantages Conversation:cultivates connectionshelps students co-construct understandingshelps teachers assess learningEach also meets the Theoretical Framework categories and 21st Century SkillsConversation Build Content UnderstandingsWhen students have an opportunity to talk about what they are learning it helps them remember and have a better understanding of the content they have learned. Rather receiving information, true knowledge and understanding is derived when there’s an opportunity to think about what you have heard by talking about it, organizing it or selecting an idea that needs clarifying.When students discuss what they are learning it is the mixing of ideas that increases ones knowledge. Rather than just repeating facts, students who listen to other points of view will walk away with a clearer understanding of the ideas of others and their own. Knowledge gained through this process deepens understanding and supports retention of information because of the ownership of information that is taking place.An example of this is when you have to teach something. Having to explain something forces you to look at different aspects of the concept which brings about new knowledge.Conversation Cultivates ConnectionsWhen teaching is disjointed, such as teaching to raise test scores, students don’t have a way to connect the information. In order for learning to occur it needs to be meaningful, coherent, deep and connected. Through conversation, students have lasting memory of the information, which they can build on. This supports them in their ability to make connections to real life applications, be creative and practice with problem solving.Conversations Helps Students to Co-Construct Understandings (CON)When students shape knowledge, they are more likely to own it. Ex: When you paint a picture you remember the details better than if you were told the facts about it.Conversations help build a rich foundation of shared backgrounds and experiences upon which to build new knowledge.“Education with inert ideas is not only useless; it is above all things, harmful.” (Alfred North Whitehead, 1939)Conversations Helps Teachers and Students Assess Learning (CON)Through conversations, teachers can assess students’ learning and get insight into their thinkingConversations also allow students to show what they’ve learned, what they are able to do, and what they still need to learn.
534. Social and Cultural Advantages Conversation:builds relationshipsmakes lessons more culturally relevantfosters equityEach also meets the Theoretical Framework categories and 21st Century SkillsConversation Builds RelationshipsThe experience of getting to know another student’s thoughts and views can provide an entry point into new friendships and a way to clear away obstacles to a positive relationship.Advantages:Conversations give practice in caring about a person’s ideas and thoughts.When a partner cares, it makes the recipient feel valued and cared for.(Builds friendships and breaks down barriers and encourages students to go outside their comfort zone)Conversation Builds Academic AmbienceOnce students are encouraged to converse about the content of their lesson, their entire school experience becomes more integrated. School becomes a place of continual learning.Conversation Makes Lessons More Culturally RelevantCulture has a powerful influence on shaping language, learning, and thinking in society. A cultural lens encourages us all to place a high priority on understanding how students think, learn and communicate in order to develop academic skills and content.( Example: At home a child might not hear extensive use of examples to support ideas but at school he/she might be expected to use examples to support ideas.Conversation Fosters EquityConversations in school can increase students’ exposure to the language and thinking of texts. Teach students to use language because it is free to use.
545. Psychological Advantages Conversation:fosters engagement and motivationbuilds confidence and academic identitybuilds student voice and empowermentEach also meets the Theoretical Framework categories and 21st Century SkillsDevelops inner dialogue and self-talk: Our internal dialogue is our thinking process. We often map out conversations in our head before or during conversations with others. When learning a foreign language, we realize that we’re learning the language when some of our thoughts start coming in the new language. Inner dialogue must be promoted in order to cultivate thinking skills and conceptual understanding. This is where ideas and perspectives are formed first.Fosters engagement and motivation through the process of talking with peers. It is through conversation that people get to know each other, take sides, persuade others to take their side, and learn more from others. When students are truly engaged in a conversation it intrinsically motivates learning and energizes them through sharing out their thoughts.Builds confidence and academic identity just by being truly listened to and listening to others. Students need to be trained to show they are listening. You, as the teacher and facilitator, can do this by saying to a student “I didn’t see that point. Thank you for bringing it up.” “That was an awesome idea. Let’s write it down.”Fosters choice, ownership and control: through conversation, students can gather ideas from their own experiences and backgrounds to connect to the topic. It increases confidence in communicating and thinking. It encourages students to “collaboratively wrestle with ideas”.Builds academic identity: the more students converse in an academic setting, the more confident they feel about their learning. Builds self-confidence.Fosters self-discovery: through conversations, students can discover interests, new perspectives and opinions, and even uncover talents. They can clarify existing interests, perspectives, and opinions. Sometimes students need to talk about something to realize they want to know more or to develop a passion for a subject or topic.Builds student voice and empowerment: when students generate ideas, themes, questions and connections through conversation it creates the launching pad for bigger ideas to evolve such as debates, persuasive or argumentative letters to your senator, participating in school board or city council meetings, etc.
55Pick a Content Area Connect with your own teaching partners Decide how you will apply one or more of these skillsIT IS OK TO TAKE IT SLOWTry one skill at a timeStick with it for awhile until if feels naturalThere is no hurry, there’s just taking the next stepThank you for your time today!
56What are collaborative academic conversations? “Academic conversations are back and forth dialogues in which students focus on a topic and explore it by building, challenging, and negotiating relevant ideas. They push students to think and learn in lasting ways.”Jeff Zwiers and Marie CrawfordAcademic ConversationsMake the connection for teachers with the title of our module: academic conversations need to be taking place in class. This requires collaboration with others whether it be one other person, small group, or whole group.(2 minutes)
57CCSS. ELA-Literacy. CCRA. SL CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.1 Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.Remind teachers that the standards state that conversations should be taking place in a variety of situations…partners, small groups, class discussions. The video we will be watching is an example of students engaging in a whole class discussion
58Establishing Norms for Collaborative Academic Conversations Listen to others attentively2.In order for students to be successful with the five core skills, there needs to be norms set in the classroom. These norms should be in accordance with school and department rules.*Start them off with 1 example norm then have teachers discuss and write other norms they think should be included. (3 minutes)*Have teachers share out possible norms. Chart these for teachers to have as a list of norms to choose from when they create their class norms. (5 minutes)Now, brainstorm (by yourself or with a course alike partner) some of the norms to promote effective academic conversations in your classroom. Consider incorporating schoolwide norms as well.
59Between now and then… Be prepared to share: Create norms for Collaborative Academic Conversations with your studentsProvide time for students to practice these norms in a collaborative setting (pairs, trios, groups, class discussions…)Be prepared to share:What have been the positives with establishing and maintaining norms in your classroom?What have been the challenges?What changes still need to be made?
60Next Steps Application of Five Core Skills Connecting to Theoretical Framework & Academic LanguageCreating Conversational Prompts