5Movies, Technology and Business As your authors, Bordwell and Thompson, state, film requires a lot of technology: cameras, lights, sound equipment, and computers to edit and create digital images and sound.Film also requires companies, to make the technology, to invest money, and to distribute and exhibit movies once made.
6A Film CameraRuns undeveloped film through at 24 fps (frames per second).The shutter opens and a lens focuses light, bounced off what the camera will record in front of it, onto the film, creating the photographic image.
7Still Pictures MoveAs we watch a film, we are looking at a series of still pictures.Movies, however, trick the human eye into seeing movement.
8Apparent MotionFilm is projected at 24 fps (frames or still photos per second).Each of those 24 frames is shown twice,creating 48 still photos projected per second.Showing still images that fast makes them seem to move. An effect called Apparent motion.
9CelluloidFilm became possible with development of celluloid, a flexible material that could run through a camera and projector fast enough to create apparent motion.
10ProjectorWorks the opposite of a camera, sending light out through the film to put an image onto a screen.Film runs through projector at 24 fps, and each frame is shown twice to create apparent motion.
11The Negative Is made when film is shot by the movie camera. Filmic images are recorded on chemical emulsion on the film’s surface.A copy of the negative made in a printer is called a print.Digital video records photographic Images in binary codes, not in chemical emulsion with light.
12SprocketsFilm is moved quickly through the camera, printer, or projector bysmall teeth, sprockets, that grab it by the holes on its edge and move it ahead.The sound track is also on the edge of the film, in this image on the right side.12
13Film GaugeRefers to the width of film. Films shown commercially are usually 35 mm.The bigger the gauge, the better the image quality. Some epics such as Lawrence of Arabia were shot in 70mm.
14Example of 70mm FilmLawrence of Arabia (1962)Directed by David Lean
15Digital Cinematography Digital cinematography doesn’t employ film stock.The image is captured on an electronically charged sensor and recorded to tape or a hard drive.Still filmmakers must make choices about color, exposure and tonal contrast that are comparable to those offered in film.
17Four Phases of Production Scriptwriting and fundingPreparation for filmingShootingAssembly
18Scriptwriting and Funding Two roles are central in this phase: Screenwriter and producerTasks of the producer are financial and organizationalThe chief task of the screenwriter is to prepare the screenplay or script.
19The Tasks of the Producer Nurses the project through the scriptwriting processObtains financial supportArranges to hire the personnel who will work on the filmDuring shooting, he or she acts as the liaison between the writer or director and the company that is financing the filmArranges distribution, promotion and marketingMonitors the payback of money invested in the production
20Modes of Production Large Scale Production Studio FilmmakingWarner Brothers, Paramount, DisneyExploitation and Independent ProductionSmall CompaniesMiramax, Focus FilmsSmall Scale ProductionPersonal Filmmaking
21Independent vs. StudioAn independent producer unearths film projects and tries to convince production companies or distributors to finance the film.A producer may work for a distribution company and generate ideas for films.A studio may hire a producer to put together a particular package.Recent independent films include Winter’s Bone, Get Low, The Kids are Alright and Precious.
22Kinds of Producers Executive Producer Line Producer Associate Producer Arranges financing/obtains literary propertyLine ProducerOversees day to day filmmakingAssociate ProducerActs as a liaison with labs and technical personnel
23The Screenwriter Writes the script, which goes through several stages: The TreatmentA synopsis of the workDrafts of the scriptRevisionsThe Shooting ScriptThe Final Version
24Preparation for Filming Director Christopher Nolan rehearsing Memento (2000) with Guy Pierce
25PreproductionProducer and director set up a production office, hire a crew and cast the roles.They prepare a daily schedule based on continuity, which is the most convenient order of production.Writers make screenplay revisions.Art department draws StoryboardsProduction designer creates the film’s settings.Set decorator/set dresserCostume designerPrevisualization with computer graphics
26Storyboards for Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
27Clint Eastwood directing Shooting the FilmClint Eastwood directingBlood Work (2002)
29Director’s Crew Script Supervisor First Assistant Director ContinuityFirst Assistant DirectorPlans shooting schedule, sets up shotsSecond Assistant DirectorLiaison among the first AD, the camera crew and the electrician’s crewThird Assistant DirectorMessenger for director and staffDialogue CoachFeeds performers their linesSecond Unit DirectorFilms stunts, location footage, action scenes
30Other aspects of shooting Cast/ActorsDirector shapes performancesVisual Effects UnitStuntsAnimal WranglersCamera OperatorKey GripSupervises grips who carry and arrange equipment and propsGafferHead ElectricianBoom OperatorMicrophones
31Thelma Schoonmaker, who has edited many of Martin Scorsese’s movies Assembling the FilmThelma Schoonmaker, who has edited many of Martin Scorsese’s movies
32Postproduction Editor Works with the director to make creative decisions about how the film footage can best be cut together to tell a story.The editor’s job can be a huge one.
33Post Production terms Rough Cut Final Cut Outtakes The shots loosely strung in sequence, without sounds effects or music.Final CutThe finished film, still without soundOuttakesUnused shots
34Sound The sound designer builds the soundtrack, which is made up of DialogueSound effectsMusic
36Risk and RewardCompanies that distribute films form the core of economic power in the movie industry.They can afford the large economic risk of funding, marketing and distributing movies to viewers around the world.Studios rely on tent pole pictures which “support” the smaller movies that don’t succeed throughout the year.When successful, the profits are enormous.
37Hollywood Studios Six companies are the world’s largest distributors: Warner BrothersParamountWalt DisneySony/ColumbiaTwentieth Century FoxUniversal
38Ancillary Markets DVDs Cable, Broadcast Television Movies to Airlines and HotelsOnline/Video on DemandClothesToys
39ProfitsAncillary markets are where films make most of their money, sometimes recouping the losses from a film that did poorly in theatrical release.Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery (1997) did moderate box office in the theater, but really found its audience on video, paving the way for theatrical sequels, which now had a built-in audience.
44A Watershed MomentJaws was a watershed moment in the history of film. Along with Star Wars, it is credited with ushering in the era of the blockbuster (which we are still in). It changed the way that films are distributed and exhibited.
45The Production of Jaws Based on a bestseller by Peter Benchley Rights acquired by producers Richard Zanuck and David BrownSpielberg tapped as directorHis second feature film after The Sugarland Express and the TV film Duel
46Why Jaws?Jaws is a famous production that highlights both the problems that arise during the creative process of filmmaking as well as the innovation necessary to overcome those problems.Watch the first clip from The Making of Jaws documentary.
47Problems The film was pushed into production early It was a technical nightmareThe shark almost never workedSlow production with a lot of pressure from the studiosWatch the clip
48SolutionsAlthough a great deal of planning goes into movie production, much of it is also improvised on the set because it is impossible to completely plan for unforseen issues such as weather, technological failures, etc.Often, filmmakers figure out things as they go along.Watch the two clips.48
49The Outcome Jaws became the highest grossing film ever at that time. Proved the success of “repeater” business.One of the first films to open “wide” on many screens at once as opposed to being slowly “rolled out.”Watch the clip.
50Next Lecture: Narrative and Rashômon End of Lecture 2Next Lecture: Narrative and Rashômon