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4/29/2015MIt20001 Film History MIT2000. 4/29/2015MIt20002 Kinetograph and Kinetoscope 1. W.K.L. Dickson/ Thomas Edison 2. Kinetograph: moving picture.

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Presentation on theme: "4/29/2015MIt20001 Film History MIT2000. 4/29/2015MIt20002 Kinetograph and Kinetoscope 1. W.K.L. Dickson/ Thomas Edison 2. Kinetograph: moving picture."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/29/2015MIt20001 Film History MIT2000

2 4/29/2015MIt20002 Kinetograph and Kinetoscope 1. W.K.L. Dickson/ Thomas Edison 2. Kinetograph: moving picture camera, Kinetoscope: peep hole viewing machine, Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893

3 4/29/2015MIt20003 Kinetoscope 1. 35mm b/w motion picture (15 sec) 2. dancers, acrobats, prize fighters, vaudeville performers 3. m/watch?v=WmZ4VPmh Akw m/watch?v=WmZ4VPmh Akw 4. Edison ‘studio’ 5. disappear by 1900

4 4/29/2015MIt20004 Inventing the Projector 1. Francis Jenkins/Thomas Armat 1. basic principle est. by Auguste/Louis Lumière 1. Cinematograph in Paris, “Workers Leaving Lumière Factory” 1. ch?v=4nj0vEO4Q6s ch?v=4nj0vEO4Q6s 3. “Train Arrival at La Ciotat” 1. ch?v=1dgLEDdFddk ch?v=1dgLEDdFddk

5 4/29/2015MIt20005 Showings: Phase One, Vaudeville, 1. watch?v=hkC1jKa3ztY watch?v=hkC1jKa3ztY 2. movies-novelty acts ‘chasers’ 2. Penny Arcades 1. owners buy/rent projectors 2. regular film screenings 3. Traveling shows 1. itinerant exhibitors 2. tent shows

6 4/29/2015MIt20006 Nickelodeons ( ) 1. Films Only 1. continuous showings 2. Growth: : 18,000 (US) 2. 7 mil daily admissions 3. Longer films minutes 2. one-reel westerns, melodramas

7 4/29/2015MIt20007 Nickelodeon: Audience Growth 1. Urbanization 2. Industrialization 3. More Disposable Income 4. More Leisure Time

8 4/29/2015MIt20008 Leisure and Culture (early 1900s) Low Culture  arcades  dance halls  vaudeville  saloon  pool hall  minstrel shows  burlesque theatre High Culture  parks  libraries  school rec. programs  Museums  Opera/Theatre  church socials  Progressive Era Reformers

9 4/29/2015MIt20009 Nickelodeon/Low Culture 1. poor sanitation, smells, overcrowding 2. outside barkers, handbills, lights 3. darkness and morality 4. raunchy vaudeville opening acts

10 4/29/2015MIt “The Story of Film” Nickelodeons 2. Stars/Star System 3. Industrialization of Cinema 4. Studio System / Studio Control x?xtid=8273

11 4/29/2015MIt Silent Films (mid-1920s) 1. Commercial Success features annually mil. weekly attendance 3. 25,000 cinemas 2. Aesthetic Success 1. “The Tramp”, "Wings" 2. Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Clara Bow 3. visual storytelling

12 4/29/2015MIt Experiencing Silent Films, 1920s 1. Chaplin’s “The Kid” (1921) 1. atch?v=qNseEVlaCl4 atch?v=qNseEVlaCl4 2. elegant, ornate cinemas 3. musical accompaniment 4. audience imagination 5. “subjective experience” not passive viewing

13 4/29/2015MIt Talkies 1. “The Jazz Singer” primarily visual to primarily verbal 3. comedy: pantomime to dialogue 4. standardized, less individual interpretation 5. writers-journalists/literati 6. theatre actors/directors 7. NY/Hollywood

14 4/29/2015MIt Star System/Studio System 1. high cost sound movies 2. Studios (Paramount, MGM) 1. order and predictability films a year; “A” & "B" movies 3. proving ground for new stars 4. 7-year contracts s/Depression 1. stability in turbulent times 2. stereotypical mold for stars

15 4/29/2015MIt City and Social Alienation Country  family tradition  Religion  framework of purpose  community norms  close-knit community  character City  impersonality  normlessness  Anomie: ‘lost in the crowd’  self-help manuals  personality

16 Movie Star as Model for Personality 1. models: newcomers/new situations 2. stage, screen, playing field 1. define success, attractiveness 2. confident behaviour 3. decisive; "harmonious personalities.“ 3. whole person; well-integrated self 4. celebrated actors as “personalities " 4/29/2015MIt200016

17 4/29/2015MIt Star System/Star Gazing 1. studio investment- lengthen stardom 2. Fan Mail 3. Fan Clubs : 535 clubs ,000 members

18 4/29/2015MIt Star Building 1. Photography 2. Simultaneity of experience 3. From ‘rural’ commonality of experience to shared celebrity one (movie's releases) 4. Close-up Shot; faces

19 4/29/2015MIt Women and Film  Why many women novelists today but few women filmmakers? Novelists: Margaret Atwood, Anne Michaels, Anne-Marie Macdonald, Barbara Gowdy, etc. Senior Women at Knopf Canada; Doubleday Canada; Penguin, etc.

20 4/29/2015MIt Women and Filmmaking 1. Of 7400 feature films btwn : how many directed by women? Kathryn Bigelow (“The Hurt Locker”, 2010) 3. Bechdel Test 4. Why so few women (directors/writers)?

21 4/29/2015MIt Nell Shipman  Canada’s first female filmmaker  Others in interwar years: Leni Riefenstahl (Germany) Germaine Dulac (France) Mabel Normand, Lois Weber, (U.S.)

22 4/29/2015MIt Nell Shipman 1. “Back to God’s Country” Wrote, direct, act 2. Critical & financial success 3. v=9B9_GRCJO9c v=9B9_GRCJO9c 2. Nell Shipman Productions 3. Make films (Idaho), sell rights in NY 1. “Something New” (1921) 2. “Grub Stake” (1923)

23 4/29/2015MIt Rise of Hollywood Studio System 1. post-mid-1920s (MGM, Paramount, etc) 2. vertical integration of production, distribution, and exhibition 3. Studio ties and feature filmmaking 4. Shipman “cottage industry” vs “industrialization” of filmmaking 5. (Note relevance to Magder reading and paucity of CDN films in CDN cinemas)

24 4/29/2015MIt Women Filmmakers 1. Early film and novelty 1. popular entertainment; vaudeville; theatre (women) 2. Economic Factors (post-1925) 1. Filmmaking & Capital Investment 2. Entrance Barriers For Newcomers 3. Social Factors 1. Female Exclusion 2. “Old Boy’s Network”


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