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Cognitivist ideas Cognitivism places the focus on mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving. Learning is about finding meaning,

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitivist ideas Cognitivism places the focus on mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving. Learning is about finding meaning,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cognitivist ideas Cognitivism places the focus on mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving. Learning is about finding meaning, making links, seeing the whole. 4/29/20151

3 Some Cognitivist Blokes Bruner Dewey Ausubel Other key theorists: Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagne Nb. No picture does not mean less important 4/29/20152

4 John Dewey ( ) Dewey saw education as an integral element of the democratic process because an educated population is able to exercise social and personal judgement. He defined learning as ‘learning to think’ and the process of learning is not just doing something such as a task, but reflecting and learning from this. 4/29/20153

5 Dewey education should train one’s powers of ‘reflective thinking’ and ‘the teacher’s influence is paramount’ n.b. these are paraphrases- not actual quotes 4/29/20154

6 knowledge is a process rather than a product n.b. these are paraphrases- not actual quotes Bruner 4/29/20155

7 a curriculum as it develops should revisit basic ideas repeatedly, building upon them until the student has grasped the full formal apparatus that goes with them – the Spiral Curriculum n.b. these are paraphrases- not actual quotes Bruner 4/29/20156

8 Cognitivism Cognitivism places the focus on mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving. These are, of course, NOT observable processes, which is why Cognitivists describe it as opening the “black box” of the human mind. Cognitivists place focus on how we gain and organise knowledge (cognise)

9 Learning outcomes Identify the key characteristics of cognitivism Apply this to your own teaching and learning Consider the differences between cognitivism and the other theories we have looked at

10 teams of equal numbers Each team has one envelope First person takes one of the cards out of the envelope and without saying the word on the paper describes the famous person. Once answered the envelope can pass to the next person, who takes another paper and describes to the next person in the line and so on. First team to empty envelope WINS !!!!

11 In groups discuss and present

12 Group activity 2 jigsaw paragraph – you can only read your card and must listen to the others to construct a complete paragraph. What is this about?

13 Group activity 3 Put the right answers in the boxes

14 Consider the constructivist model Do you agree that learners should be given the opportunity to construct their own meaning rather than just memorising “correct answers?” Justify your answer If you think they should then use the model above to say how you will encourage this in your practice i.e. give examples of how you will develop this behaviour AND think about how you already do this

15 Key points summarised learning is a cognitive process which involves the learner in: acquiring new information, transforming the learning with regard to existing knowledge and then, checking the knowledge against a new situation a curriculum as it develops should revisit basic ideas repeatedly, building upon them until the student has grasped the full concept – the Spiral Curriculum knowledge is a process rather than a product

16 Key points cont. education should train one’s powers of ‘reflective thinking’ and ‘the teachers influence is paramount’ the key to effective learning is the students relating their new learning to existing cognitive structures prior experience with related problems is necessary for a learner to deal successfully with new and novel situations Cognitivists argue that our mind actively processes information and converts it into new forms and categories

17 1. Let learners discover things for themselves 2. In discussions let learners lead them 3. Point out the structure of the topic - Stress relationships 4. Point out what learners already know and what they need to know (advance organisers) 5. If your learners want to find out answers to something personal USE IT- if you can relate it personally your are more likely to explore it and remember it.

18 a curriculum as it develops should revisit basic ideas repeatedly, building upon them until the student has grasped the full formal apparatus that goes with them – the Spiral Curriculum n.b. these are paraphrases- not actual quotes Bruner 4/29/201517

19 Teachers make assumptions about what students know at the start Teachers should start by finding out what ideas students currently have to see if they need to construct new ones Learners may share learning experiences but will each construct their own meaning This is continuous – we are always constructing new meanings and understanding A Constructivist approach….

20 Applied to learning………….. The purpose is to allow individuals to construct their own meaning, not just memorise “right answers” The curriculum should therefore be customised to the students’ prior knowledge Teachers should focus on fostering new understanding, encouraging learners to analyse, interpret, and predict information This should be an active process and students should take responsibility for it

21 Ausubel Use ‘advance organisers’ they hint, suggest, shape, help contextualise, make links with what is to follow n.b. these are paraphrases- not actual quotes 4/29/201520

22 Organiser Entry Behaviour Restructuring Applying Review Compare with original ideas

23 The Constructivist Theory Learning involves actively constructing our own meanings When you have learned something, you have changed your brain physically Active vs. passive learning 4/29/201522

24 Some thoughts from Vygotsky… What do you think? Teach knowledge OR skills? Learners can get up-to-date knowledge from the internet or books Learners should work at a level above their present capacity Children engage more in play than academic instruction. Is it the same for young people?

25 Read the outcomes for the assignment Produce a mind map outlining the content of your discussion for cognitivism

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27 Please sit ‘evenly’ at tables Discuss with a partner the following: What are the main differences between a behaviourist and humanist approach to teaching and learning? Which is most suitable for your own subject specialism? Why?

28 teams of equal numbers Each team has one envelope First person takes one of the cards out of the envelope and without saying the word on the paper describes the famous person. Once answered the envelope can pass to the next person, who takes another paper and describes to the next person in the line and so on. First team to empty envelope WINS !!!!

29 In groups discuss and present

30 Group activity 2 jigsaw paragraph – you can only read your card and must listen to the others to construct a complete paragraph. What is this about?

31 Group activity 3 Put the right answers in the boxes

32 Consider the constructivist model Do you agree that learners should be given the opportunity to construct their own meaning rather than just memorising “correct answers?” Justify your answer If you think they should then use the model above to say how you will encourage this in your practice i.e. give examples of how you will develop this behaviour AND think about how you already do this


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