Presentation on theme: "GISC 6383 Geographic Information Systems Management & Implementation"— Presentation transcript:
1 GISC 6383 Geographic Information Systems Management & Implementation Introduction:The ChallengesDr. Ronald BriggsUniversity of Texas at DallasProgram in Geographic Information Sciences
2 Course Objectivesto understand the fundamentals of implementing and managing Geographic Information Systems within modern organizationsmaximizing the liklihood of successminimizing the liklihood of failures
3 Who is in Attendance? Graduate Students pursuing degrees GIS Professionals seeking additional skillsPeople who think GIS holds promiseStudents who couldn’t care less - need the hours and the time fitted their schedule
4 TextsTomlinson, Roger Thinking about GIS: GIS Planning for Managers ESRI Press, nd ed. (1st ed is OK)Zeiler, M. Modeling our World: The ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Design ESRI Press, 1999Alternative Texts to Tomlinson :Huxhold, William E. and Levinsohn, Allan G. Managing Geographic Information System Projects New York: Oxford, 1995Harmon and Anderson The Design and implementation of Geographic Information Systems Wiley, 2003
5 Alternative Texts and Useful Books Management/People focusedObermeyer, Nancy J. and Pinto, Jeffrey K. Managing Geographic Information Systems New York: The Guilford Press, 1994 (dated and very academic)von Meyer, Nancy and R. Scott Oppman Enterprise GIS. URISA, 1999, 98 pp. (set of case studies)Derek Reeve, GIS, Organizations and People London: Taylor & Francis, 2000 (UK case studies)Heather Campbell and Ian Masser GIS and Organizations London Taylor and Francis, 1995 (earlier edition of Reeve)Technology focusedKorte, George B. The GIS Book Santa Fe: Onword Press, 5th Ed. 2001Hohl, Pat GIS Data Conversion: Strategies, Techniques, Management Santa Fe, Onword Press, 1998Yong-Qi Chen and Yuk-Cheung Lee Geographical Data Acquisition Springer-Verlag, 2001,Shashi Shekhar and Sanjay Chawla Spatial Databases: A Tour Prentice Hall, 2003
6 ESRI PRESS Application area series Public SectorO’Looney, John Beyond Maps: GIS and Decision Making in Local Government, excellent!Fleming, Cory The GIS Guide for Local Government Officials , 2005Huxhold, W.E. ArcGIS and the Digital City: A hands-on approach for local government, 2004Green, R.W. Open Access-GIS in E-Government, 2001Green, R.W. GIS in Public PolicyAmdahl, G. Disaster Response: GIS for Public Safety, 2001Green, R.W. Confronting Catastrophe: A GIS Handbook, 2002LeGates, R. Think Globally, Act Regionally: GIS and data visualization for social science and public policy research, 2005
7 ESRI PRESS Application area series Private Sector/Specific Application AreasBoyles, C.T. Measuring Up: The Business Case for GIS, 2004Harder, C. GIS Means Business, 1998Lang, L. Managing Natural Resources with GIS, 1998Harder, Christian Enterprise GIS for Energy Companies, 1999Lang, Laura GIS for Health Organizations, 2000Godin, Lisa GIS in Telecommunications, 2001Lang, Laura Transportation GIS, 1999Godin, Lisa GIS in Telecommunications, 2001Herzog, David Mapping the News: GIS in Jounalism, (features UTD!)Harder, C. Enterprise GIS for Energy Companies 1999Hanna, K GIS for Landscape Architects, 1999
8 Semester Student Assignments Provide a State-of-the-Art Technology Assessment report for a selected topic:class presentation to be made on assigned date and accompanied by written evaluationSee course outline for example topics: you may select others2 or 3 people per group (no more and no less: 12 groups max.)Prepare a GIS Implementation Plan for an organization, using principles outlined in class1. By or before date of Midterm, identify organization and send me outlining your intentions.2. Turn in your written report (target pages) at semester end.See course syllabus for exact due dates.See Web site for additional details.
9 What is a GIS?A GIS allows the geographic features in real world locations to be digitally represented so that they can be abstractly presented in map (analog) form, and they can be worked with and manipulated to address some problem.It can be the basis for:conducting a project,running one or more departmentswithin an organization,or for managing an entire enterprise.
10 Real WorldA city wants you to propose a plan for re-organizing its primary operations (80% of which are geographic based) so that standard daily operations, as well as longer-term decision making, can be accomplished more speedily and efficiently. You propose an inter-departmental shared GIS to replace paper maps and documents associated with daily operations and to improve data and information flow between departments to enhance and speed-up decision-making.
11 Real WorldTexas Super High Speed Rail asks YOU to propose alternative routes, with initial cost estimates, for high speed rail lines linking Dallas, Houston, San Antonio. The initial plan should be ready next month. You use GIS to examine alternative corridors and estimate costs.
12 Add socio-economic data An Oil company wants to start documenting it’s oil production by well. They own or lease over 30 thousand wells worldwide. Set up a GIS that can accept reporting data on a daily basis and analyze production trends.Add natural featuresAdd human featuresAdd socio-economic dataUtilize industry standard commercial database (Oracle, SQL Server, etc.)
13 A City wants YOU to supply it with all it’s base mapping, set up it’s new computers/GIS network so maps can be shared between departments, train it’s users and make quarterly updates for them until they hire a GIS Coordinator. They need a proposal in two weeks.
14 Real WorldYou are an intern in the city fire department. The fire chief has heard of GIS and thinks it could help them with their planning. Being young, educated, somewhat computer literate, but not trained to go out on fire-trucks (thus in the chief’s eye relatively useless), you are asked to research this and make recommendations.
15 GIS Scope Project Single department application (Departmental GIS) Multi departmental applicationEnterprise system (Enterprise GIS)Multi Institutional endeavor (Community GIS)
16 Level I: Project Institutional Environment GIS Implementation Approach Expected result is a productProject has an end dateCosts paid by projectNo long-term support expected & no commitment to GISlittle or no organizational impactGIS Implementation ApproachOne-time effortneed best tool for the jobconsultant or contractor may do entire thingBenefitproduct produced on-time & within budgethighway feasibility study completedrail line corridor study complete
17 Level II: Single Department (but perhaps multiple of them!) Institutional EnvironmentSmall Institution or Single DepartmentWell-defined, existing business function to be supportedOngoing support is required but no major commitment to GISLittle or no reorganization e.g. manual drafters shift to GIS workstationManaged by departmental responsible for business activityCorporate support nice, but not neededGIS Implementation ApproachPCs, with local department networkFile-based spatial data; maybe CAD focusedLittle or no integration with attribute databasesLittle or no sharing of information within or beyond departmentBenefitsupports specific business task more effectively and efficientlyExample:automate map production or manage storm water drainage system
18 Level III: Multi-Department/Service Resource Institutional EnvironmentMid-size to large institution, more than one departmentMore significant commitment of staff and budget to GISOngoing support and update strategies essentialSome organizational or functional adjustments requiredperhaps run as a service department or managed by cooperating departmentscorporate support helps, but not essentialGIS ImplementationMultiple, networked PCsTopological GIS dataRelational databaseSome information sharing between departmentsBenefitImproves effectiveness of specific business tasksImproved operational efficiencyIntegration of business functionsBetter use of limited resourcesExample:automate map production and manage storm water drainage system
19 Level IV: Enterprise System Institutional EnvironmentUsually medium to large institution, multiple departmentsHigh level long-term commitment of staff and resources to GISOrganization-level strategic planning via formal methodology, distributed implementation and maintenanceIncorporation of GIS as part of organizational infrastructure for production of services; significant organizational adjustmentscorporate management support and involvement of corporate is essentialGIS ImplementationDistributed client-server networksIntegration of multiple GIS, database, and related technologiesMulti-department data sharing,standards and metadata essentialBenefit: as for multi-department, plusEmphasis is improved effectiveness (better ,not just cheaper!)Consistent informationBetter decision makingBetter external service to citizens and customersExample:“Calgary Implements Enterprise GIS”ARCNews, v. 21, #2, 1999
20 Level V: Multi-Organizational Institutional Environmentpublic organizations, most probably; industry alliance possibly, but anti-trust laws may be a problemMulti-participant organizational structure for planning and policyDistributed maintenance responsibilities across organizationsLong-term, high level commitment among participating organizationsSignificant reorganization of functions across organizationsGIS ImplementationDistributed maintenance of shared elementsData exchange facility via Internet or other WANData integration from multiple technologiesstandards and metadata paramountBenefitslower costs to citizen/tax payerenhanced competitive positionExample:State government, metropolitan area, industry alliance
21 Scope of Management Challenge Know how to use GIS as a toolroute fire or garbage trucksdraw mapsUnderstand how GIS can be used to meet the goals and objectives of your unit or organizationreduce losses from firesenhance service to citizens/customersAppreciate the challenge of integrating GIS enterprise-wide into the organization to enhance its efficiency and effectivenessThis is what we will do!!!Gets harder!
22 Fundamental Management Responsibilities Plan!Taking the hits as they come is not management!If you don’t know where you are going, you never get thereThe unexpected should never be expectedStandardize!Free-for-all throughout the organization is not management!Standards are paramountDocument!Relying on people’s heads as the depository for organizational knowledge is not management!
24 GIS Implementation no guaranteed recipe for success no cookie-cutter formula to applyBUTthere are general procedures and processes (models) which can help immeasurablyignorance of problems & past failures is not blissto be forewarned is to be forearmed!
25 Context for Successful GIS Implementation (What you need to understand: primary course topics) GIS ParadigmUse of spatial location as integrating framework for informationUnderstanding the GIS paradigm the focus of GISC 6381 Fund.Geographic Data Management PrinciplesExtend data management principles to include geographic focusdb (database) principles one major component of this courseTechnologySelect appropriate GIS-enabling technology and plan to evolveAddressed via student group technology reportsOrganizational SettingOrganizational setting a crucial ingredient to success/failureSystematic GIS design process essential for enterprise-wide applications: major topic for this course
26 Steps in a GIS ProjectI. Data acquisition (never underestimate the cost!)paper mapsdigital filesremote sensing/satellitefieldworkII. Preprocessing: preparation & integrationformat conversiondigitizing and/or scanningedge matching and rectificationIII. Data Managementvariable selection & definitiontable design (performance v. usability)CRUD policies/procedures: Create (data entry), Retrieve (view), Update (change), Deletion (remove)IV. Manipulation and Analysis (all the user cares about!)address matchingnetwork analysisterrain modelling (e.g. slopes, aspects)V. Product Generationtabular reportsgraphics (maps and charts)Appropriate for a project, but insufficient for an enterprise implementation.13
27 GIS Enterprise Planning Process: general strategy Conceptual Design/Needs Assessment/Requirements/ why do itdoes it support organization’s goal or strategic plan?Tomlinson Chap 3, 4, 5 Chap. 11Huxhold Chap. 3 Strategic Planning for GISLogical Design: what it doeswhat business process(es) will be supported?Tomlinson Chap 6 ,7Huxhold Chap. 5 Systems Design MethodologyPhysical design: how it will do ithardware, software, data, applications, people & their managementTomlinson Chap 8, Chap 9, Chap 10Huxhold Chap. 4 Implementation PlanningImplementation: getting it goingactually doing it!Tomlinson Chap 12Huxhold Chap. 6 Implementation ManagementOn-going System Management: keeping it goingoperations, maintenance, update and useHuxhold Chap. 7 Managing the Systemretirement savings?boats & cars?kids college?residence?bachelor padm-no-kcore familyextended familyRanch or 3 storyfloorplanswood or bricktub or showerDirt fliesconcrete pouredMove in.Living there.MaintenanceHome improvements
28 …if you were building your dream house, would you use blueprints?
29 GIS Development Guides State of New York, Local Government Technology Services (1997) An 11-step ProcessNeedsAssessmentConceptualDesignAvailableData SurveyH/W & S/WSurveyPilot/BenchmarkDatabasePlanningand DesignConstructionAcquisition ofGIS Hardwareand SoftwareGIS SystemIntegrationApplicationDevelopmentGIS Use andMaintenance125639911784
30 A 10-Stage GIS Planing Methodology Tomlinson, Thinking About GIS Consider the strategic purposePlan for the planningConduct a technology seminarDescribe the information productsDefine the system scopeCreate a data designChoose a logical modelDetermine system requirementsBenefit-cost, migration and risk analysisMake an implementation planConceptual DesignLogical DesignPhysical DesignImplementation
32 Five-step Process from Somers/URISA Conceptual designPlanAnalyzeDesignAcquire& DevelopOperate &MaintainLogical designPhysical designImplementationSource: Rebecca Somers, Quick Guide to GIS Implementation and Management Park Ridge, IL: Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 2001, p.7
33 “Its not the order or precise structure of the tasks but rather that, in one way or another, all get completed.”GIS Development Guides State of New York, Local Government Technology Services (1997)
35 Evolution of Issues During Implementation Campbell, (1992) Technological, associated with system compatibilitydata-related, associated with lack of consistency between data setsorganizational, associated with data ownership and controlinstitutional, associated with how to use information in the policy-making processas implementation proceedsEach challenge must be overcome as the implementation process proceeds.
36 Human Factors Paramount Campbell, 1992 Organizations, and units in them, jealously guard their scope of activity and treat with suspicion proposals that may change thisadministrative applications associated with cost savings are more readily accepted than decision-making applications to be used by policy makerslocal communities very suspicious of developments that suggest centralization of information and therefore powerGIS techies often uncomfortable with social and political aspects of system implementation and utilization, thus need to involve politically-adept users/line managers/policy makers
37 People problems paramount! "....As far as your project goes, I'm willing to help but I'm not sure we are the ideal candidate for the project. I'm working for the Department of Natural Resources which covers a lot of territory: Oil and Gas Administration, Water Administration, Game and Fish Department, Land Administration, etc. etc. All these departments are sort of run as little fiefdoms with each not really working with the others unless they have to. It's sort of the norm, nobody wants to coordinate with anyone else. I know from attempts in the past that it is nearly impossible to get information or data from these guys. In some cases we have ended up collecting our own data just because we couldn't get copies from other departments. We had a full time planner spend the better part of a year meeting with department heads to try to identify their needs, update the status of various projects, and come up with a plan for the future. Very frustrating as this was all work that was going to help them but they didn't want to cooperate at all. Long story short, I'm willing to help but can't commit much time to dealing with these idiots, trying to get information out of them. This is a weird little environment and not really like the "real world" in a lot of respects..."Quote from an received by a student in GISC 6383
38 Conclusion: GIS Implementation a comprehensive, systematic approach to planning, design and implementation will more likely produce a successful GIS implementation--but no guarantees!GIS is both an enabling technology and a set of concepts about organizing work and data, thus it will impact an organization’s established “way of doing business”management and institutional issues raise the greatest challenges, thus must be addressed“The only human that loves change is a baby in diapers”:open, participative processes are more likely to deal successfully with with these management and institutional issues ( and the technical ones!), therefore involve peopleGIS is a complex information technology application, thus many of the same principles apply as in IT…...
39 Conclusion: Information Technology Implementation Organizational change is both a cause and an effect of evolving information technologyHuman aspects of organizational change are more important and challenging than technical aspectsWhile information technology can improve organizational performance, the technology alone will not transform an organizationSuccessful implementation depends on planned, well-conceived and managed integration of information technology change and organizational changeA corresponding list of implementation challenges froman IT text!
40 Conclusion: GIS within Context Organizational Context--people and processesManagementOrganizational Context--people and processesOrganization’sGoals and StrategiesTechnological Environment