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Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal 1 Over 70% rain occurs during monsoon (July-August) Rabi (winter) crops are sown on stored soil moisture of rains during monsoon.

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Presentation on theme: "Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal 1 Over 70% rain occurs during monsoon (July-August) Rabi (winter) crops are sown on stored soil moisture of rains during monsoon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal 1 Over 70% rain occurs during monsoon (July-August) Rabi (winter) crops are sown on stored soil moisture of rains during monsoon BARI, Chakwal: Established 1979 Longitude72 O Latitude32 O Altitude 575 m TOTAL AREA 89 ha RESEARCH AREA 65 ha Dr. Abid Subhani Role of Soil Moisture in Fertilizer Use Efficiency for Rainfed Areas-A Review

2  Green water (water contained in the soil)is a key factor in rainfed agriculture  Rainfed agriculture covers 80 per cent of the world’s agricultural area and contributes two-third of global food production  Adequate soil moisture leads to higher yields  Unreliable/insufficient rainfall is a major limiting factor for agricultural productivity in rainfed areas  Soil moisture plays a significant role in nutrient absorption/uptake by the plant

3 Major constraints of low Agric. Productivity in Rainfed areas: (i)low and erratic rainfall (ii) soil erosion (loss of top fertile soil and moisture) (iii) small and fragmented land holdings (iv) low agricultural inputs Possible approaches to increase the agric. Production 1.By bringing more area under cultivation (horizontal expansion) 2.Increasing the yield per hectare (vertical expansion). There is vast scope for horizontal and vertical expansions by increasing the water productivity and FUE.

4 4 Districts: Attock Rawalpindi Jhelum Chakwal Parts of: Sialkot Narowal Gujrat Khushab Mianwali Jhang Bhakkar Layyah D.G.Khan Rajanpur Cultivated Area of Punjab 11.8 Mha Irrigated cultivated Area 8.7 Mha Rainfed cultivated area 3.1 Mha


6 > 1000mm Murree,KotliSattianTeh. 500 to 1000mm Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujrat, Sialkot, Narowal 300-500mm Attock, Chakwal, Khushab 150-300mm Mianwali, Jhang, Bhakkar, Layyah, M’Garh, DGKhan,

7 Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal Rainfall (mm) 7 Almost 70% rain occur during Monsoon; Rabi crops are sown on stored soil moisture of rains received during Monsoon

8 C Monthly rainfall during Rabi (2007-2011) at Chakwal


10 Contribution of Punjab Barani tract (Area wise: 2009-10) CROPPUNJAB AREA (000 ha) BARANI AREA (000 ha) BARANI AREA CONTRIBUTION (%) WHEAT6483.4652.410.1 CHICKPEA900.1818.590.9 LENTIL20.716.278.3 RAPSEED & MUSTARD 127.632.325.3 GROUNDNUT81.876.393.3 MUNG189.38.54.5 MASH30.426.386.5 SORGHUM147.186.358.7 PEARL MILLETS361.8143.840.0

11 Contribution of Punjab Barani tract (Production wise: 2009-10) CROPPUNJAB Production (000 tons) BARANI Production (000 tons) BARANI AREA CONTRIBUTION (%) WHEAT167768836.3 CHICKPEA382.532484.7 LENTIL10.16.968.3 RAPSEED & MUSTARD 108.620.719.1 GROUNDNUT49.941.683.4 MUNG101.82.5 MASH13.610.980.1 SORGHUM76.032.743.0 PEARL MILLETS205.043.721.3 TOTAL177241366 7.7

12 Use of NPK (kg/ha) in different areas of Punjab and NWFP during 2000-01 Source: Nisar and Rashid, 2003 PARTICULARS NP2O5P2O5 K2OK2O PUNJAB (IRRIGATED) Cotton-Wheat (region)116241 Mixed crops (region)99202 Rainfed-Punjab Pulses-wheat (region)317- Maize-wheat (region)194- NWFP (IRRIGATED) Mixed crops (region)123270.5 Rainfed-NWFP Pulses-wheat (region)194-

13 Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE) FUE: The amount of produce increased by application of one unit of nutrient /fertilizer (Agronomist) FUE: Is the percent recovery of the applied nutrient in the harvested portion of crop (Soil Scientist) FUE: Rupees returned for each rupee spent on fertilizer (Economist) Source: Nisar and Rashid, 2003

14 Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE)/%Recovery Nitrogen: Utilization of applied N ranges from 40% in flooded (lowland) rice to about 50-60% in irrigated upland crops. Phosphorus: Only about 10-25% of the applied P is utilized by the first crop, with residual P being partly available over a period of time to succeeding crops. Potassium: Utilization efficiency of applied K is reported fairly high, about 70%. Source: Nisar and Rashid, 2003

15 Role of water in the use of fertilizers Availability of soil moisture is an important determinant of fertilizer use in the semi-arid areas Availability of soil moisture is essential for fertilizer breakup in ionic forms, their movement in the soil and nutrient absorption/uptake & use Efficient use of nutrients after uptake depends on continuous supply of moisture It provide substrate for different physiological reactions/functions in plant cell like photosynthesis. Water serves as transport agent for nutrients and products of plant metabolism

16 Factors Affecting Fertilizer Efficiency Sources of Reduction in fertilizer efficiency 5-10* Improper Fertilizer Placement 10-20* Inadequate I rrigation/moisture 15-50* Weed Infestation 5-50* Insect Attack 20-50* Imbalanced fertilizer application 10-25* Poor Seedbed preparation 5-20* Improper Seeding 20-40* Delay in Sowing 20-40* Inappropriate Crop Variety 10-25* Inadequate Plant Population *Reduction in % Source: FAO Fertilizer Plant Nutr. Bulletin 2, 1981

17 Fertilizer response of irrigated and rainfed wheat in Pakistan From: Nisar and Rashid, 2003 Fertilizer rates (kg/ha) Fertilizer Rates kg/ha IRRIGATED RAINFED 1. 0 - 0 - 0 0 -0- 0 2. 56 - 56 - 0 30-0-0 3. 112- 62- 0 30-30-0 4. 112-112-0 60-30-0 5. 168-112 -0 60-60-0 6. 168-112-62 60-60-30

18 Grain Yield of Wheat After Kharif Crops (2004-09) at BARI, Chakwal 393 mm 257 mm 104 mm158 mm Low yields are due to poor germinatio n & frost damage 255 mm

19 Response of rainfed wheat to nitrogen on soils having different stored moisture (M1, M2, M3) Source: Meelu et al., 1976 M1= 19cm M3= 32cm

20 S. NoTreatment Moisture level in soil profile (mm/90cm) Yield as average of two years (kg/ha) 1Farmers practice1471500 2Minor leveling & bundling 1681780 Effect of moisture conservation practices on wheat yield Source: Fertilizer Use in Dryland Farming, Booklet No. 43, Manures & Fertilizers: MFS - 13

21 Title: Optimal Fertilizer Requirement of Rainfed sunflower Based on Varying Soil Moisture stress indices on semi-arid Vertisols of india Methodology: (1999-2004) Dates of Sowing (DOS): D1=28 th Standard meteorological week (SMW) (9-15 July) D2= 30 th SMW (23-29 July); D3= 32 nd SMW (6-12 Aug.) D4= 34 th SMW (21-26 Aug.) Moisture Conservation Methods (MC): M1= Ridges and furrows M2= Skip row with furrow M3= Flat bed Levels of N & P Fertilizers: F1= 40-20; F2= 50-25; F3= 60-30 kg NP/ha MSI= Crop soil Moisture Stress Index Based on daily rainfall (RF), daily runoff MSI were measured for each combination of DOS and MC method in each season (ranged 0.15 to 0.75) Source: Maruthi Sankar, G. R. et al. 2008 (Helia: 31: 137-154)

22 MSI D1 D2 D3 D4 M1M2M3M1M2M3M1M2M3M1M2M3 0.1553#200#66#15873#10374# 0.2053#196#64#14471#9872# 0.2553#192#61#13168#9470# 0.3053#189#59#11766#8967# 0.3553#185#57#10463#8465# 0.4052#181#54#9061#8063# 0.4552#177#52#7759#7561# 0.5052#174#50#6456#7059# 0.5552#170#47#5054#6556# 0.6052#166#45#3751#6154# 0.6552#163#42#2349#5652# 0.7052#159#40#1046#5150# 0.7551#155#38#044#4647# # indicates calibration not possible due to non-diminishing response of nutrient

23 MSI D1 D2 D3 D4 M1M2M3M1M2M3M1M2M3M1M2M3 0.1527#99#33#7936#5237# 0.2026#98#32#7235#4936# 0.2526#96#31#6534#4735# 0.3026#94#29#5933#4534# 0.3526#92#28#5232#4232# 0.4026#90#27#4530#4031# 0.4526#88#26#3929#3830# 0.5026#86#25#3228#3529# 0.5526#85#24#2527#3328# 0.6026#83#22#1826#3027# 0.6526#81#21#1224#2826# 0.7026#79#20#523#2625# 0.7526#77#19#022#2324# # indicates calibration not possible due to non- diminishing response of nutrient

24 DOS Nutrient Ridge & furrowSkip row with furrowFlat bed D1 NFN=53.7-3.08 MSI#FN=211.0-74.50 MSI PFP=26.8-1.54 MSI#FP=105.0- 37.20 MSI D2 N#FN=73.3-47.47 MSI# P#FP=36.6-23.74 MSI# D3 NFN=198.0- 268.90 MSIFN = 80.3-48.31 MSI# PFP=99.0-134.40 MSIFP=40.1-24.15 MSI# D4 NFN=117.3-94.45 MSIFN = 80.8-44.56 MSI# PFP=58.6- 47.22 MSIFP=40.4-22.28 MSI# # indicates calibration not possible due to non- diminishing response of a nutrient FN= Fertilizer nitrogen FP= Fertilizer phosphorus

25  Based on multiple regression models, fertilizer adjustment equations of N and P were derived under different models having a +ive linear coefficient, a –ive quadratic coefficient for a fertilizer variable along with a negative interaction coefficient for fertilizer X soil moisture stress index.  An increasing response at the initial level and diminishing returns at higher levels of fertilizer application was indicated  The negative interaction was predicted for a higher fertilizer dose at low soil moisture stress index and vice versa for better response of the crop.

26 Current constraints on yield and on the use of fertilizer Availability of soil moisture is an important determinant of fertilizer use in the semi-arid areas Lack of proper extension in the popularization of fertilizer use and the knowledge of the farmer is a major constraint Fertilizer price and credit are important institutional factors Regional and temporal differences in seasonal conditions, occurrence of pests and diseases, availability of fertilizer, market and fertilizer distribution network, etc., are important determinants of differences in fertilizer use Lack of suitable management practices that make the best use of applied fertilizer

27 Improvement of Fertilizer Use Efficiency The objective behind the use of fertilizer in dryland condition should be to make maximum amount of fertilizer nutrient available to the plant within the existing low levels of soil moisture. Certain points must be kept in mind in order to achieve this objective: Use of organic matter Placement of fertilizers Spray applications Balanced use of fertilizers Use of P mixed with FYM Use of amendments (like gypsum in alkali soil) Alteration in time of fertilizer application (based on moisture availability) Water conservation practices Other farming practices (e.g. Split N in rainy season; proper crop rotation) Mulching

28 Suggestions for Improvement in Model Commendable job has been done to design a model to predict fertilizer doses for all districts of Punjab with the help of some basic soil fertility status (O.M, available P, desired yield target) knowledge by scientists of U. A. F The areas where proper irrigation practices are available, the moisture level differences are minimum, the prediction of fertilizer is simple and dependent soil type and availability of different nutrients and organic matter in the soil which helps to estimate nutrient deficiencies to be supplemented by different fertilizers with optimum dose to achieve desired yield target. This ideal situation does not exist under rainfed agriculture especially during winter/rabi season as fertilizer efficiency is directly related to moisture availability in the soil. It is needed to study the role/effect of soil moisture on fertilizer use efficiency under different rainfall (low, medium, high) areas to predict fertilizer doses. Therefore, it is suggested that a collaborative study/Project may be designed between main stakeholders like UAF; Soil Fertility Directorate; SAWCRI, Chakwal; UAAR and BARI, Chakwal etc. to reach at any consolidated conclusions

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