Presentation on theme: "1. Research for Agricultural Development Program (RADP) Pakistan Agricultural Research Council Islamabad."— Presentation transcript:
Research for Agricultural Development Program (RADP) Pakistan Agricultural Research Council Islamabad
PROGRAM PROFILE Approved by ECNEC: 7 th March 2007 Start: 3 rd April 2007 Duration:5 years Extension: (1 st ) For 2 years (upto 30 th June, 2013) (2 nd ) For 2 years again (upto 30 th June, 2015) TOTAL Project Cost:2, (Rs. million) Local cost:2, (Rs. million) Foreign Exchange (Rs. million own resources) 3
To address the current and emerging needs of science based-agriculture development, food security, poverty reduction, economic efficiency & export competitiveness. To serve as a mechanism for timely response to emerging research issues (Pest/disease epidemics, nutrient deficiency, climate change) Develop technologies for maximizing productivity (per unit Land, labour, water, capital etc) Move from research output to innovations as products and services for small holders Program Objectives 4
Scope of RADP Research: Priority research themes (22): Plant Sciences: 7, Natural Resources: 4, Animal Sciences: 4 and Social Sciences: 7 Infrastructural development: Up gradation of research labs, green houses and other facilities at research establishments Collaboration: International and national research collaboration. Training: Human resource development 5
Project Directors of RADP NameTenure Dr. Nisar AhmadJan, 2008 to Aug 2012 Dr. Sher MuhammadSept., 2012 to Aug 2013 Dr. Sarfraz AhmadAug, 2013 to date
Terms of Reference: Overall guidance, supervision and monitoring of program Resolve Operational and Financial issues Authorize technical revision Re-appropriation of funds within the approved cost and scope Management/Implementation A. Program Steering Committee (PSC): Composition: Secretary, Ministry of NFS&RChair Chairman, PARCMember Additional Secretary-I, Ministry of NFS&RMember Additional Secretary (Exp) Finance DivisionMember ADC, Ministry of NFS&RMember Technical Members of PARCMember Member (Finance), PARCMember Chief (Agriculture) P&D DivisionMember Vice President (PCCC) KarachiMember DG (P&D), PARC Member Project Director (M&E) Ministry of NFS&RMember Project Director, RADPSecretary
B. Program Executive Committee (PEC): Terms of Reference: Review and approve research programs/projects Review annual and mid term progress Identify and accommodate new & emerging research areas Identify and approve training needs etc. Chairman, PARCChair Technical Members of PARCMember ADC, Ministry of NFS&R Member JS (Plan) Ministry of NFS&R Member DG (P&D), PARC Member Project Director Member / Secretary Composition:
9 ItemPC-I (Cost)AllocationReleaseExpenditure (one month) Project Progress A). Financial Phasing, Release and Expenditure (Rs. Million) (*) 2 nd quarter release of Rs. 46 million under process
Total Project Funded under RADP Completed Research projects 8282 Ongoing research projects2727 Total109
Post-Devolution B (ii) Sub-Research Projects/Activities Funded under RADP from 30 th June, 2011 to 30 th Nov., 2013 Sr. No.DisciplineCompletedOn-goingTotal 1Crop Sciences Natural Resources Animal Sciences8-8 4Social Sciences448 Total (Discipline Wise)
Brief Research Outputs 13
Crop Sciences Germplasm of crops acquired, characterized for breeding/hybrids development (>15,000). Sunflower hybrids (SMH 0907, SMH 0917) with yield potential kg/ha, early maturity, short statured. Canola hybrid (CRH-40/10) with yield potential 3167 kg/ha. Short duration ground nut variety (PG- 1058) days maturity developed (potential 2.6 t/ha). Four tomato hybrids with potential t/ha, under test for yield stability. Cont…
Crop Sciences Mandarin hybrids: (early maturity, good quality and less seed in final evaluation). Fast track production of hybrids of cotton (05 hybrids under evaluation), wheat, rice and maize launched. Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrids (02) yield potential: t/ha. Salt, drought, heat and rust resistance / tolerant lines of wheat identified and available as valuable material for further breeding. Transgenic rice and wheat resistant to salts under test. Sugarcane varieties characterized for flowering ability, areas identified for viable fuzz production and varietal development. From Pre-Page. Cont…
Crop Sciences micro-tubers potato produced, of this stored and used for seed multiplication of disease free seed at Kaghan. 14 ginger and turmeric lines from Sri Lanka, China acquired. These lines are under cultivation in green house and open field for multiplication. Technology for domestication of wild growing black cumin developed. Dates processing (solar drying), and packing technology – introduced. Mass rearing of bio-control agents - Insectary established. Progeny garden of 12 tea cultivars established at Shinkiari, Mansehra. Potential cultivars are under multiplication. Cont… From Pre-Page.
Crop Sciences 600 demonstration plots of vegetable gardening in conflict areas of Swat developed for livelihood improvement. Mango harvesting and pre cooling machine, buffalo milking machine and flatbed maize/ground nut dryers developed in collaboration with local manufacturers. Spawn production for mushroom cultivation - Products marketed. Development of small olive oil extraction plant for use at local level Transfer of rodent control technologies through commercialization and services in Sindh. Three pilot plants one each for processing of organic compost, bio- herbicides and bio-pesticides locally fabricated, their products to be used for organic farming. Policy analysis reports on pest control, pest risk analysis and pesticides residues for trade policy and management interventions. From Pre-Page.
18 Milking machineOlive extraction plant
19 Bio pesticides plant
Natural Resources Technologies of chemical and bio logical reclamation of salt affected land in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa demonstrated on farmers’ field. Developed bio fertilizer processing at NARC. Plant has capacity of to manufactured 200 bags of organic fertilizer / day. Bed planting with hybrid rice using mechanized process, saved 35% water as compared to conventional methods. Bio-remediation technology established at NARC. Cont…
21 Natural Resources Honey analysis lab established at NARC. Technologies refined for commercialization of valuable bi-products of honey (royal jelly, pollen and bees wax etc). Production and up-scaling of bio-fuel plants; Jatropha, Sukhchen and Castor Beans (Bahawalpur, Umerkot, D.I. Khan, SARC). Quality deciduous fruits propagation in Gilgit and Rawal sheds. From Pre-Page.
Animal Sciences With stair-step feeding regime conception in Nili-Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal heifers achieved in months without any performance losses. Heat synchronization and improved semen preservation of buffalo and goat lead to improved conception through AI. Viruses strains identified for vaccine development to control avian influenza (poultry) and FMD (ruminants). Cont…
23 Animal Sciences Research on control of disease (Lernea, Argulus, Dropsy, Gillrot, Finrot) of fish in pond culture and trout culture. Research on captive breeding of endangered wild animal for conservation and cross breeding. Enhanced milk and meat production of goats through feeding regime. AI in goats successful first time. From Pre-Page.
Social Sciences Survey and analyses of the commodity value chain (poultry, dairy, fruits), agricultural growth and poverty reduction, food consumption diversity, harvest and post harvest losses. Generated useful information and data sets on these issues for planning and policy making. Capacity building of scientists, researchers, educators, policy makers and community workers – Five courses 200 participants. 24 Cont…
25 Social Sciences PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture - (NUAS) established at NARC. Enrolled 306: Ph. D (87), M. Phil (219) students. From Pre-Page.
26 Research to Commercialization 30 ton hybrid of Canola produced and sold through PATCO. 1.2 ton of Sunflower hybrid produced and sold through PATCO. Black Cumin production technologies. Vegetable seed production for kitchen gardening. Bio-pesticides products. Bio –fertilizers formulation. Honey and byproducts. Bio-remediation technologies. Small scale Olive oil extraction machine. Picking and pre cooling technology of Mango. Milking machine for water buffalo.
27 Research to Commercialization Feed formulation for trout fish. Ornamental fish production technologies. Grain baits for rats and mice. Pellets for rats. Food and Mouth Diseases (FMD) and Avian Influenza vaccines. Dates Solar dryer. Mushroom production technologies. Mobile Groundnut and Maize dryer.
B (iii) Lab Equipment/Farm Machinery/Vehicles Sr. No. NarrationProvisionProcured Total Items Cost (Rs. Million) Total Items Cost (Rs. Million) 1Lab /Field Equipment Office Equipment Replacement of lifts Telephone Exch Farm Machinery /vehicle * Total * Vehicle details given in next slide
B (iv) Infrastructure Development a. (Repair & Maintenance) WorkLocation PC-1 Cost (Rs. Million) Completion Cost (Rs. Million) Status HostelsNARC, Islamabad Completed CSI Building-do-3.0 (R)3.13-do- BARD Building-do do- Staff Colony-do do- Officer Colony-do do- Farm Roads-do Under arbitration Rehabilitation of NSCRI *NSCRI, Thatta, Sindh completed Repair & Maintenance of National Herbarium** NARC Islamabad completed HVAC systemNARC auditorium 3.20 completed Total (A) (*) PSC authorized in 3 rd meeting(**) PSC authorized in 5 th meeting
b. New Construction WorkLocationPC-1 Cost Completion Cost Status Buffalo ShedsNARC, Islamabad Completed 10 F-type residences-do do- Parking Sheds-do do- Boundary wall-do do- Pumping Machinery + Installation 5 T. Wells -do do- Social Sciences Institute-do do- Girls Hostel-do do- Const. of Lab. MARC, GilgitMARC Gilgit do- Glass House / Insectary/ Wildlife Enclosures NARC, Islamabad do- Community Center / CaféNARC Islamabad Work in progress Construction of lab. BuildingLRS, NARC Work in progress Total (B) G. Total (A + B) Rs. Million 30
31 Social Sciences Institute, NARC
32 Girls Hostel
33 10 F Type residences at NARC
34 5 Tube Well at NARC
35 WORK PLAN ( ) i)Sub-Research Projects/Activities: On-going =27 New Launched =04 Adaption and indigenization of household levels solar desalination and water from air technologies. Rs. 3.5 million. Development of clean and true to type horticultural crops nursery in Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT). Rs million Establishment of mother blocks, fruit plant nurseries of high value crops and seedlings/seed production of economically important vegetables in District Mansehra. Rs. 6.0 million Establishment of model facility of wastewater treatment through bioremediation at rose and jasmine garden facility Islamabad. Rs million
36 ii)Civil Work in : Construction of Community Center & Cafeteria at NARCRs M. Construction of LRS Lab at NARCRs M. Construction of boundary wall around CARS, KarachiRs M
37 WAY FORWARD To address the emerging challenges of food security and self reliance in agriculture continuous financial support from PSDP is mandatory.
Completed Research Sub- Projects of RADP 39
CROP SCIENCES 40
41 Development & Improvement of Mass Production Techniques of Insect Bio-control Agents Dr. Ehsan-Ul-Haq, PSO, IPMP,IPEP, NARC Achievements: Insectary –Biological control lab for rearing the bio-control agent and their insect host. Host of Trichograma (Sitotraga) raised in chamber (parasitoid) where adults collected automatically from the chamber (Root borer, stem borer, top borer and Gurdaspur borer). Reared Chrysoperla (Predator white fly, aphids, thrips, mites etc) and Coccinellid (white fly, mites) and aphidius (aphid C) on different hosts, aphids, sitotraga and mealy bugs. Selected different host rearing for mass production of these bio-control agents in the laboratory. Sitotraga and mealy bug found most efficient for Chrysoperla and coccinellid. Koopert ( Neitherlans), Syngenta (U.K), Biobest (Switerland) mass production (canada, America)
42 Development of sunflower and canola hybrid and canola type mustard varieties (Second Phase), Dr. Muhammad Ayub Khan, CSI, NARC Achievements: Sunflower: Two potential sunflower hybrids, SMH-0907 (PARSUN-3) and SMH-0917 were tested under different environmental conditions of the country. All hybrids were tested during four growing seasons (i.e. 2 spring and 2 autumn). On the average of three seasons SMH-0907 and SMH-0917 produced 3534 and 3115 kg/ha, respectively. Whereas, commercial imported hybrids, Hysun-33 and NK-S-278 produced 2856 and 2998 kg/ha, respectively. A total of 1.8 ton hybrid seed of two potential hybrids (SMH-0907 and SMH-0917) was produced during 2012 and distributed among farmers on 50 % less price than imported hybrid seed. SMH-0907 has been recommended by the Variety Evaluation Committee for registration. However, advised to submit data of 2 nd season’s on morphological description of hybrid and parent lines. Data have been recorded during spring, 2013 and is in process of compilation. The hybrid has been renamed as PARSUN-3. Canola: Performance of PARC Canola hybrid was almost equal (1992 kg/ha) as compared to check, Hyola-401” with 1995 kg/ha, However, SPS N7/28 produced higher yield (2067 kg/ha).
43 Cont… Seed of parent lines of potential hybrid was multiplied at NARC and Kaghan. A total of 750 kg seed of PARC canola hybrid was also produced at NARC. Screening of potential sunflower and canola hybrids against major insect pests and diseases. Proposals for approval of PARC canola hybrid was presented before Variety Evaluation Committee (VEC), however, committee advised to present again due to some deficiencies. Therefore, the proposal will be presented again in August, tons of PARC Canola Hybrid seed has been marketed during and rabi seasons. 1.2 ton of Sunflower Hybrid (PARSUN-3) has been marketed during spring, Private sector has been involved in promotion of sunflower and canola hybrids through planting of demo plots of local hybrids on farmers, field.
44 Evaluation of Locally Developed Mandarin Hybrids in Potential Citrus Growing Areas (Phase-II) Mr. Mukhtar Ahmed, SSO, Fruit Crop Research Programme, HRI, NARC Achievements: Two hybrids NARC and NARC seem a promising in respect of fruit production and quality parameter (weight, juice content, TSS and acidity). NARC and NARC had the maximum average fruit weight of 178 gm and 170 gm as compare to Kinnow 164 gm. Higher TSS was recorded in NARC (11.86%) followed by NARC (11.80%) compared Kinnow with TSS value of (11.30%). NARC had acid content of 0.96% which was lower than Kinnow (1.04%) fruit harvested on Propagation: 300 plants of NARC and NARC were grafted Seedless/Less Seeded Mandarin Hybrids: 63 seedless/less seeded hybrids were developed through crosses between Kinnow xTarocco (orange), NARC x Tarocco and NARC05-17x Sanguinello (orange) and planted in fruit area HRI, NARC for evaluation studies. The plants will start bearing fruit after 4 to 5 years.
45 Adoption and Commercialization of a Small-Scale Olive Oil Extraction Unit, Mr. Liaqat Ali Shahid, Principal Engineer, ABEI, NARC One small scale olive oil extraction plant imported, tested/evaluated and demonstrated at NARC. Demonstrations at farmers’ fields conducted with oil recovery of up to 19.38% observed, oil analysis done, overall processing capacity has been enhanced by modifying centrifuge. Operation cost found at Rs. 9.25/kg. Improvements designed and MoU for local manufacturing with Pvt. sector signed with a firm in Faisalabad for commercialization. (M/s International Technology) Demonstration of prototype has been carried out.
46 Improvement of Groundnut for short duration and yield in rainfed wheat cropping system Malik Shah Nawaz, PSO, Oilseed, CSI, NARC Achievements: 134 short duration exotic / local lines were evaluated. 1 short duration line PG-1058 of duration days has been developed. 2 short duration lines PG-963 and PG-1133 of days have also been identified. 22 desirable parental lines crossed and F2, F3 and F4 generations are in field Further short duration lines will be selected Agronomic and on – farm yield trials were conducted at NARC-Islamabad, Chakwal, and Attock.
47 Intra and inter-specific variation of oilseed brassicas using biochemical and molecular markers. Dr. Ashiq Rabbani, PSO, IABGR, NARC Achievements: Acquired 2040 germplasm from abroad and 525 from Pakistan. 22 elite lines of oilseed group and 13 vegetable type identified and seed multiplied. 15 lines identified for high yield, oil content, low level of erucic acid, glucosinolates. Screening of drought tolerance of 300 accessions. 2 aphid resistant lines of brassica and 3 non-shattering lines of canola also identified.
48 Marker assisted selection & genomic studies on stress tolerance in wheat and rice. Dr. Ghulam Muhmmad Ali Achievements: Salt tolerant wheat and rice genotypes were identified at germination, vegetative growth stage and at maturity. These genotypes could be used for salt tolerance improvement in hybridization with elite cultivars using molecular markers aided selection using SSR markers identified in the project. Lasani and Inqilab wheat varieties have been transformed with salt and drought tolerance gene. The transformed lines are at T2 stage. Bioassay of these lines have shown that these lines are relatively better tolerant to drought stress maintaining higher turgor and photosynthetic rate under drought. JP-5 and KSK-282 rice varieties have been transformed with salt tolerant gene. The transformed lines are at T4 stage. Bioassay of these lines have proven their better salt tolerance ability.
49 Development of Sorghum Sudangrass hybrids for high forage yield and quality characters (2 nd Phase) Dr. M. Shafiq Zahid, PSO, Fodder Program, NARC Achievements: Two promising hybrids lines (A, B & R) were planted at different locations for purification/maintenance purposes. About 464 kg pure seed of parental lines (A, B& R) of two hybrids has been produced that is sufficient to develop hybrid seed over an area of Two hybrids (“NARC hybrid-2” and “NARC hybrid-4”) were planted at 7 different locations. About 67 kg seed was produced and has been utilized for adaptability, agronomic trials, demonstrations and registration purposes. The other most suitable sites are Faisalabad, Sargodha, Arifwala. The data of 4 cuttings indicated that “NARC Hybrid-2” and “NARC Hybrid-4” were among the top-yielding hybrids by producing 138 & 129 t ha -1 green fodder yield, whereas it was 111t ha -1 in check (Pak-Sudan). Correspondence work for registration is in progress with FSC & RD. Seed of two registered hybrids and their parents were provided to FSC&RD for 2 years for characterization and DUS data generation. Required data for characterization generated at NARC has been provided to FSC&RD.
50 Characterization of sugarcane germplasm for flowering ability (NARC Unit) Dr. Muhammad Zubair, PSO, CSI, NARC Achievements: 450 sugarcane germplasm lines were evaluated for flowering ability at three locations (Sugarcane breeding station-Murree, Sugarcane breeding station-Dargai, NSCRI- Thatta. At SBS Murree and SBS, Dargai, 10-20% varieties flowered. Only thin varieties flowered with flowering intensity of 5-30%. The fuzz (Sugarcase Seed) produced had very poor viability ( %). These two stations are being run by provincial governments proved non-viable for sugarcane breeding under natural conditions. At NSCRI-Thatta, 40% variety flowered with 40-80% flowering intensity. Fuzz (Sugarcane seed) produced had 7-10% viability. Sugarcane breeding is possible at this location by providing photoperiod and temperature control chambers.
51 Identification/Selection of parental lines and hybrid development in tomato (PGRP) Dr. Abdul Ghafoor, PSO, IABGR, NARC Achievements: Genetic resources increased from 100 to 875 in the gene bank. Among the germplasm evaluated, 30 genotypes were identifed as high yielding and out of these 14 were used in hybridization, and 130 combinations were obtained. Four hybrids were observed promising and the genotypes used in these hybrids were provided to the vegetable program. Thirty genotypes were screened against salinity under hydroponic and three genotypes (019291, , ) were observed tolerant at 100mM Na2Cl. Bio-chemical and Molecular analysis conducted. More than 600 genotypes of tomato germplasm were distributed to ten researchers for their research including vegetable program and NIAB, Faisalabad. The germplasm (> 300 accessions) were provided to students for their degree research program. One PhD, one M Sc, two internees were involved in the project period.
52 Identification/Selection of parental lines and hybrid development in tomato (Vegetable) Mr. Muhammad Farooq Chaudhry, PSO, HRI, NARC Achievements: Developed four local hybrids with yield range ( t/ha). Developed technology for propagation of tomato hybrid plants through cuttings which gave good yield compared to plants through seedlings. Also a NPK dose (150:75:75) was standardized for their best performance. Selected eleven parental lines for tomato hybrid development. For commercialization of developed hybrids, MOU was signed between PATCO and 4-Brothers Private Company.
53 Accelerated Development of Hybrid Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Sunflower, Non Shattering Canola, Maize and Use of Innovative Technologies, Dr. Ahmed Bakhsh Mahar, PSO, CSI, NARC Achievements: Cotton: 65 hybrid combinations developed and 5 high yielding selected kg hybrid seed produced. Among five Gametocides, 2-4-D induced male sterility with toxic effect at all 20 concentrations (0.2 to 5.00 ppm). CMS lines (G-97 G-72) identified from Chinese germplasm. Seven Genetic Male Sterility (GMS) lines acquired from CCRI Multan and multiplied. Wheat: Out of 96 cross combination three found promising. BAU 9403 was identified as chemical hybridizing agent with a dose of 300 gm BAU per acre. Increase in dose of BAU 9403 reduced seed setting on sterile plants. BAU caused delayed maturity. Seed setting with BAU 9403 ranged from 33 to 61%. 0.5 tons hybrid seed was harvested with the application of BAU 9403.
54 Cont…. Embryo Rescue: Tissue culture protocols were optimized for growing immature embryos. 15 days old embryos of wheat variety NARC 2009 exhibited good regeneration response on MS medium under dark condition. Embryos of maize gave good regeneration response on B-5 medium. 30 days old hybrid canola embryos showed better regeneration activity. Maize embryos started germination 4 days after culture. In vitro root formation was achieved in sunflower, maize, brassica and tomato. Cuttings of cotton mother plants failed to produce roots on various media. Precocious germination of 20 days old cotton seed was recorded.
55 Sustainability & Improvement of Tea Production Mr. Abdul Waheed, SSO, NTRI (PARC), Shinkiari, Mansehra Achievements: Indigenous germplasm of 3 clones (P-8, P-9, and P-3 of North Carolina) from uni- lever acquired for evaluation. Quick selection and screening protocol of the clones. Experiments on 64 elite tea bushes initiated. Progeny garden of 12 cultivars established. Out of 12, 3 are disease resistance and other 9 are relatively susceptible. 3-4 acres of tea garden is established at NTRI, Mansehra. The developed material tested on high elevation i.e. AJK. Experiments on inter cropping initiated.
56 Ginger and Turmeric: Introduction, Acquisition, Kitchen gardening and Farm Production Technology Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Sajid, PSO, PGRP, IABGR, NARC Achievements: 14 ginger and turmeric lines from Sri Lanka, China acquired. These lines were cultivated in green house and open field. More than 300 ginger plants prepared in clay and plastic pots. Growth is good in clay pots for kitchen gardening. 2 training imparted for private farms and 2 for general public. Package of technology to develop with plants for farmers and kitchen gardens. In-vitro culture established in lab, micro propagation started.
57 Fabrication of Liquid Bio-Herbicide Processing Unit Dr. Yousaf Hayat, PSO, EBI, NARC, Islamabad Achievements Bio-herbicide processing unit has been fabricated at NARC. Bio-herbicide is formulated from natural plants and weeds. The product tested against different weeds and it has ability to control pre - emergence weeds. This is the new intervention for organic growers in the country. Some plants have been identified like Casia fistula, Lintana, Chinopodium, Calotropis, Euphorbia etc.
58 Fabrication of liquid bio-pesticide and micro nutrient formulation unit Mr. Azhar Javed, SSO, NARC Achievements: Bio-pesticide and micro nutrient plants fabricated at BARD yard NARC for formulation of bio-pesticide and organic salt. Different organic pesticide formulations have been tested against different insect pests Products have been standardized and are being sold for insect pest control. The most effective bio-pesticides are derivatives / decoction of garlic, turmeric, hot chillies, ak and some others weeds.
59 Fate of pesticide residues in cotton agro-ecosystem and their impact on human health and livestock Dr. Karam Ahad, SSO IPEP, NARC Achievements: 249 samples of different matrices like water, soil, vegetables, feed/fodder and milk analysed showed varying level of pesticide residues During pre-cotton season 20% samples above MRL(0.5 microgram/l-EU) but during post cotton MRL in 95% water samples In 91 % soil samples the most abundant compound was fenpropathrin with mean value of 0.18 mg/kg. The pesticide load ranging from mg/kg Both pre and post-cotton season vegetables samples (89 and 92%) were containing MRL above FAO/WHO codex. While 100% samples exceeds EU limits During pre-cotton season only 6% milk samples were exceeding codex standard but post-cotton 50% above codex and EU. Muscular weaknesses, skin burn, coughing nausea and vomiting were quite high among cotton pickers The pesticide exposure cause disturbance in the thyroid and reproductive hormones in agriculture workers
60 Development of Picking and Pre-cooling Technology for Mangoes. Dr. Muslim Abbas Zaidi, ABEI, NARC Achievements: Survey on the current practices of picking and pre-cooling. Mango picking machine designed and a prototype developed in collaboration with Pvt. sector. Machine field tested and evaluated in previous mango season for improvements/ modifications. MOU signed with Pvt. firm for commercialization. (Javed Eng. Gujranwala)
61 Intervention for the Management of Mycotoxin in Maize and Groundnut Component-I (Mobile Flat-Bed Dryer) Dr. Munir Ahmad, CSO, ABEI, (FMI), NARC Achievements: Dryer has been tested on ear-corn and further modifications are made for gas firing and increasing volume. For use of solar energy designing process is on. Evaluated the adaptability of dryer for ground nut and ear corn and found suitable. Evaluation for autumn ear corn at Depalpur / Okara showed that moisture content of 4 ton ear corn dropped from 28.7% to 19.7% in 10 hours. The cost of drying one kg was Rs The cost of drying spring corn was Rs. 1.9 /Kg. Dryer can dry produce of one acre in a day. Demonstration was carried at Pind Dadan Khan and number of farmers participated. Mou has been signed with Malik Engineering Rawalpindi for commercialization.
62 Development of milking machine for water buffaloes and indigenization of milking machine for cows. Dr. Jandool Khan, P. Engineer, ABEI, NARC Achievements: Developed a portable bucket milking machine of buffaloes and cows Milking machine designed and fabricated in collaboration with Pvt. Firm (Al- Madina- Okara) Tested the performance of machine at Pvt. farm Okara and NARC Machine is commercialized by the private sector firm
NATURAL RESOURCES 63
64 A strategic approach of chemical and biological reclamation of salt affected soils in southern zone of KPK, Dr. Abdul Rashid, PSO, AZRI-D.I. Khan Achievements: Three approaches studied at AZRI farm; physical(MB, soil scraping and deep tillage) chemical amendments (gypsum, FYM, press mud and humic acid) and salt tolerant crops (kallar grass, Dhancha (green manure), guava, falsa. The trials at farm station indicated great improvements with various combination of these approaches/amendments and crop rotations. The salts have disappeared and crops in good and healthy condition. Test of these approaches to start at farmers’ fields. Leafet in URDU/PUSHTO on technology package for farmers in printing. Project reviewed by Technical Division in Nov and recommended for feld demonstration of technology package and its transfer to farming community.
65 Development of Bio Fertilizer Processing Plant; Mr. Abdul Waheed Zafar, P. Engineer, ABEI, NARC. Achievements: Organic /bio fertilizer processing unit has been fabricated and in operation at NARC. The processing unit has capacity to manufacture 200 bags of organic fertilizers per day. Organic fertilizer formulation are as under: 3:12:2 3:15:3 The raw material used for organic fertilizer are farm yard manure, poultry manure, sugarcane press mud, rock phosphate, sulphar mud, blood and mountains coal.
66 Evaluation & resource conservation technologies for improving water productivity in rice-wheat cropping system. Mr. Qurban Hussain, PSO, WRRI, NARC Achievements: Crop water requirement for wheat and rice crop was determined as 383 and 600 mm respectively. Double zero tillage increased water productivity by 28% for basmati rice as compared to conventional method. Direct seeding increased water productivity by 18% for Basmati rice as compare to conventional one. Saturation and alternate wetting and drying irrigation strategies for rice increased water productivity by 22% and 19% respectively for basmati rice. Bed planting with hybrid rice using mechanized process in district Kasur on farmer’s field saved 35% water as compared to conventional method whereas, in Faisalabad hybrid rice on bed saved 25% water with 15% increase in yield.
67 Water Productivity and Application Efficiency Evaluation under Trickle Irrigation System in Stress Environment of D.I Khan Engr. Noman Latif, D.I.Khan. Achievements: Developed a package of technology for utilization of vulnerable fresh water in stressed areas of D. I. Khan. Different locally fabricated Drip irrigation system installed on 21 acres of land in D.I Khan Different locally manufactured drippers were tested and recommended for adoption Uniformity of water application was 90% in case of micro omitters Survival rate of fruit plant was higher (85%) in drip irrigation as compared to surface Water saving was 40% as compared to furrow irrigation Water productivity was % higher in drip irrigation as compared to furrow irrigation system
68 Conservation of native flora of Cholistan through rejuvenation technique. Mr. Mumtaz Hussain, SO, AZRI, Bahawalpur Achievements: The different ecological zones of various strata of desert plant species have been identified in lesser Cholistan desert of Bahawalpur for future seed collection and other activities of the project. Ten thousands stubbles/buds of eight different economic geophytes were collected from different areas of Cholistan desert and have been propagated at Cholistan farm of AZRI, Bahawalpur for multiplication. The seed of different desert trees particularly Acacia species were also obtained from Pakistan Forest Research Institute, Peshawar to establish plants in the nursery of AZRI, Bahawalpur and which are ready to provide to the farmers for their propogation in Cholistan
69 Cultivation of Biofuel Plants on Marginal Lands in Pakistan Dr. Rukhsana Anjum, Director AZRI, Bahawalpur (Umerkot, D. I. Khan, Karachi) Achievements: Procured germplasm of Jatropha curcase from six different sources (Australia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Africa ). Raised plants of Pnogamia pinnata (Sukh chain) from the locally available seed. Seed of Ricinus communis (Castorbean) was procured from Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad for its successful multiplication at AZRI, Bahawalpur. Seed has been multiplied a a large scale and is being sold to the local farmers. More than 28,000 plants of Jatropha and 8,500 plants of Castor and Sukh Chane have been transplanted on 5 acres at AZRI farm, Bahawalpur and 4 acres at Cholistan farm. Success rate is remarkably high. The best sowing time (for bio fuel plants) identified is March, and September during the year. Meanwhile, a very interesting experiment on the comparison of growth performance and yield potential of caster bean variety (DS-30).
70 Production of Export Quality Honey and Establishment of Honey Analysis Laboratory for Promotion of Honey Export. Ms. Farida Iftikhar, SSO, HBRI, NARC Achievements: Organized National Beekeeping Training courses of beekeepers for integrated control of American foul brood disease, mites, and use of modern methods for supplemental feeding to honeybees for production of honey free from antibiotics and pesticides residues. Trained 60 beekeepers. The honey Analysis Lab. has been established. The honey analysis has been started. Parameter tested are: pH, total acidity, moisture, electrical conductivity, HMF, diastase enzyme, sucrose, total sugars and pollen analysis
71 Improvement in the production techniques of Royal, Jelly, Pollen, Propolis, Beeswax and their value added products for livelihood. Mr. Rashid Mehmood, SSO, HBRI, NARC. Achievements: Newly devised pollen trap technique (Fixed) for collection of pollen without disturbing honeybees and demonstrated among beekeepers. Developed bottom board pollen trap for beehives. Standardized techniques for the production of royal jelly, pollen and successfully produced Royal jelly and collected pollen. A limited quantity of bee pollen (Natural food supplement) and royal jelly with honey (tonic), candle & wax sheets are available at Honey Bee Research Institute, NARC for sale Initiated Apiculture in Sakardu and training of staff. Organized training workshops on “Management of Honeybees for the production of Royal jelly, Pollen, Propolis, Beeswax and their value added products”.
72 Production technology of black cumin M. Qasim, SSO, MARC, Juglote, Gilgit Achievements: Success fully Black Cumin through seeding and introduced in Astore valley of Gilgit Baltistan. Mountain Agricultural Research Centre (MARC), PARC developed production technologies for cultivation of Black cumin. The results of the investigation revealed that the Black cumin can be propagated through seeds and bulbs. Its excellent aroma fetches attractive and higher prices in the market. The technologies were introduced through trainings, filed visits and contacts with the farmers and extension departments
ANIMAL SCIENCES 73
74 Stair-step heifer development program for induction of early puberty. Dr. Imdad Hussain Mirza, Director, ASI, NARC Achievements: With Stair-step feeding scheme, conception in Nili-Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal cattle heifers can be achieved in month at comparatively lower cost without any performance loss with the help of Stair Step Feeding Scheme (6 phases of months i.e. low energy diet (80% Metabolizable Energy of NRC) for 4 months (1 st phase), followed by high energy diet (120% ME of NRC) for 2 months (2 nd phase), low energy diet for 4 months (3 rd phase), high energy diet for 2 months (4 th phase) and so on) as compared to NRC feeding requirements. Average milk yield of Sahiwal heifer reared on Stair-step was 26% higher than normal diet SSFS offered a simple, practical and cost effective method for raising dairy cattle and buffalo heifers.
75 Comparison of oestrous synchronization protocols to improve fertility in buffalo. Dr. M. Anwar, PSO, ASI, NARC Achievements: 80% conception rate was achieved in buffaloes after estrus synchronization during peak breeding season under controlled conditions using Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, PGF20) 54% conception rate was achieved in buffaloes after synchronizing estrus during peak breeding season under field conditions. PGF 20 worked well to induce fruitful heat in buffalo during low breeding season (Feb-Jun) More valuable finding was that 80% buffaloes showed estrus in low breeding season (summer) after the application of hormonal treatment/device and 40% treated animals became pregnant. In this way season ability of breeding was partially overcome in buffaloes. So these treatments could be used to popularize artificial insemination in buffaloes.
76 Cryopreservation and evaluation of buffalo and goat semen. Dr. Abid Mehmood, PSO, ASI, NARC Achievements: A simple milk based extender, which is easy to use, was standardized for the cryopreservation of buffalo semens. Addition of antioxidant (Glutathionine) improved post-thaw ability of buffalo bull semen. Kidding with artificial insemination (A.I) in heat synchronization does was achieved successfully for first time in Pakistan A cost effective and short duration heat synchronization protocol with cloprosterol injection (synthetic prostaglandin) for fix time A.I. in goats was standardized
77 Study on Biology, Captive breeding aspects of indigenous endangered wild animals and birds Mr. Saleem Zahid, PSO, Poultry, ASI, NARC Achievements: Facilities for breeding of endangered wild animals and birds were established at ASI, NARC. Currently 10 wild animals and 18 wild birds are maintained at this facility. Breeding of Hog deer, Black Buck, Jungle fowl, Pheasants and Peafowl under captivity was achieved successfully for their conservation and further propagation. Breeding results and data on captive breeding have been compiled to share with students, researchers, farmers and wildlife lovers.
78 Characterization of avian influenza & FMD viruses and development of immunogenic vaccines. Dr. Khalid Naeem, CSI, NARC Achievements: Bio-safe laboratory were established at NARC Established cell culture (BHK-21) set up for growth of FMD viruses. The cell line was also shared with FMD research center, VRI, lahore for propagation of FMDV, which was replaced their 30 years old cell line stock Sequencing of 25 isolates of Avian influenza and 2 FMD viruses was carried out and the sequence data was submitted to gene bank. RT-PCR and Immuno-capture ELISA for FMD diagnosis was standardized. A total of 16 isolates of FMDV serotype (A,O, Asia 1) were propagated successfully in BHK-21 and lyophilized for future use in developing new FMD vaccines
79 Diagnosis and Control of Parasitic and Microbial Infestation in Exotic/ Indigenous Carp Cultured in Fish Farm of Punjab. Dr. Muhammad Afzal, SSO, Aquaculture & Fishries Program, NARC Achievements: Thirty one fish farm and hatcheries were visited in distt Faisalabd, Jhang and Toba Tek singh Fish samples were collected randomly from selected farms for the disease diagnosis. The fish samples included the major and chinese carb Sampled fish were examined externally for parasites and the fish samples were also brought back to NARC for bacterial studies Lernea, Argulus, Dropsy, Gillrot, Finrot were found in 21 fish farms. The prevalence of disease in visited farms was found to be almost 69%. Saprolegniasis was also found in Satiana. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and H. molitrix were infected with bacterial disease, fin rot. Lernea, Argulus, Dropsy, Gillrot, Finrot of fish in pond culture was treated with bath /treatment (KMNO4/Antibiotics and DOB)
80 Feed formulation and disease diagnostics studies of trout fish in northern areas, Mr. Muhammad Aziz, SSO, MARC, Gilgit Achievements: Developed cost efficient and balance feed for raising fish. This increased the average growth rate gm/month. Reduced feed cost up to 60% Seven bacterial diseases of trout fish were identified and successfully treated with 90% recovery rate. Reduced nutritional disease i.e. degeneration of liver, inflammation of intestine, with increase of vitamins in adult stages. The research findings have been communicated through personal contacts to the local trout farmers and extension workers of G-B Fisheries Department.
SOCIAL SCIENCES 81
82 Political Economy of Sugar Industry in Pakistan, Dr. Ali Muhammad Khushk, PSO, TTI, ARI, Tandojam Achievements: Previous sugar policies reviewed through literature review Comprehensive data of all stake holders collected through interviews and analysed A report on all actors involved in sugar industry from farmers to sugar mills with their weaknesses and strengths is prepared and several policy recommendations of all levels are made. Bi-products and other sources of sugar/sweeteners identified and proposed to reduce pressure on cane. The report and recommendations have been sent to MINFA, APCOM, TCP, Pak Sugar Mills Owner Association and growers association for their consideration/implementation.
83 Assessment of harvest and post-harvest losses in selected fruits in Pakistan, Mr. Mazher Abbas, SSO, TTI (PARC) AARI, Faisalabad Achievements: Heavy losses reported in Mango (11.5%) and citrus (8%), with economic value of loss of Rs. 3735/t and Rs. 1842/t. The losses estimated for mango, citrus and dates for year , was Rs billion in monetary term. Up-scaling capacity of farmers contractors, businessmen recommended.
84 Research Strategies for Agricultural Growth and Poverty Reduction Dr. Umar Farooq, CSO, SSD, PARC Achievements: Poverty alleviation coefficient estimated for various factors contributing to poverty alleviation, which revealed a long term relationship between agriculture sector and poverty reduction. Major crop rotations addressed on the water audit basis to save on water cost as well as water saving. Zonal research system on the farming system research is found better option for research priorities as well as on product development with value addition. More profitable crops and products to be prioritised for improvement of research system. More research system related reforms and options suggested.
85 An analysis of Food Consumption Diversification in Pakistan, Muhammad Ishaq, SSO, TTI, Ternab, Peshawar Achievements: Consumption trends in Pakistan has shown considerable variation over time, there is considerable downward trend in consumption of wheat and pulses, but upward in other commodities. Shift is from low value to high value food products. The demand for all feed products is price inelastic. Policy implication for planning to make available products ahead of time.
86 An Analysis of the Adoptation and Impact of Cultivation of new cotton varieties in Pakistan Mr. Muhammad Ibrahim Lashari, TTI, Tandojam, Sindh Achievements: Survey completed comprising 440 Bt cotton growers using imported identification immune-strips. First draft report on growers has been prepared and submitted. Results shared with higher authorities for taking necessary regulatory/policy actions. 47.5% cotton area planted Bt Cotton in 2008, which increased to 63% in Results indicate 23 GM/Bt cotton varieties were grown and 5-46 % samples were detected as fake Bt cotton with Punjab 15%, Sindh 17% and Baluchistan 07%. The fake Bt cotton cost Rs. 345 million to farmers in 2009.
Ongoing Sub- Research Projects of RADP 87
CROP SCIENCES 88
89 Genetic Manipulation for Induction of Resistance against Fungal Disease and Potato seed Production Dr. Iqbal Hussain, SO, PBP, NARC Achievements: Production of 40,000 virus free in vitro plants of four potato varieties (Kuroda, Desiree, Santey Hermes and Lady Rosetta). Production of six ton virus free potato seed. Virus free seed was disseminated among progressive farmers for further multiplication. A part of seed is planted at Kaghan for further multiplication. Collaborative seed multiplication is under way with Hazara Research Station Abottabad and Deptt of Agriculture Gilgit Baltistan. Production transgenic potato having resistance against fungal diseases. Human resource training in potato tissue culture from Northern areas and Ph.D/M. Phil. students. Published research achievements in local/international journals.
90 Making NARC campus Rodent Free through operational research, Shahid Munir, SSO, VPMP/IPEP/NARC Achievements: RODENT CONTROL AT NARC FARM: Total cultivated area of NARC was divided into 12 zones where rodent control operation was carried out. Infested areas especially wheat, fodder, sugarcane, vegetable & fruit orchards were targeted to manage the rodent population in the first phase. Control strategies comprised of application of fumigants, acute and chronic rodenticides. A total of 18,611 burrows were treated in three steps. In first treatment fumigation with aluminium phosphide was carried out followed by application of different formulations of acute and chronic rodenticides. Rodenticide baits were applied in PVC bait station and using underground baiting technique. Overall Kg Aluminium phosphide tablets, Kg Zinc phosphide grain bait and 117 Kg Coumatetralyl grain bait was used. Overall 80 to 90% reduction in burrow activity was estimated by counting the pre and post-treatment number of burrows. One day hands on training in rodent management in field crops was imparted to 35 field staff personnels and DPLS of different commodity programmes of NARC. RODENT CONTROL IN STRUCTURES: A total of 423 PVC bait stations were installed in Offices, labs, Stores, and residential areas. Overall 47.9 Kg Coumatetralyl pellet bait was applied in PVC bait stations. No further damage was reported from the treated area.
91 Genetic diversity analysis of brassica oilseeds and adaptability testing of elite lines at different ecologies (follow up project) Abdul Ghafoor, PSO, IABGR, NARC Achievements: Two hundred and forty two accessions of brassica germplasm were regenerated during 2012 for conservation and distribution to user communities. In addition, one hundred and ten accessions of brassica were collected from Bahawalpur and Mingora, Swat. During the project period (2 years), 490 accessions of brassica oilseeds were added in the genebank after regeneration under field conditions at NARC. Thirteen promising genotypes (24866, 27388, 27397, 27398, 27406, 27410, 27425, 27435, 27440, 27443, 27444, 27445, 27450) of brassica from exotic origin were identified on the basis of their superior performance and these were planted under six locations to select the best one/s. The data is yet to be compiled. In addition to multilocational trials, 100 accessions of brassica were planted under field condition at NARC for characterization and evaluation purpose, and among these thirty eight accessions did not germinate or were damaged badly with hail storm, hence the data were recorded for sixty two accessions that will be presented in the report. Seed proteins profiling of 200 accessions were conducted that indicated low genetic diversity among accessions within one species. Fingerprinting of cultivars was made on the basis of SSR markers. One hundred and eight SSR primer pairs were screened using two improved cultivars of Brassica carinata and most informative markers were identified for further use.
92 Achievements: DNA profiling of 100 accessions of Brassica was carried out using 52 SSR markers for diversity analysis.The SSR markers analysis will help us in variety protection, plant breeder rights and marker assisted breeding. More than 500 accessions were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolates, and nine accessions (27380, 27382, 27391, 27392, 27394, 27438, 27443, 26147, 26321) exhibited low erucic acid and glucosinolates. The seed of these accessions will be multiplied and will be shared with the researchers working on brassica improvement. A promising line (26187) of Eruca sativa (Taramira) having yield potential of more than 1200 kg/ha has been identified and it was planted at four location during and excelled as compared to the local cultivar. One M.Phil and two Ph.D. students have already completed their dissertation research, while research work of three students is underway at the moment.
93 Determination of the severity of HLB and CTV in citrus growing areas of Punjab and KPK, Dr. Shahid Hameed, SSO, IPEP, NARC Achievements: MONITORING OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS (CTV) IN PUNJAB Major growing areas of Punjab were surveyed and 510 random citrus leaf samples were collected. The areas surveyed include Sargodah, Toba Tak Singh, and Faisalabad. The samples were tested through DAS-ELISA against CTV. Incidence range in the province was 10-40%. Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) diseases was prevalent in all area surveyed. MONITORING OF CTV IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHAWA PROVINCE Citrus growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa province were surveyed and 300 random citrus leaf samples were collecteted. The areas surveyed include Peshawar, Nowshera, Mardan, Swabi, Swat, Malakand Agency and Dir. The samples collected were tested against Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) diseases through DAS-ELISA for detection and identification in accordance to find the incidence and prevalence of this disease. Forty citrus samples were tested through ELISA against Citrus Triteza Virus (CTV). The result showed that all locations were found infected with CTV with different infection rate. Percent incidence of CTV in Peshawar,
94 Cont……. Nowshera, Mardan, Swabi, Swat, Dir and Malakand Agency were 50%, 45%, 28%, 20%, 16%, 44% and 20% respectively. An average incidence of 43.33% was recorded in the KPK province. GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG CTV ISOLATES Six Citrus Tristeza virus (CTV) ELISA positive were amplified through PCR and an expected product size of ca. 600 bp was obtained. CITRUS GREENING The citrus plants with HLB symptoms showed pale yellowing with mosaic pattern or variegated type of chlorosis and reduce in size. Based on these symptoms 35 samples of NARC citrus field were collected and analyzed through PCR using five different methods i.e. DNA zol, Plant Phine PcR Direct kit,, Genomic DNA purification kit, CTAB method and DNA NEASY Kit. The DNA efficacy was analyzed through gel electrophoreses and was found maximum. Later PCR was used to analyze by using three sets of primers viz. A2/55, Oi1/Oi2C, and General Primers for HLB. The first set Oi1/Oi2c is 16rDNA based primer which is specific for detection of Ca-L-asiaticus and Ca-L-Africanus yielding the 1160pb PCR product after amplification. Although the infected trees showed clear symptoms but PCR based detection has not yet achieved and is in process.
95 Management of Viruses infecting Garlic in Pakistan, Talat Shaheen Gilani, SSO,IPEP, NARC Achievements: Survey of four locations of Punjab Khanewal, Gujranwala,Sialkot and Kasur was carried out and 290 samples were collected from different farmer fields and %age infection recorded was 33.44% through DAS ELISA against OYDV. Survey of eight locations of Khyberpukhtunkhawa was carried out and 400 samples from farmer fields were collected. DAS ELISA results of samples showed that OYDV was prevalent at all locations with maximum 90% at Swabi and minimum of 20 % at Malakand and Nowshera. Identification and indexing of garlic germplasm was carried out at NARC field for seven varieties of garlic cv Iranian, Italian, Chinese, NARC-09,MJ-84, JS-1 and Desi to find out the tolerant /resistant varieties.The %age infection of OYDV was decreased due to the management practice i-e the sowing of virus free Elisa tested cloves in the field. All plants of seven varieties tested through DAS ELISA showed different degrees of infection.The decrease of infection was due to the good management practices adopted durin experiment. OYDV and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV) were recorded for the first time in Pakistan.
96 Establishment of Botanical Garden for Cultivation of wild plants of Pakistan to introduce non-conventional crops in cultivation for value addition, Dr. Rubina Akhtar, PSO, IABGR, NARC Achievements: Land preparation, weed clearing, land levelling, irrigation channels done. Landscape design prepared. Seed sowing for spring planting done. Bulbs and cuttings grown for spring season according to the requirement of plant species.
97 Extraction and analysis of essential oil from rose, jasmine and aromatic herbs, Dr. Muhammad Naeem Ullah, PSO, IABGR, NARC Achievements: Clonal repository of medicinal plants including mint, basil, thyme, lavender, rosemary, oregano and other important plants is being maintained at Institute of agricultural Biotechnology & Genetic Resources, NARC. Mint germplasm was characterized for major polyphenols. Caffeic acid was present in highest amount (315.4 mg/g DW) in catnip mint followed by white mint (314.8 mg/g DW). Cool mint (M. spicata) was having highest amount of rosmarinic acid (298.2 mg/g DW). Ferrulic acid was also present in considerably high quantity suggesting the mint as potential source of dietary phenols. Essential oil of 18 mint local and exotic accessions was analyzed for chemical constituents. A wide array of chemical compounds was detected. Highest menthol contents were detected in locally collected white and purple flower mint. Mentha longifolia. Nana Asavi introduced from Saudi Arabia was rich in pipritone oxide (54.23%). Lemon mint contained nearly (15.37%), geraniol (23.22%) and geranial (26.41%) while; field mint and Nana Maghrabi contained only 1.2 and 1.34% geraniol, respectively.
98 Seasonal variation was studied in total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of lemongrass essential oil and plant extract. Significant differences were observed Essential oil yield and bioactive compounds. Total phenols and total flavoinoids were found to be higher in summer harvest followed by winter. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were also higher in summer harvest as compared to winter and spring. Lemongrass essential oil, summer harvest, possessed highest antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria among three harvests i.e., winter, spring and summer. Effect of date of sowing was studied on oil contents and total phenols in flaxseed. Total phenols were higher ( GAE/100g DW) in the seeds of accessions sown on 15/10/12. Higher oil contents (35-49%) were observed in accessions sown on 15/11/2012. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were compared among Melissa officinalis, Mentha pulegonium and Nepeta cataria. M. officinalis plant extract contained highest amount of total phenols (243.9 mg GAE/100g DW) and of total flavonoids (144.2 mg CE/100g DW). Essential oil of M. officinalis was having lowest IC 50 (1.104 ppm) among three essential oils. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these three essential oils was determined against four bacterial strains. M. officinalis essential oil inhibited the growth of B. thuringeneisis, B. subtilis and X. axonopodis at 20ppm concentration while P. syringae growth was inhibited at 25ppm. Nepeta catria and M. pulegonium essential oils inhibited the growth of these bacteria at 25 and 30ppm respectively. Antioxidant activities of different concentrations of 11 different medicinal plants were determined through DPPH assay. Holy basil and hot wave basil were possessing highest antioxidant activities at 50ppm concentration. Contd.
99 Acquisition and Improvement of Mushroom Production Technology in Pakistan Mr. Umer Iqbal, SSO, CSI, NARC, Islamabad Total Cost: Rs million Date of Start: Date of Completion: Objectives: Acquisition and collection of genetic resources to broaden the genetic base of mushrooms. Improvement of mushroom production technology for commercially grown mushrooms. Development of indigenous spawn production facilities for cultivable mushrooms. Improvement of post-harvest technology for mushrooms. Training and development of human resources in mushroom cultivation. Achievements: Cultures of Button, Oyster, Reshi, Chinese and Shiitake mushroom were collected from various sources (China, Japan, Belgium and United Kingdom). Five U.C (Ghora Gali, Charhan, Darya Gali, Murree Urban and Sehr Bagla) were surveyed for the collection of different mushrfoom sprcies. Ganoderma and morchella species were collected from different host trees in Murree, kaghan and Kashmir from spring to monsoon (March to June). Hybrid strains of Oyster and Button mushroom were developed for high yield. Physiological studies of Oyster and Shiitake mushroom was studied. Potato dextrose yeast agar medium was found as a best culture media, starch as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, pH 8 and 28°C for oyster mushroom. Corn meal agar medium as a best culture media, glucose as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, pH 7 and 25°C for Shiitake mushroom. The mycelial growth on different substrates (corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane baggase) of oyster (local) showed that maximum mycelia growth was recorded on corn cob. The maximum percentage of moisture was obtained in oyster mushroom grown on wheat straw and maximum amount of protein in the mushroom which was grown on corn cob.
100 Cont….. Different fungicides were evaluated for the management of contaminants grown on mushroom compost Carbendazim was assessed well against three pathogenic fungi namely Aspergillus flavous, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viridae. Button and Oyster mushroom were grown and production was being marketed. Spawn of Oyster and Button mushroom was produced for experimental purposes as well as for commercial farming. Different grains were evaluated for the growth of best spawn sorghum and rye seeds were found best for the production of good quality spawn. Different pathogenic fungi were isolated from Pleurotus spp. spawn and tested against oyster through dual culture technique and found that Trichoderma suppress the growth of Pleurotus maximum. Identify different blanching techniques to preserve the button mushroom for refrigeration. All of three treatment samples were tested for color, texture, taste and aroma by using nine point hedonic scale. Boiling for 1 min is the best blanching technique to preserve the mushroom for refrigeration. Evaluate different preservation methods to store the mushroom for long period. 0.5% acetic acid +0.1%sodium benzoate +1.5% KMS +5% Nacl; was found the best treatment to preserve the button mushroom for one year. On-farm trials were being conducted at Murree, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Abbotabad. Two training courses were conducted and trained 120 peoples. Booklets related to mushroom production technology were distributed among the farmers. Five students from Sargodha University, two from Arid University, Rawalpindi and one from Rawlakot University complete their thesis research and internship
101 Production and Propagation of Quality Deciduous Fruit Plants in MARC and Rawal Watershed at Satrameel, Islamabad, Mr. Muhammad Saleem, SSO, WRRI, NARC (Comp-II) Achievements: The nursery was developed using seeds, cutting and rootstocks as input provided by the using MARC component from GB area. Total no of rootstock of fruit plants 3580 Nos. seeds and cutting 5900 Nos. were planted. Different types of fruit plants Peer plants were 2150; Apricot 750, Apple 360 etc. Cutting of Pomegranate were successful by over 80% followed by grapes (56.43%) and fig (over 21%). Grafting trials were carried out both in Monsoon and spring season and highest success rate was in spring season for apple, followed by peach and apricot respectively. A sale strategy was designed and approved to sale the matured fruit plants. So far an estimated income of over 70,000 have been earned and deposited to NARC income account. Demonstration to various stake holders. Automatic irrigation facility has been designed and established for the nursery. Developed a broacher to summarize production technology under Rawal Watershed conditions.
102 Production and Propagation of Quality Deciduous Fruit Plants in MARC and Rawal Watershed at Satrameel, Islamabad, Mr. Muhammad Din, SO, MARC Gilgit - (Comp-I). Achievements: The nursery was developed using seeds, cutting and rootstocks as input provided by the using MARC component from GB area. Total no of rootstock of fruit plants 3580 Nos. seeds and cutting 5900 Nos. were planted. Different types of fruit plants Peer plants were 2150; Apricot 750, Apple 360 etc. Cutting of Pomegranate were successful by over 80% followed by grapes (56.43%) and fig (over 21%). Grafting trials were carried out both in Monsoon and spring season and highest success rate was in spring season for apple, followed by peach and apricot respectively. A sale strategy was designed and approved to sale the matured fruit plants. So far an estimated income of over 70,000 have been earned and deposited to NARC income account. Demonstration to various stake holders. Automatic irrigation facility has been designed and established for the nursery. Developed a broacher to summarize production technology under Rawal Watershed conditions.
103 Establishment of R&D facilities of National Institute of Bio-Remediation: Dr. M. Ashiq, Director NIB, NARC Achievements: Strengthened water quality lab by addition of chemical parameters COD and BOD, their respective analytical procedures were validated from American Public Health Association (APHA). Lovibond Spectrodirect Spectrophotometer was purchased and calibrated. Prepared fortnightly reports on sustainable basis for fate of contaminants in water at inlet, individual ponds and outlet for bioremediation orchard and bioremediation garden (two bioremediation sites at NARC). Treated water fell under irrigation national environmental quality standards. Water quality reports were evaluated by third party evaluation.
104 Contt… Experiment-1Phytoremediation efficacy of Nasturtium officinale in treatment of batteries effluents Effluent samples were collected from Volta batteries Hattar Industrial Estate Haripur. Analyzed for Pb by referred methods mentioned in APHA (1998).Nasturtium officinale was collected from Rawal dam catchments areas. Plants of weight (20 ± 20 g/plant, wet mass) and length (roots, 10 ± 1 cm, aerial parts 22 ± 5 cm) were used for the experiment. Plants (n = 12) were exposed to concentrations of Pb (2.7mg/L -1 ) for 12 days. Water samples (50 ml each) were taken in triplicate from all solutions at 0 h and every 72 h for 12 days, acidified with 0.02 N HNO 3 and analyzed for Pb concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The percentage of Pb concentration decreased in the water as the exposure time increased. Nasturtium officinale showed a total removal efficiency of 81.4% of Pb from contaminated effluents. These results indicated that Pb remediation through N. Officinale can be considered as a candidate species for the treatment of battery industries effluents. Experiment-2 Effect of different additives on composting of water lettuce(Pistiastratiotes) Highest pH was recorded in T2 (WL + Urea) while minimum pH value was recorded in T4 (WL + Sewage Sludge). In case of EC maximum EC level ds/cm was measured in T4 (WL+SL) while minimum EC level was recoded in T1 i.e. (WL+RP). The C: N ratio was highest in T3, WL+EM, while minimum C : N ratio in WL+RP was recorded. Similarly maximum organic matter 98.3% was evaluated in T3 (WL+EM) and minimum organic matter level 78.2% was recorded in T4 (WL + Sewage Sludge). The availability of macro and micro nutrients also differ in different treatments. The Nitrogen 2.33% was maximum in T1 (WL + Sewage Sludge). Highest phosphates (0.91%) was recorded in T3 (WL+EM), while minimum “P” values 0.80% was recorded in T4 (WL+SL). Potash values various from treatment to treatment. Maximum “K” level 6.5% was recorded in T3 (WL + EM), while minimum K level 5.5% was recorded both in T1 and T2 (WL + RP and WL + Urea) respectively. In this study the micro nutrients i.e. Zinc and Boron was studied. Maximum Zinc (Zn) level 380ppm was measured in T1 (WL+RP) while minimum Zn level 270ppm was recorded in T2 (WL + Urea). Maximum B limit 420 ppm was recorded in T3 (WL+EM) and minimum level 26.8 ppm was recorded in T1 (WL+RP). The results showed that after composting significant level of micro and macro nutrients are available in the compost.
105 Contt… Integrated Farming Activities Indigenous aquatic plants i.e. Nasturtium Officinale, Nasturtium microphyllum, Phlaris minor and Ranunculus scleratis were collected from different water bodies. These plants are available from aquatic plant nursery at NIB will serve as a backup support of Phytoremediation. Fruits (fig, grapes,pomegranates, pear, avocado, and papaya), ornamental plants (poppy, acroclinium, poinsettia, daisy, pot marigold, cineraria) and herb plants (pepper mint, rosemary, stevia) were produced and planted at Bioremediation Orchard using treated waste water. This integrated nursery will help in income generation through sale proceeds. At bioremediation orchard 450 lemon plants were added to high density plantation. Harvested 39 tons wet aquatic plant biomass at bioremediation orchard for composting to meet nutritional requirements of nearly 30,000 fruit plants and backup fruit plants nursery. Harvested lemon fruits and provided to PATCO for value addition (making of pickle and squash). Continued maintenance operation on three Bioremediation field stations (Bioremediation Garden, Bioremediation Orchard and Site-2) Provided Bioremediation water supply to RRI through overhead pumping system. Produce of vegetables i.e. chilies, cabbage, broccoli, tomato and provided to PATCO for sale. Sold 500 rose plants through PATCO. Awareness Generation Delivered severalprograms on various TV & Radio Channels to disseminate knowledge regarding impact of bioremediation of agriculture and environment. Conducted numerous field visits for awareness generation to people belonging to different walks of life. Provided internship to 20 B.Sc., 6 M.Sc. students, currently 2 M. Phil and one Ph. D student is working under the umbrella of NIB. Delivered lectures to participants of AARDO at AHK-NCRD.
106 Development and evaluation of a turmeric curing and drying technology, Dr. Hafiz Sultan Mahmood, Assistant Agri. Engineer, ABEI, NARC Achievements: The objectives of the reporting quarter have been successfully accomplished. Activities Status Establishment of design parameters of the turmeric drying systemCompleted Preparation of bill of material and procurement of materialCompleted Design of the drying system using AutoCADCompleted Fabrication of the turmeric drying system in the ABEI workshop completed Measurement of the performance parameters of the turmeric drying system Under progress
107 Strengthening of National Insect Museum (NIM), Dr. Muhammad Ather Rafi, PSO, NIM, IPEP, NARC Achievements: Surveyed Localities: Punjab: 16 districts surveyed in 6 agro ecological zones (Barani Lands, Northern Irrigated Plains, Sandy Deserts, Sourthern Irrigated Plains, Suleiman Piedmont, The Wet Mountains) Khyber PakhtunKhwa: 13 districts surveyed in 3 agro ecological zones (Northern Dry Moutnains, The Wet Mountains, The barani Lands). Gilgit-Baltistan: 4 districts surveyed in single agro ecological zones (Northern Dry Mountains). Azad Jammu & Kashmir: 2 districts surveyed in 2 agro ecological zones. Insects Collected: As a whole about 15,000 insect specimens were collected in 15 surveys from different agro-ecological zones of the country.
108 Cont… Insects Identified: Predators: Neuroptera = 3 species Odonata = Syrphidae = 37 species Coleoptera (Cicindellidae): 15 species Pollinators: Hymenoptera: 15 species of bees. Crop Pests: Coleoptera: Curculionidae = 12 species; Meloidae = 2 species Diptera:Tipulidae = 5 species Lepidoptera:Sphingidae = 52 Significant Achievements New records explored = 30 with following details Crop Pests: Coleoptera: Curculionidae = 2; Lepidoptera: Sphingidae = 10 Pollinators:Hymenoptera = 4; Diptera: Syrphidae = 10 Predators: Odonata = 1; Neuroptera = 3
109 Investigation of Factors causing low head rice recovery, Dr. Tanveer Ahmad, PE, ABEI, NARC Achievements: After drying and storage of paddy, categorized the field samples (machine and hand samples). Also collected a number of paddy samples, husk, brown rice, white / polished rice, bran, broken and head rice samples from different modern rice mills, sheller at village level including laboratory samples. Data of number of paddy samples through treatment of a series of milling versions at lab. Scale, local technology and modern rice mills at different moisture level were collected, and being processed/analyzed for head rice recovery and other critical factors.
110 Evaluation and commercialization of mango picking and desapping machine, Dr. Muslim Abbas Zaidi, ABEI, NARC Achievements: Design and fabricated the second version of machine in light of previous field results to improve the working efficiency of the machine like change in the machine design from articulated to telescopic to ease operator. In addition to install the lime water supply system on the machine for improving the working efficiency of lime water. Finally machine has been tested and demonstrated in Sindh and Punjab provinces in mango’s areas. Machine working found satisfactory and now machine is ready for market promotion.
111 Development and evaluation of vegetable planter and transplanter, Dr. Muslim Abbas Zaidi, ABEI, NARC Achievements: Two different machines will be developed under this project; Vegetable planter - Completed the conceptual drawing/designing work and procurement of material for planter - Completed fabrication of the planter at ABEI - Tested the planter at farmer’s field for sowing of okra - Modification work of the machine is in progress in the light of field test results like bed shaper, furrow opener and accordingly the size of the main frame. Vegetable tansplanter - Finalized the MoU between PARC and private firm (M/S Agritec Multan) for fabrication of transplanter. - Development of transplanter at Agritec Multan has been completed according to the MoU under the supervision of ABEI and machine has been commission in ABEI after the laboratory tested at manufacturer premises.
112 Development and Evaluation of a PTO driven disk plow, Shabir Ahmad Kalwar, P.E. ABEI, NARC Achievements: 90% of potential manufacturers visited 90% of technical specifications finalized 90% of technical drawings completed 100% Machine acquired from FO&S 100% The selected machine tested in NARC field to finalize some parameters 100% The identical machine shifted to Daska and with the help of a M/S Commander Agro Engineer (potential manufacturer). It was tested in farmers field at three locations in three different soil types Manufacturing drawings of Ist prototype machine on AutoCAD completed 50% First prototype unit is in progress at the above named manufacturer’s workshop in Daska 55% of total Project objectives achieved
113 Seed Production and Popularization of lentil variety, Markaz-2009, Dr. Asghar Ali, PSO, Pulses Program, CSI, NARC Achievements: BNS production of variety MARKAZ-09 at NARC Markaz-09 was planted on 4 acres at NARC during Rabi season to get quality seed for dissemination next year. Farmer Selection: Progressive and cooperative farmers were identified and selected in five districts of Pothwar region DistrictsFarmers names/addressArea RawalpindiCh. Muhammad Ijaz, Dhok Gujjran1 acre JehlumMuhammad Jabbar, Arrah Sural, Sohawa1 acre Attock Malik Allah Yar, Fatehjhang 1 acre GujratAkhter Ali, Village Noonawali3 kanal Ch. Riaz Maqsood, Village Bhago Sharif 1 acre Yasir Araft, Village Paharianwala1 acre ChakwalAdaptive Research farm, Bhaun4 kanal
114 Cont… Supervised farmers for various crop production practices. Arrangements made to certify seed at farmers field from FSC&RD. Progressive farmers contacted to buy back certified quality seed of the variety through PATCO under progress. Got printing of informatory brochures and advertising material for farmers. Arrangements made for talks on electronic media for the awareness of farmers and conducted three TV talks for this purpose. Farmers’ day organized after selecting the representative site in the region at Sohawa, District Jehlum.
115 Effect of levelling practices on crop productivity in farmers field in the districts of Punjgoor, Khuzdar Adoption and Commercialization of a Small-Scale Olive Oil Extraction Unit, Mr. Liaqat Ali Shahid, Principal Engineer, ABEI, NARC Achievements: Olive was introduced about a decade ago as an emerging healthy oil source through grafting of existing wild olive trees (Kahu) and raising new orchards in hilly areas of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Provinces of Pakistan. A significant portion of olive fruit production gets wasted due to non-availability of a mobile mechanical oil extraction facility in Pakistan. Agricultural & Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), NARC took the initiative, pre-screened and imported a community level olive oil extraction unit as suggested by the olive farmers. The machine was successfully adapted to local agro-tech and socio-economic conditions and was adapted through local manufacturing industry. The pre-participation unit of the adapted machine was evaluated and demonstrated at farmers’ fields in Punjab and KP Provinces in collaboration with Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Chakwal, the collaborative manufacturer, KP Olive Promotion Project, and other stakeholders. Test results indicated that the fruit processing capacity of prototype oil extractor varied from 32 to 38 kg.h -1 with total oil recovery from 10 to 20 percent. The late harvested olive fruit yield more oil recovery as compared to early harvested fruit irrespective of variety. The mechanically extracted olive oil was graded as extra virgin in accordance with the world edible oil standards. Total operational cost of the machine was estimated as Pak Rs.12.4 kg -1 of fresh olive fruit. The awareness among the target growers and service providers about usefulness of the commercialized technology is being provided through electronic and print media.
116 CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions can be drawn on the basis of field experience and machine performance study: The oil extractor was field tested and demonstrated for processing fresh olive fruit at four different sites in collaboration with the machinery manufacturer and other stakeholders. Machine performed well at all sites. The fruit processing capacity of the machine ranged between kilograms per hour. Total oil recovery varied from percent mainly depending upon the following factors: The role of olive varieties in total oil recovery is very important and crucial; learned during olive processing that pickle varieties (bold sized fruit) have given less oil recovery percentage as compared to varieties containing high oil contents(thin oval sized fruit). Fruit maturity level play an important factor affecting the total oil recovery percentage; field results revealed that total oil recovery percentage was comparatively more from the late harvested (November – December) olive fruit than the early harvested (September – October) olive fruit. This may be due to comparatively cool temperature during late harvesting. Average fruit processing capacity of ABEI Oil Extractor is 35 kg.h -1 as compared to original Italian oil extraction unit i.e. 45 kg.h -1. The unit performance also depends upon the expertise of the machine handling technical team. The machine operation was noisier than the original extractor. Improper functioning of main motor clutch system affected the overall machine performance.
117 Transfer of Rodent Control Technologies through Commercialization and Service in the Province of Sindh. Dr. Amjad Parvez, SSO/Director, VPCI, SARC, Karachi. Achievements: Urban Areas: Customize services related to de-rating activities in Civil Hospital are in full swing. Rat control treatments in various wards and labs especially in Gyne, Burn ward, Jail ward, Canteen, Nurses Hostel, Dental and Surgical wards were successfully undertaken. During the quarter, 160 deceased rats were recovered and disposed off. Detailed rodent infestation survey was conducted to identify the intensity of the problem in OPD surgical blocks, hostels, stores and canteen etc. A comprehensive survey report is submitted to Medical superintendent, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital with monthly cost of Rs /- including cost of bait and labour charges. The case has sent to DG, Health services for financial approval. In response to request from senior authority, Karachi Port Trust, (KPT technical meeting was held with G.M (Technical) to of ascertain the level of urban rat infestation and to provide remedial measures on payment basis. Preliminary survey was conducted, however, detail survey procedure is in progress. Machchai Miani market is one of the oldest market dealing with wholesale meat, vegetables and other edible items and is visited by thousands of local citizens. The presence and loss due to rodents are serious concern for shop keepers and they are willing to initiate rat control campaign on payment.
118 Achievements: Agricultural Areas: One day training workshop / farmers gathering was organized at Goth Haji Ramzan KhasKheli, Sujawal to impart knowledge related to rodent pests problems, their importance, mode of damage and their effective management through application of “PARC Rat Baits”. A total 80 participant including farmers NGO’s worker and provincial extension personnel appreciated the efforts to impart current know how through literature, on field demonstration and audio visual techniques. As follow up study from Goth Raess Mohd Khan Rind related to de-rating operation in Raees Rind Farm, a sever attack on field rodents porcupine, and wild board was recorded. During 1 st treatment decrease in rodent population upto 45% were recorded through treatment of zinc phosphide bait. As follow up study, the survived population was treated with brodifacoum treated bait for complete knockdown of pest population. As a results of three day poison baiting, reduction in rodent population upto 98% was achieved. However, constant vigilance is recommended to keep the adjoining area rat population at minimum level through application of PARC Rat baits. On request by Pakistan Society of Sugar Technologist (PSST), lecture related to crop threat by rodent pest in Sindh was delivered on 11 th June, 2012 at Indus Hotel, Hyderabad. The participants were technologists from sugar mills of upper and lower Sindh region. A total of 85 participants attended the workshop and presentation was highly appreciated by technical staff of sugar cane technologists. A proposal was submitted to hold training workshop/seminar in selected sugar mills of both upper and lower Sindh region to enhance awareness level in farming community to save the crop from rat pests menace.
NATURAL RESOURCES 119
120 Establishment of vermiculture and vermin-composting research unit at NARC, Islamabad, Ms. Shahida N. Khokher, PSO, LRRI, NARC Achievements: 5 Kg of indigenous earthworms from ten sites (1/2kg each) of Islamabad, Burewala and Attock area were collected and two of them were multiplied each from 1/2Kg to 5kg. Standarization of conditions (substrate, temperature, moisture) for EW rearing/multiplication Development of Infrastructure and Establishment of Vermiculture & vermicomposting Research Unit with capacity of producing 2000 kg of vermicompost per season. (The capacity can be increased if heating facility is installed in the tunnel). Vermicompost analysis for physical and nutrient content from Pheritima spp. as well as from E. fetida shows that vermicompost from wheat straw or Parthenium or Sesbania bispinosa with AD are of good quality (Color, Texture, C/N 16:1; N, %; P, %;K, %) Zn was highest (100mg/kg) in Parthenium derived vermicompost. Evaluation of two mature vermicomposts on Spinach is in progress on Field as well as pot. Two months data on spinach foliage biomass shows 8% increase as compared to when AD was applied in equal amount in pot experiment. Vermicompost in enough quantity for field experiment was available in December and field experiment was launched in January The results would be presentable in April 2013 M.Phil Thesis on ‘Composition of Vermicompost of earthworms raised on different organic media’ is ready for submission.
121 Water Productivity improvement through deficit irrigation scheduling under centre pivot irrigation system, Dr. M. Munir Ahmad, PSO, WRRI, NARC Achievements: Climatic related to daily mimimum termperature relative humidity rainfall wind speed and sun shines hours were collected from 1996 to 2004 NARC Islamabad. Potential evapotranspiration (ET) of 109 mm in July, 90 mm in August, 87 mm in Sept. And 71 mm in October, NARC Islamabad. Sunflowers evapotranspiration (ET) varied mm per day in July 51.3 in August and it varied to 2.14 to 1.41 mm per day in Sept. The crop coefficient varied as 0.35 to 0.53 at the initial stage to 1.15 at the development stage and at the last stage it varied from 0.53 to The whole crop of days, Soil samples were collected from study site at depth 0-15 cm, cm and cm. Soil analysis shows that soil was laom with Ph 7.8 EC 0.37 to 0.90 DS /m. The organic matter was %. The field capacity of the soil is 25% (vol )and wilting point is 11% (vol). The total oluable salt irrigation water was 441 ppm SAR 0.05 carbonate 0.2 and bicarbonate 5.1 me/i. Sunflowers three varieties are shows in last week of July 2012 under four irrigation scheduling strategies I 1 (1.20 *ET), I 2 (100*ET) I 3 (0.80*ET) and I 4 (0.60*ET) and recommended NPK was applied.
122 Cont… The rainfall after sowing the crop was 72mm in July, 3.11 mm in Aug. And 127mm in Sept, The rainfall meat crop water requirement and even there was surplus water. One irrigation was applied in the start of Oct. And 2 nd in the 2 nd 10 of October, The detail data of crop yield parameter will be collected at the crop harvests time. Water productivity analysis will be carried out and then report will be submitted. Wheat grain yield can be enhanced up to 180 % more than the rainfed by adopting full irrigation requirement management strategies Under limited water areas, Wheat yield can be increased up to 150 % with irrigating 8 % less than water requirement Canola grain yield can be enhanced up to 80 % more than the rainfed by fulfilling 100 % crop water requirement Under limited water areas, Canol yield can be increased up to 50 % more than the rainfed with 15 % less water requirement
123 Carbon sequestration and organic mater dynamics under crop residue management in rice – wheat and rain-fed wheat system, Dr. Ghulam Nabi, PSO, LRRI, NARC Achievements: A study was undertaken under laboratory conditions to compare decomposition rate of surface applied and incorporated crop residues. During 110 days study period the results indicated that soil incorporation of rice as well as wheat residue decomposed faster than surface applied residues. Residue applied soils realised greater amounts of CO 2 and Nthan control soil. Highest rates of C release per day was recorded during first 10 days in both residue incorporated and residue surface mulched treatments which attained a steady state release afterwards however, rice residue released faster C than wheat residue.The decomposition of soil incorporated residues may be attributed to better residue soil contact which promoted greater microbial population and ultimately resulted in faster decomposition. The study indicated that residue incorporation in soil promotes quicker decomposition than surface applied techniques. Decomposition of rice residue at 3 soil moisture levels was compared under lab. conditions. During 60 day study period, the results indicated that soil moisture equivalent to 60% of field capacity resulted in highest rates of CO 2 release as well as NO 3 -N and NH4-N than 50% as well as 70% field capacity soil moisture. About % faster CO 2 release was recoded on cumulative basis at 60 % field capacity.
124 Contt…. Decomposition rates of rice residue were further enhanced when starter dose of N as urea was applied which resulted in 3 times greaterCO 2 and release suggesting that under field conditions faster rice residue decomposition can be obtained application of starter dose of nitrogen applied as urea with suitable soil moisture level of 60% field capacity. Most widely occurring soil series (50 sites)in Gujranwala and Sheikhupura, rice wheat area, were sampled during field survey of the area with incremental depths (0-12, 12-24, 24-36, and cm). Based on various physico-chemical determinations, it was observed that: Majority of the soil (80 %) belonged to medium (loam silt loam) and moderately fine textured (sandy clay loam, silty clay loam and silty clay) All soils were neutral to alkaline pH range of 7.5 to 8.5 with a mean value of 7.8. However, lower soil depth had greater pH values particularly in Eminabad and Satagrah soil series.Electrical conductance ranged 0.2 to 1.3 dS m -1 with a mean value of 0.5 dS m -1. However at cm depth higher EC values were observed in Kamoki soil series. Rice wheat soils are generally considered deficient in N. Data indicated that NO 3 -N concentration in surface soil ranged between 1.15 to 5.7 ppm with a mean value of 2.64 ppm NO 3 concentration decreased with increased soil depth. In surface soil NH 4 -N ranged from 0.2 ppm to 12.5 ppm with a mean value of 4.8 ppm. Lower soil depth had similar values of NH 4 -N invariably.. In surface soil P concentration ranged between 0.5 ppm to 14.7 ppm with a mean value of 6.6 ppm. About 30 % soil were in deficient P range ( 7 ppm). At cm soil depths, 52% soils (27) were in deficient, 20 % were marginal and only 30 % were in sufficient P range SOC in surface soil ranged from 0.02 g 100g -1 to as high as 1.51 g 100g -1 with a mean value of 0.73 in surface soil. SOC decreased in lower depths.Concentrations of SIC increased with increasing soil depth being highest at cm depth
125 Plant Nutrition Management for Sustained Crop Production in Northern Areas of Pakistan, Mr. Sher Ahmed, SSO, MARC, Juglote, Gilgit Achievements: The data of the two remaining experiments on almond and apple were completed in this quarter. Leaf sampling was done and prepared for analysis. Soil samples were collected from various sites and prepared for analysis. Among the on-going experiments the following titled experiments were completed in this quarter and data was noted i.e. 1) almond yield and yield parameters as affected by different combinations of NPK at MARC Juglote and 2) effect of different nitrogen and potash level on apple yield at MARC. The detail of experiments and data is presented in the section 5.
126 Capacity Development for Demonstration and Comparative Evaluation of different Irrigation systems on the farmers’ fields in Balochistan, M. Yaqoob, SSO, HRI, PARC, Khuzdar, Baluchistan Achievements: Tender is called for construction of water pond and water channel at CARI Lasbella and water courses were digged.
127 Rangeland Improvement by re-vegetation of suitable species and development of model pasture at NARC, Dr. Sarfraz Ahmad, PSO, RRI, NARC Achievements: Land preparation, ploughing, leveling and weeding of the area was carried out for various activities. Nursary of Acacia modesta, Acacia niotica, Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba, Zizyphus mauritana and Gleditshia tricanthos raised for field planation. Trial I: Growth and production potential of annual sown forage legumes under rainfed conditions Species: Three (Vicia dasycarpa, V. sativa, V. narbonensis) Design: RCBD Different growth and production parameters will be recorded. Trial 2: Growth and production of barley and oat under rainfed conditions Barley Varieties: Sanober-96 & Rakhshan-10 Oat (PD-65) Different growth and production parameters will be recorded.
128 Cont. Trial 3: Reseeding Potentail of Winter Grasses Species: Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea Germination is good, just seedling stag Trial 4: Reseeding Potential of Native Legumes Species (Medicago scutellata, Medicago polymorpha, Trifolium repens, Medicago sativa Germination is good, other parameters will be recorded at suitable plant growth stages Trial 4: Growth and Forage Production of Fodder Trees Gleditshia triacanthos414 Acacia modesta250 Mulberry500 Iple Iple83 Black Siris50
ANIMAL SCIENCES 129
130 Establishing the Sero-diagnostic and sero-surveillence system for the control of Warble fly in Pakistan, Dr. Munib Hussain, SO, Animal Health Program, NARC Achievements: Collection of 1 st stage larvae Slaughter house visits Eight visits were conducted from Oct. to Dec to different slaughter houses of Sihala & Fateh Jhang & Attock Collected 140 larvae from cattle and 172 larvae from goats in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) Sample processing Protective antigens (Hypodermin A, B & C) of H. lineatum and P. silenus for cattle and goats were extracted, identified and purified through ion-exchange chromatography & SDS Page Purified antigens stored at -20 ºC till further use. Data analysis Data entry is in process. Registration of animals Randomly selected goats (n=200) and Cattles (n=200) stationed registered at BLPRI, Kherimurat. Age, sex & physical status of all experimental animals determined & recorded Collection of blood samples 2030 samples from goats and 2110 samples from cattle collected in 12 rounds of sampling. Sera were harvested and stored at -20 ºC. Standardization of direct ELISA is in process.
131 Carrier potential of small ruminants in the persistence and transmission of PPR virus, Dr. Aamer Bin Zahur, SSO, Animal Health Program, NARC Achievements: Out breaks Investigation 11 outbreaks investigated Field epidemiological data was recorded on -designed proformae. Sample collection From affected animals 40 Whole blood 52 Ocular and nasal swabs 52 Fecal materials From dead animals at necropsy Lungs, spleen, lymph nodes
132 Contd…. Sample processing HA assay was optimized for the detection of PPRV antigen in morbid material. One step RT-PCR for detection of F and N genes of PPRV was optimized. Filter paper method for the detection of PPRV using RT-PCR was standardized. The anti-PPRV antibodies demonstrated by cELISA. Data analysis Data entry is in process. Targeted Epidemiological and virological investigations are being carried out Detection of PPRV shedding in recovered animals Samples collection- 12 weeks post outbreak 608 Fecal samples from sheep and goats 978 sera samples from cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Sample processing Fecal samples were processed by HA assay (100) and one step RT-PCR (100). The anti-PPRV antibodies demonstrated by cELISA (192).
133 Study on the production potential of different sheep and goats for mutton production under high input system, Dr. M. Fatah Ullah Khan, PSO (SRP), ASI, NARC Achievements: The project animals (sheep) were under trials and the results of their performance and carcass evaluation have been presented which gives the information about their potential under different breeding regimes. Forty two male Beetal goats and twenty one male Thalli sheep were used. Animals were randomly divided into three groups as follows: In the first group animals were supplemented with concentrate along-with normal grazing. In the second group animals were given concentrate feed as per NRC recommendations along-with normal grazing In the third group animals were given concentrate Ad libitum along-with normal grazing.
134 Culture and Breeding of Ornamental Fishes (Goldfishes, Koi Carp and Guppies) and feed development for their different developmental stages, Dr. Abdul Rab, PSO, Aquaculture and Fisheries, NARC Achievements: The survey has been conducted in natural waters of potohar region. Broad stock of ornamental fish that is goldfish shubunkin (crassius auratus) double tail (oranda goldfish) koi carp (local), imported koi carp white and high fin Rainbow shark (Epalzeorhynchos frentaus), Albino Shark (Epalzeorhynchos munense) and guppies (poecilia reticulate) has been, procured from the local market. Ornamental fish infected with ectoparasites i.e. learnea and Argulus were successfully treated with trichlofron (Dimethyl (2, 2, 2 trichloro – 1-hydroxyethyl) 0.5mg/100 liters. Acclimatization of different procured ornamental fishes has been done at aquaria, circular tanks and raceways for a period 15 days. During acclimatization the fish were fed at libitum with locally developed diet containing 35% CP. Brooders of shubunkin, double tail, koi carp (orange and white), high fin koi carp were stucked in earthen ponds, raceways and circular fiber glass tanks during the month of February, 2012 for breeding trails. Aquatic plant (Hydrilla was added in ponds, raceways and circular tanks as substrate for egg attachment. Successful breeding has been achieved during the month of March, 2012.
135 Cont…… Trails are underway in aquaria with locally developed diet supplemented with spirulina (blue, green algae) and Beet root (red chukandar) for color enhancement. Breeding trails for angel fish, mollies and guppies are under way in concrete raceways. Broodstock development Fingerling of Double tail (Carassius auratus auratus), Shubinkin (C. auratus), Local Koi Carp (orange and white) (Cyprinus carpio) and Hi fin Koi Carp (C. carpio) from previous breeding trials has been stocked in eathern ponds for the brood stock development having average initial weight of gm, gm, gm and gm respectively. Two Experimental diets were prepared containing 25 and 30 % Crude Protein (CP) and compared with imported pelleted diet (37% CP) as a control. All the species showed better growth fed on diet containing 30% CP level and can be used as a replacement of Imported pelleted diet. Natural Breeding
136 Stair-step heifer development program for induction of early puberty. Dr. Imdad Hussain Mirza, Director, ASI, NARC Achievements: Based on the results achieved so far, it can be concluded that better growth rate, efficient nutrient utilization, attainment of early puberty (18-23 months of age), and conception in Nili-Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal cattle heifers can be achieved at comparatively lower cost without any performance loss with the help of SSFS-Stair Step Feeding Scheme (6 phases of months i.e., low energy diet (80& ME of NRC) for 4 months (1 st Phase) followed by high energy diet (120% ME of NRC) for 2 months (2 nd phase), low energy diet for 4 months (3 rd phase), high energy diet for 2 months (4 th phase) and so on) as compared to NRC feeding requirements, SSFS offered a simple, practical and cost effective methods for raising dairy cattle and buffalo heifers.
137 Studies on biology, Captive breeding and other behavioral aspects of indigenous endangered wild animals and birds (Phase-II), Mr. Saleem Zahid, PSO, ASI, NARC Achievements: Established permanent ex-situ conservation/breeding research facilities for endangered wild animals & birds at NARC Developed permanent pasture fields inside wildlife research section for feeding needs of animals Successful captive breeding of Hog deer, Black Buck, Jungle fowl, and Peafowl achieved
138 Cont……. ANIMALSSTOCKS PURCHASED TOTAL STOCK AT THE END OF YEAR 2012 TOTALMALEFEMALETOTALMALEFEMALE Hog Deer Black Buck Urial♂ Kaghani ♀ cross bred Peafowl Jungle Fowl TOTAL
SOCIAL SCIENCES 139
140 Impact Assessment of farmers field school based on IPM approach in different production zones of Pakistan, M. Zubair Anwar, SSO, SSI, NARC Achievements: During the 1 st quarter (July – Sept, 2012) funds were not provided therefore to some extent the activities planned for this period was delayed. Presently, data related to Sindh province is in analysis stage and hopefully it will be completed in the month of October, Questionnaire designed Data Collected from Sindh (148 farmers interviewed) from Sukhur and Khairpur Districts Data Collected from Punjab(224 farmers interviewed) from Bahawalpur and Vehari Districts Data was edited and entered in SPSS Software Data analysis and tabulation is in progress Partially report writing is also in Progress
141 Scientists’ Capacity building through training – Ph-II, Mr. M. Asif Masood Ghumman, SSO, SSI, NARC Achievements: Under this project, seven training courses were approved on “Statistical and Economic analysis of experimental data using statistical software” for provincial agricultural researchers/NARC researcher. Out of seven four training courses were organized covering the following course contents/topics listed below: Introduction of statistical softwares Exploratory data analysis (EDA), (Partial Budget analysis, Marginal analysis sensitivity analysis) Statistical analysis of single factor experiments Statistical analysis of factorial experiments Economic analysis of experimental data Stability analysis Creation of Reports Duration of each course was one-week. Target audiences were drawn from the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) and NARC/PARC. Professionals/Experienced resource persons were invited from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF), University of Agriculture Khyber Pakhton Khwa Peshawar, Sindh Agriculture, University, Tando Jam, SSRI, NARC, Tarnab, Peshawar, and AJK.
142 Cont…. Summary of Four Training Courses Courses titleCourses titleVenueDuration & DateDuration & DateParticipan ts Statistical and Economic analysis of experimental data using statistical software ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar May 21-26, Statistical and Economic analysis of experimental data using statistical software Agri, Complex Muzaffarabad, AJK Dec , Statistical and Economic analysis of experimental data using statistical software ARI, Tando Jam Sindh March 11-16, Statistical and Economic analysis of experimental data using statistical software PIASA, NARC, Islamabad April 22-27, Total Participants76 Overall, 76 agricultural researchers benefited from first 4 courses and around 60 more a respected to be benefited in terms of in terms of updating their knowledge and analytical skills, use of statistical procedures, statistical Lay-outs, designs and statistical as well as economic analysis along with practical training for performing statistical and economic analysis using statistical softwares like MINITAB, STATISTIX, SPSS and MSEXCEL. The researchers were also given practical training on developing scientific recommendations through economic analysis of experimental data considering price and yield variability risks along with potential returns to farmers. CDs comprising lectures notes/materials were also distributed to the course recipients. After these courses, the participants shall be expected to contribute in improving the quality of research being carried in their respective fields by using the analytical tools learned during these courses.
143 National University of Agricultural Sciences (NUAS) Dr. Tariq Hassan (Registrar, NUAS/PIASA), NARC Achievements: 196 Students enrolled, 648 lectures delivered, mid/ final examination for (PGB, AGB, PEP, AE & NRM) and submission of award lists and transcript For thesis/synopsis evaluation and to manage allied academic issued with shared wisdom (8 meetings of Board of Studies were held) Satisfactory progress has been made in achieving the objectives of the project as 161 Students remained enrolled for M.Phil and Ph.D programs, 35 M.Phil students successfully completed their degree program. Besides that academic linkages has been developed with following Institutions International Islamic University Pir Mehar Ali Shah Arid Agricultural University Quaid-e-Azam University Allama Iqbal Open University The University of Agriculture Peshawar Agricultural University, Tandojam As PIASA capacity building institute the following training workshops have been conducted for PARC employees at PARC/NARC and outstations:
144 Cont… TopicNo. of EventsNo. of beneficiarie s Training workshop for P.Is in PARC Financial Management System NARC245 SARC, Karachi125 Training Workshop on official management at NARC 125
145 Skill Development / capacity building of the farmers of Balochistan, Dr. Muhammad Aslam, PSO/Director (API), NARC Achievements: Eighty-nine farmers and 15 Extension Officers of the following five districts of flood affected areas of Balochistan were trained under this project: Qila Saif Ullah Kachi/Bolan Jaffar Abad Jhal Magsi NasirAbad The above farmers and extension officers were trained in following five training courses: Artificial Insemination Large/Small Ruminants & Poultry Production Fruit and Vegetable Production Water Harvesting and Conservation Farm Mechanization
146 Contd…. Balochistan had suffered six major disasters during last eleven years including drought, heavy rains and floods. The destruction due to these disasters was not over yet. Nonetheless, a huge number of flood-affected people still depend on assistance from the humanitarian community to meet their basic needs. A big threat looms in way of development in agriculture sector and the government is trying hard to rebuild this sector. Training and education is considered the direct way to improve productivity in agriculture, food production and the most effective means to reduce poverty and encouraging sustainable development. It also ensures that information on new technologies, plant varieties and cultural practices reaches farmers and those who need them most as farming is a unique skill unlike others. It does not depend purely on the amount of money you have but it is a skill of time, patience and a bit of strategic thinking. Keeping in view the importance of the training, API started a RADP Sub-project entitled “Skill Development / Capacity Building of the farmers of Balochistan” to educate the people of the flood affected areas of Balochistan. Therefore, farmers of the flood affected areas were educated in different agricultural fields to boost up sustainable agriculture in Balochistan. Hopefully, the training and education conducted under this project will go a long way for developing agriculture base in Balochistan.
147 Strengthening / up scaling of audio visual communication facilities at NARC, Ms. Qurat ul Ain, Director, AVC, NARC Achievements: To strengthen and upgrade the existing production facilities at Directorate of Audio Visual Communications, it is worth mentioning that the state of the art AV equipment has been procured. The production work of documentaries/ TV programs containing significant and research based information is in progress. MoUs with Such TV and Rohi TV has been signed for collaboration and co- production of programs for the dissemination of information and Agricultural practices in Pakistan. About 100 informational Agricultural TV programs have been on aired through different TV channels and weekly four programs are going On-Air regularly which are creating awareness to farmers as well as scientists who are enhancing their communication and presentation skills by increased exposure on mass media. More than one hundred scientists have availed the opportunity to present their work on media. AVC studio and NLE systems has been made functional and 3 weekly TV programs are being recorded at AVC studio and going on air from Such TV and Rohi TV.
148 Demand and supply estimates and projections for meat in Pakistan, Dr. Khalid Mahmood Aujla, PSO/Director, Directorate of Agriculture Sciences, SSD, PARC Achievements: Literature was reviewed for designing draft questionnaire for formal field survey. Drafted field survey questionnaire, circulated for comments; and final version of the questionnaire was prepared after incorporation of the technical division’s comments. Field survey of Islamabad/Rawalpindi location was carried out after pre-testing questionnaire in the surveyed area. 104 respondents were interviewed from rural and urban areas of Islamabad/Rawalpindi districts. The data file of first surveyed location (Islamabad/Rawalpindi) was prepared after entering of the data of rural and urban areas in the computer for analysis. Household income & expenditure survey (HIES) data for the year was collected from Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan. National level published / secondary data on certain aspects of supply and demand of meat was collected for the last thirty years.
149 Contd… Data of the first surveyed location (Islamabad/Rawalpindi) was analyzed: Preliminary results of data analysis revealed that per capita consumption (per annum) of chicken meat, beef & buffalo meat, fish meat and mutton & goat meat were 19.0, 5.5, 1.8 and 0.7 kg. Consumption of all types of meat was lower in rural areas than urban areas, except beef & buffalo meat. Per capita consumption (per annum) of beef & buffalo meat was 6.6 and 4.5 kg in rural and urban areas of the districts, respectively. HIES data for the year of the all project locations viz. Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore and Faisalabad was converted into desired format for statistical analysis: The share of monthly household expenditures on meat consumption was 3.8 percent. Results of the pooled data revealed that per capita consumption (per annum) of chicken meat, beef & buffalo meat, fish meat and mutton & goat meat were 5.3, 2.3, 0.3 and 1.3 kg in the selected districts. Field survey of the 2 nd project location (Lahore) was conducted and 103 respondents were interviewed from rural and urban areas of Lahore district. After survey of all project sites, this project aims at estimating the supply response functions for beef, mutton, and poultry meat. Then these estimates in combination with the estimates of demand parameters will be used to project both the supply of and the demand for these products. We consider a polynomial distributed lag model to determine the lagged response of the livestock food producers to changes in their prices. It is generally believed that in the agricultural sector, in response to a given change in the price level, the production first increases over time and then declines. This polynomial distributed lag model allows a great degree of flexibility to detect this type of phenomenon.
150 WAY FORWARD Low allocation and late releases