Presentation on theme: "Experiences of Cluster Development in India. Structure of Presentation Evolution of Policy FrameworkStatus and Role of ClustersOverview of Major Schemes."— Presentation transcript:
Experiences of Cluster Development in India
Structure of Presentation Evolution of Policy FrameworkStatus and Role of ClustersOverview of Major Schemes
Evolution of Policy Framework Technology focused interventions in clusters by State Bank of India under its UPTECH scheme in 1987 Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) technology focused initiatives in 1991 UNIDO conducted a survey of clusters in 1996 and identified 138 traditional manufacturing clusters In 1997 Abid Hussain Committee for SSI recommended for cluster development approach UNIDO launched its cluster development programme in 1997 Ministry of MSMEs, GoI launched its UPTECH scheme in 1998 made more holistic in 2003 and modified in 2006,2007 and 2010
In budget, National Progarmme for Rural Industrialization was announced with a mission to set up 100 rural cluster every year In budget support for development of Handlooms clusters was announced and also many ministries launched their programmes In PM decided to constitute an Empowered Group of Ministers with mandate to lay down policy for cluster development and oversee its implementation During 2012 – 2017, emphasis on Innovative and Virtual Clusters Evolution of Policy Framework In 2002–2003 holistic development of clusters gathered momentum
Evolution of Policy Framework Old Model (Before 1991 ) Government drives economic development through policy decisions and direct incentives to Individual Enterprises New Model (After 1991) Private Sector drives economic development through collaborative process involving government at multiple levels, large companies, teaching and research institutions New Model (After 1991) Private Sector drives economic development through collaborative process involving government at multiple levels, large companies, teaching and research institutions
Evolution of Policy Framework
During last decade 24 schemes/programmes of ministries of central and state governments have supported about 500 traditional and 1500 micro enterprise clusters 130 million USD was invested till During allocated investment : 1 Billion USD Share: Central government : 91.4% State governments: 2.4% Techno- financial institutions/ international organisations : 6.2%
Status and Role of Clusters Types of Clusters: Industrial clusters Handlooms clusters Handicraft/ artisanal clusters Nos of Clusters: Industrial clusters: 1156 Handlooms/artisanal/micro enterprise clusters: 6000 Service clusters: 50 (only tourism) Healthcare clusters: 38 IT clusters: 59
Status and Role of Clusters
Clusters Account for: 77% units 72% employment 61% investment 58% output 76% exports (MSME units) Clusters provide employment to 20 million persons
Some Prominent Indian Clusters
AHMEDABAD BANGALORE AMBUR PANIPAT ALLEPEY RUDRAPUR TIRUCHCHIRAPPALLI MORBI CHANDERI JAMNAGAR MAHESHWAR HYDERABAD KRISHNA DIST. CHENNAI KOTAYAM BELLARY KOTA JALANDHAR SINDHUDURG LUDHIANA PUNE JAIPUR TIRUPUR ORISSA Major Clusters in India
India Location of Clusters
Sector-wise SME clusters. All 1156 SME (industrial clusters) clusters produce 136 types of products which have been placed in 14 sectors as shown below. Food product sector has maximum number of 23% clusters followed by Textiles products with 14%, Metal products with 13% and Non Metallic Mineral Products with 10%, which makes that these 4 sectors alone constitute 60% of the clusters.
Overview of Schemes 24 schemes are being in operation by different ministries of the Government of India and state governments suited to different product sector and target groups Every scheme has its own way of defining clusters
Definitions of Clusters
DC (Handicrafts), Ministry of Textiles Agglomerations having 100 artisans. In case of North East Region, Jammu & Kashmir and other hilly terrains, the clusters will have a minimum of 50 artisans. NABARD, Cluster Development Programme Micro enterprises and household units functioning on SHG mode and having a minimum of 50 beneficiaries upto a maximum of 200. In intensive clusters, the number of beneficiaries may go up to and can even extend over a block or taluka. Government of Gujarat A minimum of 50 industrial units, indulging in the manufacture of the same or related products and located within a radius of 10 km in a particular location
Definitions of Clusters Government of Orissa Handicraft Cluster At least 100 traditional artisans practicing the same craft for non-KBK districts and at least 50 traditional artisans in KBK districts and situated within a radius of 3-5 kms. UNIDO- CDPAt least 100 SME units or 50 handicraft units in a town/ city or few villages and their surrounding areas for an industrial (traditional manufacturing) or an artisanal cluster respectively. Further a minimum of 500 handlooms for a handloom cluster
Major Schemes (A)Name of the Scheme: Micro & Small Enterprise Cluster Development Programme of Ministry of MSME Assistance Available For: Conducting diagnostic studies ; Skill development & up gradation of technology ; Marketing including exports ; Setting up common facilities centres ; testing laboratories ; design centers ; training institutes, ;common logistic centres ; infrastructural development etc. Quantum of Assistance Soft interventions up to USD 0.05 million USD For Common Facility Centres - 3 million USD Assistance for CFC and infrastructure development given to “SPECIAL PURPOSE VEHICLE” formed by at least 20 members of cluster
Major Schemes (B) Name: Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI) of Ministry of MSME Objective: to develop clusters of traditional industries and make them market driven and competitive Definition: Traditional industry defined as an activity which produces marketable products, using locally available raw material, and skills and indigenous technology Eligibility: Clusters of about 500 families of artisans, traders etc located within one or two sub – divisions in one or more contiguous districts
Major Schemes Nature of Assistance: Available for replacement of machines, introduction of new designs, setting up CFCs, development of new products, and capacity building of artisans etc. Quantum of Assistance: Average cost of various activities and extent of grant assistance indicated in the scheme Nodal Agencies: KVIC & Coir Board of GoI Implementing Agencies: NGOs, state and central government institutions having experience
Major Schemes (C) Name of Scheme: Industrial Infrastructure Up gradation Scheme of Ministry of Commerce & Industry Objective: Enhancing competitiveness of industry by providing quality infrastructure through Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode Nature of Assistance: Available for creation/ up gradation for physical infrastructure, R&D Infrastructure, ICT infrastructure, quality certification, CFCs etc. Quantum of Assistance: 75% of project cost subject to ceiling of 12 million USD with a minimum industry contribution of 15% For hill states and J & K, 90% of project cost and industry contribution 5% Projects to be implemented by Special Purpose Vehicle (SPVs) of industrial units registered under Companies/societies act
Major Schemes (D) Name of the Scheme: Mega Food Parks Scheme (MFPS) of Ministry of Food Processing Objective: Providing adequate/excellent infrastructure facilities for food processing along the value chain from the farm to market. Assistance: One time capital grant of 50% of the project cost (excluding land) subject to maximum of USD 10 million in general areas. 75% of the project cost subject to ceiling of 10 million USD in hilly and difficult areas. Assistance available to SPVs formed of units and registered under the companies act.
Major Schemes (E) Name of the Scheme: Integrated Development Scheme for Handlooms Clusters of Ministry of Textiles Objectives: Sustainable Development of weavers located in and outside the clusters. Clusters covering 300 – 500 handlooms are to be taken Assistance: Available for setting up dying unit, CFC, quality control lab, Participation in exhibitions & fairs, design inputs and product development etc. Assistance limited to 0.12 million USD for each cluster Implementing Agencies: Director of Handlooms & Textiles, Handloom Development Corporations of State Governments, Apex cooperative Societies, NGOs and organisations recommend by the state government and approved by DC.
Major Schemes (F) Name of Scheme: Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hastshilp Vikas Yojna – a scheme for Handicrafts Clusters of Ministry of Textiles Objective: Integrated development of handicraft clusters Assistance Available For: Social interventions, technological interventions, Marketing interventions, financial interventions, cluster specific infrastructural interventions Assistance available to NGOs/ Cooperatives/ apex cooperative societies/ trusts/ COHAND/ NIFT/ DRDA/ State Handlooms & Handicraft Corporation.
Major Schemes (G) Name: Scheme for development of health clusters of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Sidha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) of Ministry of Health Objectives: To fill in the critical gaps in the sector related to standardization, quality assurance, productivity, marketing, infrastructure and capacity building etc. Assistance: 60% of the cost of core interventions and 25% of cost of adds on interventions with an overall limit of 60% of the project cost subject to maximum of USD 2 million for each cluster. Assistance is available to SPVs formed by minimum of 15 units
N.N.SHARMA Associate Professor & Chairperson India Centre for Public Policy Birla Institute of Management Technology (BIMTECH)