Presentation on theme: "The WHO MultiCountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health - 2010-11 Prof. Dr. Syeda Batool Mazhar FRCOG (U.K), FCPS (PK) Head of Department, MCH Centre,"— Presentation transcript:
The WHO MultiCountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health Prof. Dr. Syeda Batool Mazhar FRCOG (U.K), FCPS (PK) Head of Department, MCH Centre, PIMS, Islamabad
Background The world has seen two important changes in maternal health: Substantial reduction in global maternal mortality Increase in proportion of childbirths in health facilities. Progress though remarkable is insufficient to meet the MDG’s Estimated 287,000 women died in 2010 of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth A substantial proportion of childbirths are still taking place in communities without skilled birth assistance In many settings, women prefer to deliver in the community due to concerns about perceived quality of care in health facilities. Thus quality of care is increasingly critical to accelerate reduction in maternal mortality & stimulate demand for institutional births..
Background Quality of care is a multidimensional concept resulting in patient and provider satisfaction and improved health outcomes that includes Appropriate use of effective clinical and non-clinical interventions Strengthened health infrastructure Health providers’ attitude “As part of strategies to improve maternal health care, great emphasis has been placed on maximizing coverage that can be objectively monitored and evaluated, however other dimensions of quality are more challenging”
The WHO Multi Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health Primary Objective To study the incidence and the management of maternal and neonatal conditions highly associated with maternal and neonatal mortality in a worldwide network of health facilities.
The WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal & Newborn Health Secondary Objectives To assess the quality of care by the maternal near miss indicators and the use of effective preventive and therapeutic interventions. To examine the relationship of the use of effective preventive and therapeutic interventions with severe perinatal morbidity and mortality To consolidate the WHO Multicountry, Maternal and Perinatal Health network and strengthen research capacity of health facilities worldwide.
Materials and methods Large cross-sectional survey May 2010 to December WHO sub-regions selected based on levels of child and adult mortality Worldwide network of 357 health facilities in 29 countries from Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East 314,623 observations
29 countries, 357 health facilities Americas - 8 countries Africa - 7 countries Asia - 14 countries 314,623 deliveries
SELECTED COUNTRIES IN WHO MULTICOUNTRY SURVEY Group I Low MMR Group II Moderate MMR Group III High MMR Group IV Very High MMR (MMR<20)(MMR 20-99)(MMR )(MMR 300+) Japan Qatar Argentina Brazil China Jordan Lebanon Sri Lanka Mexico Mongolia Nicaragua Occupied Palestinian T Peru Philippines Paraguay Thailand Viet Nam Ecuador India Cambodia Nepal Pakistan Afghanistan Angola Democratic Republic of the Congo Kenya Niger Nigeria Uganda
Medical records of all eligible women were reviewed Average data collection period = 92 days The health facilities were eligible if they conducted ≥1,000 deliveries annually and had the capacity to provide caesarean section Countries, provinces and health facilities were randomly selected through a stratified, multistage cluster sampling strategy. Health facilities were located in urban or peri-urban areas and 37% of them were tertiary hospitals (11% were primary and 46% were secondary health facilities) Materials and methods
The WHO MultiCountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health The WHO MultiCountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health Punjab: Rawalpindi Medical College Nishtar Hospital Multan Bahawalpur Victoria Hospital DHQ Hospital Toba Tek Singh THQ Hospital Muridke Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore Services Hospital Lahore. Federal Capital: PIMS, Islamabad Sindh: Civil Hospital Karachi Sobhraj Hospital Karachi Korangi Hospital Karachi Qatar Hospital Karachi Taluka Hospital Rohri Civil Hospital Jakobabad Civil Hospital Badin & FGSH, Islamabad 16 health facilities with annual delivery rates > 1000, randomly selected in Sind, Punjab and Islamabad.
Study Population Materials and methods Study Population All women giving birth in selected study hospitals
Study Population Materials and methods Study Population All deaths of women during pregnancy, childbirth or within seven days of termination of pregnancy (regardless of the gestational age and the delivery status)
Study Population Materials and methods Study Population All maternal near miss cases, regardless of the gestational age and the delivery status
Eligibility Criteria The Study Population Most of eligible women are giving birth
Eligibility Criteria The Study Population But, few eligible women are not giving birth
Eligibility Criteria The Study Population All delivering women+ all near miss cases and deaths of non delivering women
Maternal Mortality Definition: Maternal death (MD)is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, Irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management But not from accidental or incidental causes. World Health Organization
05_XXX_MM18 Maternal Near Miss Mortality Definition: "A woman who nearly died but survived a complication that occurred during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy" This definition by WHO reconciles previous maternal near miss definitions and is aligned with "maternal death" definition of ICD10
Why maternal near miss Mortality ? Near miss/SAMM cases share many characteristics with maternal deaths Can directly inform on obstacles that had to be overcome after the onset of an acute complication. Corrective actions for identified problems can be taken to reduce related mortality and long-term morbidity
05_XXX_MM20 WHO Maternal Near Miss identification criteria A set of organ dysfunction markers including Basic laboratory tests & Management-related markers Clinical criteria based on the clinical assessment where laboratory and other techniques are not available
Results We Report the main findings of the WHO Multi country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health which evaluated The burden of pregnancy-related complications, The coverage of key maternal health interventions
Summary of Global MCSurvey Results Countries29 Total Women 314,623 Maternal near miss 2529 Maternal deaths 514 Severe maternal outcome (MNM+MM) 1% Potential life-threatening conditions 7%
Summary of Global MCSurvey Results Most frequent complications in women with severe maternal outcomes: Postpartum hemorrhage (26 %). Pre-eclampsia /eclampsia (26 %). The observed mortality in high mortality countries including Pakistan, was 2-3 times higher than expected for the assessed severity despite a high coverage of essential interventions.
Total no of patients n.= No delivery in participating facility (women with organ dysfunction)n=53 Delivery in participating facility (women with or without organ dysfunction) n=13122 Abortive outcome n=11 Antepartum n=8 Postpartum n=34 Near miss n=10 Maternal death n=1 Near miss n=4 Maternal death n=4 Near miss n=28 Maternal death n=6 No near miss with out complication n=12017 No near miss with complication n=1026 Near miss n=52 Maternal death n=27 STUDY FLOW CHART: PAKISTAN
Frequency And Severity Of Pregnancy-related Complications PakistanEMROWORLD WOMEN Women with complications 1158 (8.7%)3088 (6.2 %)22915 (7.4%) Women with SMO132 (1 %)416 (0.84 %)3043 (0.98 %) Maternal near miss cases Maternal deaths Maternal mortality ratio Maternal nearmiss : maternal mortality ratio 3:110:15:1
Maternal mortality ratio(WHO MCS 2011)
Coverage Of Key Interventions Pakistan(%)EMRO(%)World(%) prophylactic oxytocin therapeutic oxytocin magnesium sulphate for eclampsia prophylactic antibiotic for c section parentral antibiotic for sepsis Corticosteroids for preterm birth
Coverage of key interventions by country group Low- MMR countries Moderate- MMR countries High MMR countries Very-High MMR countries Prophylactic oxytocin 82%91%88%92% Therapeutic oxytocin 82%88%84%86% MgSO4 for eclapmsia 75%89%80%87% Prophylactic antibiotic for c sec 36%92%83%82% Parentral antibiotics for sepsis 69%84%63%89%
Interventions related to postpartum hemorrhage prevention of PPH n=13175 interventionN% Use of oxytocin % Misoprostol % Ergotamine289322% Other uterotonics2131.6%
Interventions related to postpartum hemorrhage treatment of PPH n=187 interventionN% Oxytocin Misoprostol Ergometrine Other uterotonics Any uterotonics Artery ligation19 1 Balloon or condom tamponade6 3.2 Hysterectomy Severe maternal outcomes Deaths13 6.9
Interventions related to preterm labour N=1449 Yes% Use of corticosteroids47.9 Betamimetics1.5 NSAIDS0.6 Ca channel blockers6.6 Oxytocin antagonist0.4 MgSO40.5 Bed rest34.2 Hydration36.1 No treatment for PTL42
Pregnancy Complications and Severe Maternal Outcome Statistically sig diff b/w SMO and non-SMO group for maternal education p= Statistically sig diff b/w SMO and non-SMO group for no of previous c section P=0.027
Maternal complications Hemorrhage related severe maternal outcome
Maternal complications Infection related severe maternal outcome SMO n=132
Maternal Complications In Severe Maternal Outcome Hypertensive Disorders
Maternal complications other complications related severe maternal outcome
Anesthesia for LSCS N= 4202% Gen anesthesia46411% Epidural481% spinal369089%
Maternal intensive care use PakistanEMROWorld ICU admission rate0.5% 1%0.6% ICU admission rate among women with SMO32.6% 48.5%31.7% SMO rate among women admitted to ICU61.4% 49.6% Proportion of maternal deaths assisted without ICU admission 44.7% 42.4%69.6%
Facilities in study hospitals in Pakistan YesNo NICU63.4%36% Appropriate adult ICU57.7%42.3% Appropriate neonatal ICU 60%39% Ambulance100% Blood bank94.6%3.6%
Medical staff availability in study hospitals (Pakistan) 24/7 Inside facility % 24/7 Outside facility % Partially available % Peadiatrician Obstetrician Anesthetist
Perinatal outcome Variables All women PakistanWomen with SMO Pakistan Preterm births Fetal deaths Early neonatal deaths (intra- hospital) Neonatal intensive care unit admission Birth weight distribution among live births <1750g g g g >4000g2.62.1
Outcome of newborns p-value Discharged (n = 12590) Died (n = 293) Birth weight Low birth weight1304 (10.4%)186 (63.5%)<0.001 Normal birth weight11286 (89.6%)107 (36.5%) Relation Of Birth Weight With Neonatal Outcome
Discussion “Beyond the coverage of essential interventions – the next challenge for reducing global maternal mortality “ The high coverage of essential interventions suggests that these interventions are available & used in majority of studied health facilities Mismatch between high coverage of essential interventions and the substantial variations in health outcomes implies that there are other factors driving these outcomes. Delays in implementing these interventions or interventions poorly implemented could explain part of the excessive mortality and morbidity observed in some settings. Verticalization of care (i.e. few effective interventions implemented in disconnection of comprehensive care) could be an issue
Discussion Other elements of care and quality may be playing a strong role in severe maternal morbidity survival as in Postpartum haemorrhage, prophylactic and therapeutic uterotonics are essential but shock management and prompt surgical care are also critical. Magnesium sulphate is fundamental to the management of eclampsia, but other aspects of care (such as pre-delivery stabilization, severe hypertension management or airway management for adequate oxygenation and prevention of aspiration pneumonia) are also essential. The prevalence of infection increased as case severity increased. The prevalence of sepsis and other systemic infections is more than four times the prevalence of puerperal endometritis. This may indicate that the prevention, early identification and appropriate management of secondary infections (e.g. postoperative infection, aspiration pneumonia) and other non-obstetric infections should be regarded as a high priority
Discussion Assessment of severity is often incomplete: there is an apparent underestimation of severity due to paucity of information related to organ dysfunction. In settings where important constraints in the assessment of severity exist, poor assessments of severity may contribute to delays in the implementation of effective interventions and poor clinical management. Health systems issues (such as referral processes), underlying undernutrition, pre-existing moderate to severe anaemia and other factors could also have played a role.
Discussion Neonatal Outcome It is the MOM… Poor maternal health & nutrition Poor maternal education Lack of birth spacing Poor antenatal care (ANC) Unskilled deliveries Lack of clean delivery practices Improper neonatal resuscitation Poor post natal care Poor infant feeding practices
Strengths of WHO MC Survey It is one of the largest studies exploring the management of severe complications and the prevalence of maternal near miss using standardized definitions across several countries. This study captured approximately 0.7% of the maternal deaths during a 3-month period in the world. Several procedures were adopted to ensure appropriate implementation and high quality data (such as training, pre- data entry visual check of the data collection forms, automated queries, double-checking selected medical records, and thorough audit of unclear cases, particularly maternal deaths) Ensuring standardization of processes is a challenging task by minimizing methodological heterogeneity and maximized data quality.
Limitations of WHO MC Survey The magnitude and the no’s of personnel involved (> 1500 ) The data source-Routine hospital records, could be suboptimal. Only short-term ( 7 days) intra-hospital data collected. A small no of survivors may have died in the remaining puerperal and NN period. In settings where basic laboratory tests are not available there is a possibility of under-identification of near miss cases and under- estimation of severity. In such settings, a large proportion of women with unrecognized organ dysfunctions may die in absence of appropriate life support, worsening the ratio of MD to MNM. The study design did not assess labor duration, hence no data available on the prevalence of obstructed labor. As the WHOMCS conducted in secondary and tertiary facilities it may not represent maternal outcomes and coverage of essential interventions in smaller facilities or in the community.
Generalisability and Applicability of WHO MC Survey In view of study characteristics, the present findings should not be regarded as representative of countries, but indicative of the situation in a large sample of health facilities. The situation in lower-level facilities is likely to be different, particularly in terms of coverage of essential interventions. The coverage of facility-based care in a given geographical area may influence the frequency of complications observed at the facility level.
Conclusions Implementing the systematic identification of near miss case, mapping the use of critical interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are the initial steps for using the maternal near miss concept as a tool to improve MN health. These findings are a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with governments, professional and civil societies, health systems or facilities for promoting best practices, improving quality of care and achieving better MCH.
THE WAY FORWARD “Translating Research Into Experience” Identification of priorities in maternal and newborn health Policy making and advocacy Publication of study related papers in reputed medical journals
References World Health Organization, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank. Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to Geneva: World Health Organization, 2012 (World Health Organization website. Available: _eng.pdf. Accessed 2012 April 8). United Nations. Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. New York: United Nations, 2010 (World Health Organization website) Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, Qureshi Z; WHOMCS Research Group. The World Health Organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol. BMC Health Serv Res Oct 26;11: 286. World Health Organization: Evaluating the quality of care for severe pregnancy complications: The WHO near-miss approach for maternal health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011 (World Health Organization website. Available: who.int/publications /2011/ _eng.pdf. Accessed 2012 Nov 12) Beyond the coverage of essential interventions – the next challenge for reducing global maternal mortality: findings of the World Health Organization Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Joshua Vogel, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P et al. Lancet, May Accepted. Awaiting publication.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health acknowledges the extensive network of institutions and individuals who contributed to the project design and implementation, including researchers, study coordinators, data collectors, data clerks and other partners including the staff from the Ministries of Health and WHO offices. Members of the WHO MCS Research Group include: João Paulo Souza (WHO – Global Study Coordinator), Ahmet Metin Gülmezoglu (WHO – Global Study Coordinator), Guillermo Carroli (Centro Rosarino de Estudios Perinatales - CREP, Argentina – Coordinator for Latin America), Pisake Lumbiganon (Khon Kaen University, Thailand – Coordinator for Asia), Zahida Qureshi (University of Nairobi, Kenya – Coordinator for Africa) and the country coordinators from 29 selected countries. For Pakistan, support of WHO Country Office led by Dr K Bille, Dr Nima Abid, Dr Shadoul, Dr Iqbal Kahut and Dr Zareef is appreciated. The federal MNCH cell staff, Islamabad, in particular Dr Salim assisted in the selection of facilities as well as in coordination. The office of Federal Director General Health, Dr Rashid Juma and Executive Director, PIMS, provided excellent administrative guidance as necessary. The central office in PIMS, Islamabad and its staff as well as residents who assisted the central office are acknowledged for their contribution.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Pakistan Country Coordinator:Prof. Dr Syeda Batool Mazhar Punjab Province Coordinator:Prof. Dr Arif Tajjammul Assistant Coordinator: Dr Alia Bashir Sind Province Coordinator:Prof. Dr Shereen Bhutta Assistant Coordinator: Dr Haleema Yasmin HOSPITAL COORDINATORS:SELECTED HOSPITALS Prof. Dr Ghazala Mahmud & Dr Nasira TasnimUnit I, MCH Centre, PIMS, Islamabad Prof. Dr Syeda Batool Mazhar & Dr Shagufta YasminUnit II, MCH Centre, PIMS, Islamabad Dr Riffat Shaheen & Dr Fariha RahimFederal government Services Hospital, Islamabad Prof. Dr Asma Usmani Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, RMC Prof. Dr Rizwana Chaudary & Dr NaheedUnit I, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi,RMC Prof. Dr Fehmida ShaheenUnit II, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, RMC Prof. Dr Shagufta SayyalDistrict Headquarter Hospital, Rawalpindi, RMC Prof. Dr M. Saeed & Dr M.IkramShiekh Zayed hospital, Lahore Prof. Dr Naheed FatimaUnit I, Bahawalpur Victoria Hospital. Dr Tasneem AkhterUnit II, Bahawalpur Victoria Hospital, Prof. Dr Samee & Dr Hajra MasoodNishtar Hospital Multan Prof. Dr Saqib Siddiq, Dr Rubina Services Hospital Lahore Dr. Shamama,District Headquarter Hosp, Toba Tek Singh Dr Nuzhat AlamTHQ Hospital, Muridke Prof. Dr Nargis soomroUnit I, Civil Hospital Karachi, DMC Prof. Dr Subhana TayyabUnit II, Civil Hospital Karachi, DMC Prof. Dr Ayesha KhanUnit III, Civil Hospital Karachi, DMC Dr Syed Hasan AlaQatar Hospital, Karachi Dr Tahira JabeenKorangi Hospital, Karachi Dr SoniaSobhraj Hospital, Karachi Dr Naheed Soomro Civil Hospital, Jacobabad Dr Shabana Solangi Taluka Hospital, Rohri Dr HakimzadiCivil Hospital, Badin