Presentation on theme: "Technology30 S3 Used basic technology from early Greeks Methods for lifting water, irrigating farmland Waterwheels- raise water from rivers to resevoirs."— Presentation transcript:
Technology30 S3 Used basic technology from early Greeks Methods for lifting water, irrigating farmland Waterwheels- raise water from rivers to resevoirs Dams, networks of canals, underground chanels. Seventy percent of all water in Iran from underground conduits Water clocks, complex gears, double acting pums w/ suction pipes, crank mechanism devices. Selective control mechanisms, fountains, machines for rich patrons. Advancement in production of paper, textiles, weapons, shipbuilding, mining and metals.
Medicine28 S2 Studied work of Greek scholars- theories of Hippocrates, Galen. Used direct observation for disease theories, treatment. Theory of 4 humors- blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile. Various medicines, foods to replenish, diminish humors. Focused on recording case studies, cures. Abu Bakr al-Razi wrote about smallpox, measles, diabetes, hayfever, compiled 1 st overview of medical history in Kitab al-Tibb al-Mansuri (Mansuri Book of Medicine) Ibn Sina wrote most influential Middle Ages book on medical theories- al-Quanun Pi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine) Ibn al-Nafis correctly described way blood flows through heart. Muslim hospitals became famous- treated all patients regardless of religion, gender, social class.
Optics S2 Scholars transformed field w/ new methods, approaches. Al-Haytham (Alhazan, European) rejected Greek exp. Of vision. Eye does not see object itself, recieves image from light bouncing off object to eye. Studied burning mirrors, mirror reflections, geometry of vision, makeup of eye (others) Far surpassed research efforts of other scholars.
Astronomy/Mathematics27 S, Q2 Led to creation of many other branches of science (astronomy) Writings of Ptolemy was greatest influence on early Muslim scientists of astronomy. Used geometric models to study stars. Findings led to corrections in Ptolemy’s work. Introduced trig into study of astronomy. Major observatories in cities ie. Isfhan, Jaipur. Abbasid caliph al-Mamun launched 1 st recorded group science project, commissioned astronomers to verify, improve Ptolemaic theories. Thabit ibn Qurrah 1 st known math analysis of motion Al-Battani, after 30 years observing, proposed annual solar eclipse Abid al-Rahman al-Sufi accurately illustrated constellation locations and sizes. His work inspired star names.
Knowledge Gained from Other Countries26 S44 Before Muhammad’s birth, Greece was center of science and learning for people around Medditeranean Sea Studied astronomy, medicine, geography, history From 4 th cent. On, studies clashed w/ Christian church. Heretics (nonbelievers) forced to flee because of persecution To Persia, scholars from India/China, knowledge thought to be important Shared and developed ideas. Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs invited scholars from Persia etc. to visit courts in Damascus, Baghdad, gained knowledge.
Knowledge Gained from Other Countries24 S47 Imported silk, porcelain, spices from China Brought back practical knowledge based on Chinese inventions, ie. Papermaking, wood block printing. WB printing made it possible to produce copies of book a lot quicker than writing out by hand, allowed knowledge to spread more widely. Gunpowder from China- by 14 th cent (early) Muslims discovered how to make it, shoot arrows from simple gun. Knowledge spread to Europe, changed face of warfare forever. By time Ottoman explorer Suleiman I attacked Hungary in 1543, gunpowder was in regular use in guns/cannons.
Medicine24 S47 Scholars translated medicine books from Greek. Most important was work of ancient physician Galen lived in 2 nd century and Dioscori from 1 st cent. Added medical knowledge from India and own studies. Knew diet and climate could affect health. Tried to treat illnesses w/ herbs, drugs, opposed to surgery By 9 th cent, hospitals were in large cities like Baghdad passing of skills, many doctors wrote medical textbooks Al-Qanun, written by Ibn Sina, born near Bukheura, central Asia 980 Detailed symptoms of serious diseases, how they spread List of 760 drugs currently in use
Geography22 S46 Muslim geographers knew world was round like a ball not flat or disk. Mathematicians able to calculate circumfrence, diameter. Al-Idrisi born in North Africa, ~1100. Produced accurate maps of world as known then. Muslims journeyed in 10 th cent. Egypt Al-Masudi wrote 30 volume encyclopedia describing countries he had visited. Al-Biruni died 1050, wrote geography of India Ibn Battuta, most famous traveler, born in Tangier 1304, traveled over 60000 miles. Died in 1377
Geography23 S47 Arab travelers went to land of Vikings Ibn Fadlan arab ambassador wrote detailed description of Viking Chief funeral. On banks of Volga River, in 922 Al-Tattusi visited Viking market town, Hedeby Denmark Men as well as women wore eye makeup Also added that when the vikings saing it sounded like dogs howling, but worse!
Astronomy21 S45-6 Astrolabe used to work out movements of stars and planets Used magnetic compass to find direction of Mecca Astrolabe measured distance between Earth and star Magnetic compass was developed from an ancient Chinese idea Astrolabe calculated times of sunrise and sunset Needed to calculate times of new moon for calendar Helped Muslim travelers find their way around the world, ie Hajj, carrying goods from China by caravan/ship
Medicine 32 S1 Islamic Golden Age was 8-15 cent. Islamic medicine centuries ahead of Europe Qur’an, Hadith stated Muslims had duty to care for sick “Medicine of the Prophet” Debate about whether should use Greek/Chinese/Indian medicine, but allowed. Major contribution was hospitals, paid for by Zakat tax. Hospitals in existance by 8 th cent, soon widespread, at least 30. Sent physicians, midwives into poor rural areas, provided place for physicians etc. to study, research. Some hospitals for specific purposes, others general. System of medical education was well structured. Islamic physicians were meticulous with recordkeeping for peer review/spread and share knowledge.
Medicine 33 S1 Most notable Islamic scholar was al-Razi. 850-923 Produced over 200 books about medicine/philosphy Unpublished one that gathered most of medical knowledge of Islamic world into 1 place. Translated into Latin Refined scientific method, promoted experimentation/observation. When asked to build hospital in Baghdad, selected location where meat rotted least so patients least likely to suffer from illness, putrefaction of the flesh. Believed doctor-patient should trust each other, doctor had duty to help patient, patient had duty to follow doctor’s advice. Believed analyzing background of patient and considering ailments suffered by close family Made leap of looking for what caused illness symptoms. Wrote about human physiology, understood brain operated muscles
Medicine 34 S1 Ibn Sina excelled in many fields, wrote “The Canon” became core text for physicians in Islamic world/Europe, diagnosing and treating ailments. Believed diagnoses could be made by pulse and urine, color, odor etc. Suggestions for infant care, believed that bad water responsible for ailments, how to check purity of water Contributed greatly to history of medicine, though many remedies ineffective. Al-Kindi 800-870. Influenced by Galen Aqrabadhin (Medical Formulary) described preperations drawn from plant, animal, mineral Added knowledge from India, Persia, Egypt Based on medical herbs, aromatic compounds, musc, inorganic medicines. First divide between medicine and pharmacology
Medicine 34 S1 Ibn Al-Nafis (born 1213) 1 st scholar to understand respire- circulatory system Understood heart divided into 2 1/2s, no pores connecting two halves. Blood only travel from one side to other by passing through lungs. Blood from capillaries surrounding it, not right ventricle, role of capillaries in circulation- pulmonary artery and vein linked by microscopic pores. First to understand mechanisms behind pulse. Believed motion of blood was means to disperse “spirit” which would burn out heart if resided too long Based on observations in dissection, corrected physiology misconceptions, brain, gall bladder, bone structure, nervous system. Pharmalogical works drew remedies from across world, introduced mathematics and idea of dosage to administration of medicines.
Medicine 35 S1 Serapion (9 th cent) wrote treatise listing several diseases, lists known remedies. Al Dinawari “Book of Plants” influenced Western history of medicine 6 th cent Persian doctor Burzoe traveled to India, brought ack remedied, gatherd info from Indian phyisicians and healers working for caliphate. Al Tabiri 850 Paradise of Wisdom, based on Galen, Hippocrates work, included appendix w/ translations from India. Al Hakm earliest known book in medical sciences, physiology etc. Yuhanna Ibn Masawyh “disorders of the eye” “knowledge of the oculist examinations” Kita-Al Mushajarr al-Kabir, descriptions, diagnosis, symptoms, treatments of disease. Hunyan ibn Nishaq “The book of introduction to medicine” 1 st islamic text to be translated into Latin