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PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA. PRESENTED BY: FAHAD KHAN NIDA SOHAIL MARIA KHAN ABID NAWAZ.

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Presentation on theme: "PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA. PRESENTED BY: FAHAD KHAN NIDA SOHAIL MARIA KHAN ABID NAWAZ."— Presentation transcript:

1 PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

2 PRESENTED BY: FAHAD KHAN NIDA SOHAIL MARIA KHAN ABID NAWAZ

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4  The People's Republic of China (PRC), commonly known as China, is the largest country in East Asia and the most populous in the world with over 1.3 billion people, approximately one-fifth of the world's population. People’s Republic of China was established on 1 st October,  It is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system, and has jurisdiction over twenty-two provinces, five autonomous regions four municipalities, and two highly autonomous Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macau).  The PRC's capital is Beijing. At approximately 9.6 million square kilometers the People's Republic of China is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area, and the second largest by land area. MARIA KHAN ROYAL PRESENTERS01

5  The economy of China is a rapidly developing and influential market economy in the world.  It is the third largest economy in the world after the US and Japan.  It has been the fastest-growing nation for the past 30 years with an average annual GDP growth rate above 10%.  It participates extensively in the world market and private sector companies, which play a major role in the economy. According to China's official statistics, the poverty rate fell from 53% in 1981 to 2.5% in  The government has also focused on foreign trade as a major vehicle for economic growth.  China's foreign trade has grown faster than its GDP for the past 25 years. MARIA KHAN ROYAL PRESENTERS02

6  China's growth comes both from huge state investment in infrastructure and heavy industry and from private sector expansion in light industry instead of just exports.  The government's decision to permit China to be used by multinational corporations as an export platform has made the country a major competitor to other Asian export-led economies, such as South Korea, Singapore, and Malaysia.  China has emphasized raising personal income and consumption and introducing new management systems to help increase productivity.  The two most important sectors of the economy have traditionally been agriculture and industry, which together employ more than 70% of the labor force and produce more than 60% of GDP. 03ROYAL PRESENTERS MARIA KHAN

7 THE TALLEST BUILDING OF CHINA “JIN MAO TOWER”

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9  In 1949, China followed a socialist heavy industry development strategy, or the "Big Push" strategy. In this strategy, consumption was reduced while rapid industrialization was given high priority.  The government took control of a large part of the economy and redirected resources into building new factories. Many new industries were created.  Tight control of budget and money supply reduced inflation by the end of NIDA SOHAIL ROYAL PRESENTERS04

10  Throughout the 1950s and 1960s a number of well-known changes occurred in China's economic policies and priorities.  The largest part of the state's investment was directed into the industrial sector, while agriculture, which employed more than 78.6% of the labor force, was compelled to depend on its own minimal capital resources for a significant portion of its fund necessities.  The highest priority was given to industrial sectors, such as coal, electric power, iron and steel, building materials, basic chemicals, and heavy engineering. NIDA SOHAIL ROYAL PRESENTERS05

11  By following the Soviet model, the goal was to set up technologically sophisticated, large-scale, capital-intensive plants.  Many new factories were built with Soviet technical and financial assistance.  The Second Five-Year Plan (1958–1962), which was to be on the same lines as the First, the policy of the Great Leap Forward was announced. NIDA SOHAIL ROYAL PRESENTERS06

12  Construction of large factories was to be continued quickly, and in addition to that was the initiative to create a huge supplementary network of simple, small-scale industries and plants that were built and managed locally.  In industry, wages had been frozen and bonuses cancelled. In addition, technicians and many managers lost their authority and could not play an effective role in production in the wake of the movement. NIDA SOHAIL ROYAL PRESENTERS07

13 RENMIM UNIVERSITY OF CHINA “PEOPLE’S UNIVERSITY OF CHINA”

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15  In these years, the government emphasized raising personal income and consumption and introducing new management systems to help increase productivity.  The government also had focused on foreign trade as a major vehicle for economic growth.  In the 1980s, China tried to combine central planning with market-oriented reforms to increase productivity, living standards, and technological quality without considering inflation, unemployment, and budget deficits. ROYAL PRESENTERS Abid nawaz 08

16  With production being introduced in the agricultural sector, private ownership of production assets became legal, although many major non-agricultural and industrial facilities were still state-owned and centrally planned.  The government also encouraged non-agricultural activities, such as village enterprises in rural areas, and promoted more self-management for state-owned enterprises, increased competition in the marketplace, and facilitated direct contact between Chinese and foreign trading enterprises.  In 1996, the Chinese economy continued to grow at a rapid pace, at about 9.5%, accompanied by low inflation. ROYAL PRESENTERS Abid nawaz 09

17  The economy slowed for the next 3 years, influenced in part by the Asian Financial Crisis, with official growth of 8.9% in 1997, 7.8% in 1998 and 7.1% for  From 1995 to 1999, inflation dropped sharply, reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control food prices. The year 2000 showed an unassuming problem of this trend.  The Asian financial crisis affected China at the margin, mainly through decreased foreign direct investment and a sharp drop in the growth of its exports. ROYAL PRESENTERS Abid nawaz 10

18  Despite China's impressive economic development during the past two decades, reforming the state sector and modernizing the banking system remained major hurdles. Over half of China's state-owned enterprises were inefficient and reporting losses. ROYAL PRESENTERS Abid nawaz 11

19 “PEOPLE’S BANK OF CHINA”

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21  China's economy grew at an average rate of 10% per year during the period 1990 – 2004, the highest growth rate in the world. China's GDP grew 10% in 2003, 10.1%, in 2004, and even faster 10.4% in 2005 despite attempts by the government to cool the economy.  Urbanization in China and technological progress become equal with developed countries have decades left to run.  China launched its Economic Incentive Plan to specially deal with the Global Financial Crisis of 2008–2009. ROYAL PRESENTERS Abid nawaz 12

22  China's total trade in 2006 exceeded $1.76 trillion, making China the world's third-largest trading nation after the U.S. and Germany.  China's Gross Domestic Product stood at US $3.4 trillion. This made China the world's third largest economy by Gross Domestic Product.  Louis, a senior economist in January 2009 at World Bank China Office in Beijing, said that China's economy may even be as much as 15% larger than Germany's. ROYAL PRESENTERS Abid nawaz 13

23  According to another economist, China is projected to overtake Japan in "three to four years".  According to UN estimates in 2007, around 130 million people in China still lived in poverty, on consumption of less than $1 a day.  About 35% of the Chinese population lives under $2 a day.  Economists state that there is sufficient amount of potential for China to maintain relatively high economic growth rates and is forecasted to be the world's largest exporter by ROYAL PRESENTERS Abid nawaz 14

24 “SHENZEN STOCK EXCHANGE OF CHINA” “SHANGHAI STOCK EXCHANGE OF CHINA”

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26 China's overall economic construction objectives were clearly stated in the Three Step Development Strategy set out in 1987: Step One: To double the 1980’s GNP and ensure that the people have enough food and clothing – was achieved in the end of 1980s. Step Two: To quadruple the 1980’s GNP by the end of the 20th century—was achieved in Step Three: To increase per-capita GNP to the level of the medium-developed countries by 2050 – at which point, the Chinese people will be fairly well-off and modernization will be basically realized. ROYAL PRESENTERS FAHAD KHAN 15

27  Popular conflict, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program.  China also has continued to lose arable land because of erosion and infrastructure development.  There is large-scale underemployment in both urban and rural areas, and the fear of the disruptive effects of major, explicit unemployment is strong. ROYAL PRESENTERS FAHAD KHAN 16

28  The prices of certain key commodities, especially of industrial raw materials and major industrial products, are determined by the state. In most cases, basic price ratios were set in the 1950s and are often illogical in terms of current production capabilities and demands. ROYAL PRESENTERS FAHAD KHAN 17

29  98% China’s financial institutions are state owned.  With two stock exchanges (Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange), China's stock market had a market value of $1 trillion, which became the third largest stock market in Asia, after Japan and Hong Kong. It is estimated to be the world's third largest by ROYAL PRESENTERS FAHAD KHAN 18

30  Foreign-invested enterprises account for 58 – 60% of China’s imports and exports.  In 1997, China approved 21,046 foreign investment projects and received over $45 billion in foreign direct investment.  Foreign-invested enterprises today produce about half of China's exports (note that the majority of China's foreign investment come from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan). ROYAL PRESENTERS FAHAD KHAN 19

31  Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's rapid expansion in world trade and has been an important factor in the growth of urban jobs.  From 1993 to 2001, China was the world's second-largest recipient of foreign direct investment after the United States. ROYAL PRESENTERS FAHAD KHAN 20

32 THE DANGEROUS ROAD OF CHINA “PANSHAN” THE LONGEST CROSS- SEA BRIDGE “DONGHAI”

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34 CHINAPAKISTAN TRADE ORGANIZATIONS WTO, APEC and others. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS ECO, SAFTA,ASEAN, WIPO and WTO FISCAL YEAR 1 ST JAN – 31 ST DEC FISCAL YEAR 1 ST JULY – 30 TH JUNE 01

35 GDP (PPP) $7.8 Trillion GDP (PPP) $452.7 Billion GDP Growth Rate 9.0% GDP Growth Rate 5.87% GDP by Sector Agriculture 11.3% Industry 48.6% Services 40.1% GDP by Sector Agriculture 19.6% Industry 26.8% Services 53.7% 02

36 GDP Per Capita $6,100 GDP Per Capita $2,600 INFLATION RATE (CPI) 4.9% POPULATION (Below Poverty Line) 10% UNEMPLOYMENT 4.3% LABOR FORCE Million INFLATION RATE (CPI) 11.7% POPULATION (Below Poverty Line) 23% UNEMPLOYMENT 7.5% LABOR FORCE Million 03

37 MAIN INDUSTRIES  Mining and ore processing iron, steel, aluminum & other metals.  Coal.  Machine.  Building.  Armaments.  Textiles and Clothes.  Petroleum.  Cement.  Chemicals.  Fertilizers.  Consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics.  Food processing.  Transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites. MAIN INDUSTRIES  Textiles.  Chemicals.  Food processing, Steel.  Transport Equipment.  Automotives  Machinery  Beverages  Construction  Materials  Clothing  Paper Products. 04

38 EXPORTS $1.40 Trillion EXPORTS $20.58 Billion MAIN EXPORT PARTNERS  United States 19.1%.  Hong Kong 15.1%.  Japan 8.4%.  South Korea 4.6%.  Germany 4%. MAIN EXPORT PARTNERS  United States 22.4%.  UAE 8.3%.  United Kingdom 6%.  China 5.4%.  Germany 4.7%. EXPORT GOODS  Office Machines & Data Processing Equipment.  Telecommunications Equipment.  Electrical machinery Apparel & Clothing.  Miscellaneous Manufactures. EXPORT GOODS  Textile Goods (Garments, Blanket, Cotton Cloths, and Thread).  Rice.  Leather Goods.  Sports Goods.  Chemicals Manufactures.  Carpets and Rugs. 05

39 IMPORTS $1.13 Trillion IMPORTS $30.99 Billion MAIN IMPORT PARTNERS  Japan 14%.  South Korea 10.9%.  Taiwan 10.5%.  US 7.3%.  Germany 4.7%. MAIN IMPORT PARTNERS  China 14.7%.  Saudi Arabia 10.1%.  UAE 8.7%.  Japan 6.5%.  United States 5.3%.  Germany 5%.  Kuwait 4.9% IMPORT GOODS  Electrical Machinery.  Petroleum & related products.  Professional & Scientific Instruments.  Metalliferous ores and scrap.  Office machines & data processing equipment. IMPORT GOODS  Petroleum.  Petroleum products.  Machinery.  Plastics.  Transportation equipment.  Edible oils.  Paper and paperboard.  Iron and steel.  Tea 06

40 Thank you so much  Our honorable teacher Sir Ahmed Ameer.  The students of BS Commerce (4 rth Semester) to cooperate with us. We wish you all the very best for your future.  Please pardon us if we hurt you throughout the Presentation.


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