Presentation on theme: "ARCH 455 URBAN DESIGN MAJOR ELECTIVE I by Şebnem Hoşkara & Naciye Doratlı EMU Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture."— Presentation transcript:
ARCH 455 URBAN DESIGN MAJOR ELECTIVE I by Şebnem Hoşkara & Naciye Doratlı EMU Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture
Week 2: Lecture 1 – Part B Making Places
SENSE OF PLACE Sense of Place is often discussed in terms of the Latin concept of ‘ GENIUS LOCI’, which suggests that people experience something beyond the PHYSICAL/ SENSORY PROPERTIES of PLACES, and can feel an attachment to a sprit of place.
SENSE OF PLACE The GENIUS LOCI/ sprit of a place often persists in spite of profound changes. Many cities and countries have retained their identities in the face of significant social, cultural and technological changes. Since 1970s, an increasing interest in examination of people’s ties to and conception of places has been seen.
DIMENSIONS OF PLACES
(i)Urban morphology the study of the FORM & SHAPE of settlements.
Elements of urban form: (i)Land uses (ii)Building structures (iii)Plot patterns (iv)Street patterns Elements last different lengths of time. The difference lies in their stability.
(i) Land uses Land uses are relatively temporary. Changes include both new uses coming into & existing uses moving to other areas.
(ii) Buildings Buildings come & go. … but some – churches, cathedrals, public buildings – last longer than others. Testament to time passing within a particular place.
(iii) Plots (land parcels) Urban blocks often subdivided into plots. But, overtime, plots are subdivided &/or amalgamated.
(iv) Cadastral (street) patterns The street pattern is the most enduring among the elements of urban form. Often evolved over many hundreds of years, but early patterns are still visible today.
Cadastral (Street) Pattern is the layout of urban blocks and between them, the public space/ movement channels/public space network. The blocks define the space or the the space define the blocks. Changes in street pattern may take place: - As a result of natural disasters or war; - Through programs of comprehensive redevelopment (in modern times).
Urban tissue study
(ii) Urban form
Buildings as objects in space. ONLY buildings can be read as a positive. Buildings define space. Urban blocks/buildings can be read as positive. The set of spaces can also be read as positive. Hence, figure-ground reversal is possible.
Mentally fill the space up with water – How quickly does the water run away?
Buildings as objects in space (“space occupiers”) Buildings defining space (“space definers”)
When all buildings are designed as objects in space, cities become simply collections of individual buildings. The whole is only the sum of the parts.
‘Streets’ & ‘roads’
Prior to C20th, only a few building types were built as object-buildings -- churches, town halls, palaces, etc. Most buildings were “texture”.
CAMBRIDGE Buildings defining space? Positive space CROYDON Buildings in space? Lost space
(i) The edge
Life of a public space forms naturally around its edge & grows out towards the centre.
Active frontages Land uses within buildings should reach out to the street & offer an “active front” onto public space, thereby, adding interest, life & vitality to public space.
Views into buildings provide interest to passers-by. Views out put “eyes on streets” & contribute to safety.
Blank frontages Detrimental to immediate context & to street -- deadens part of street. Breaks continuity of experience that is vital for rest of street (especially retail streets).
(ii) Mixed uses
Prerequisite of a lively & well-used public realm is the spatial & temporal concentration of different land uses & activities. Jane Jacobs (1961) argued vitality of city neighbourhoods depended on overlapping & interweaving of activities.
Jane Jacobs Jan Gehl Christopher Alexander William H Whyte Project for Public Space (www.pps.org)www.pps.org Also time lapse photography/video recording – Jacobs’ “street ballet”.
PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACE (www.pps.org)
The following pages are extracted from the website of the Project for Public Space (www.pps.org).www.pps.org The website contains a host of information about making successful places.
What makes a place successful?
Imagine that the center circle on the diagram on the previous page is a specific place that you know -- a street corner, a playground, a plaza outside a building. You can evaluate that place according to four criteria in the red ring – (i) access & linkage; (ii) comfort & image; (iii) uses & activities; and (iv) sociability. In the ring outside these main criteria are a number of intuitive or qualitative aspects by which to judge a place; the next outer ring shows the quantitative aspects that can be measured by statistics or research.
(i) ACCESS & LINKAGE You can judge the accessibility of a place by its connections to its surroundings, both visual & physical. A successful public space is easy to get to & get through; it is visible both from a distance and up close. The edges of a space are important as well -- for instance, a row of shops along a street is more interesting & generally safer to walk by than a blank wall or empty lot. Accessible spaces have a high parking turnover &, ideally, are convenient to public transit.
Questions: Can you see the space from a distance? Is its interior visible from the outside? Is there a good connection between the space and the adjacent buildings, or is it surrounded by blank walls? Do occupants of adjacent buildings use the space? Can people easily walk to the place? For example, do they have to dart between moving cars to get to the place? Do sidewalks lead to & from the adjacent areas? Does the space function for people with special needs? Do the roads & paths through the space take people where they actually want to go? Can people use a variety of transportation options -- bus train, car, bicycle, etc. --- to reach the place? Are transit stops conveniently located next to destinations such as libraries, post offices, park entrances, etc.?
(ii) COMFORT & IMAGE Whether a space is comfortable & presents itself well -- has a good image -- is key to its success. Comfort includes perceptions about safety, cleanliness, & the availability of places to sit -- the importance of giving people the choice to sit where they want is generally underestimated. Women in particular are good judges on comfort & image, because they tend to be more discriminating about the public spaces they use.
Questions: Does the place make a good first impression? Are there more women than men? Are there enough places to sit? Are seats conveniently located? Do people have is a choice of places to sit, either in the sun or shade? Are spaces are clean and free of litter? Who is responsible for maintenance? What do they do? When? Does the area feel safe? Is there a security presence? If so, what do these people do? When are they on duty? Are people taking pictures? Are there many photo opportunities available? Do vehicles dominate pedestrian use of the space, or prevent them from easily getting to the space?
(iii) USES & ACTIVITIES Activities are the basic building blocks of a place. Having something to do gives people a reason to come to a place -- and return. When there is nothing to do, a space will be empty & that generally means that something is wrong.
Principles for uses & activities: The more activities that are going on & that people have an opportunity to participate in, the better. There is a good balance between men & women (e.g. women are more particular about the spaces they use). People of different ages are using the space (e.g. retired people & people with young children can use a space during the day when others are working). The space is used throughout the day. A space that is used by both singles & people in groups is better than one that is just used by people alone because it means there are places for people to sit with friends, there is more socializing, & it is more fun. The ultimate success of a space is how well it is managed.
Questions: Are people using the space or is it empty? Is it used by people of different ages? Are people in groups? How many different types of activities are occurring -- people walking, eating, playing baseball, chess, relaxing, reading? Which parts of the space are used & which are not? Are there choices of things to do? Is there a management presence, or can you identify anyone is in charge of the space?
(iv) SOCIABILITY This is a difficult quality for a place to achieve, but once attained it becomes an unmistakable feature. When people see friends, meet & greet their neighbors, & feel comfortable interacting with strangers, they tend to feel a stronger sense of place or attachment to their community -- & to the place that fosters these types of social activities.
Questions: Is this a place where you would choose to meet your friends? Are others meeting friends here or running into them? Are people in groups? Are they talking with one another? Do people seem to know each other by face or by name? Do people bring their friends & relatives to see the place or do they point to one of its features with pride? Are people smiling? Do people make eye contact with each other? Do people use the place regularly & by choice? Does a mix of ages & ethnic groups that generally reflect the community at large? Do people tend to pick up litter when they see it?