The land down under Australia is called the land down under because it is below the equator. It is one of the seven continents of the world. It is also a country.
The First people in Australia were Aborigines. They lived there at least 40,000 years as the only people. They arrived there from southern Asia. They had very rich forms of art, painting, song, poetry and mythology.
They spoke one or more of hundreds languages and dialects, and their lifestyles and cultural traditions differed from region to region. The lives of aborigines stayed almost the same for thousands of years until the Europeans came to live in Australia in 1778.
In 1770 J. Cook landed in eastern Australia the great explorer of the Pacific, sailed into Botany Bay, with his ship, Endeavour, in April and declared that it belonged to Britain.
On January 26, 1788 (now celebrated as Australia Day) the first group of settlers arrived establishing a colony on the east coast of Australia, in New South Wales. Earlier arrivals were mostly criminals.
In 1778, the British government began sending the first prisoners to Australia. Overtime many people arrived from Britain and Europe. Life was difficult. There was very little water and the climate was very hard. In 1851 gold was discovered about 300 km west of Sydney. People rushed to the gold fields to find their fortunes. This attracted robbers called bushrangers ( беглый преступник). British prisoners
Harsh labour (тяжёлый труд) Convicts (prisoners) had really harsh labour. They had to work to make public development. Making houses, court houses, etc. Men worked to clear land. When they finished clearing land, they worked to farm it. Men,women and children were flogged (подвергались телесным наказаниям). Once a man stole some biscuits and he got flogged over 1000 times. Food was very precious.
The Europeans suffered a lot in Australia but the Aborigines suffered a lot more. Europeans stole their land and killed thousand of Aborigines. They also brought new diseases with them. In some parts of Australia, not one Aborigine survived. Today aborigines continue to live in Australia but there culture in under threat. In 1770, there were about 300,000 Aborigines. Now, there are 120,000. It is becoming harder and harder for them to continue their traditional way to live.
It is probably due to its geographical position that Australia was the last continent to be inhabited by the white man. It was just a little over 390 years that the Australian continent was discovered.
In 1901 the separate colonies in Australia merged together and became the States of the Commonwealth of Australia, which acquired the status of dominion of Great Britain. The Commonwealth of Australia – a federation of the 6 former colonies as states – was declared to come into being on January 1, 1901.
Conclusion Today Australia is a modern, industrial country, independent from Britain since 1931. Though Australia now is an independent state, according to the Constitution the head of the state is the Monarch of Great Britain, represented by the Governor-General. The Commonwealth of Australia consists of 6 states and two provinces. It is the world’s biggest producer of wool, bauxite and important producer of wheat, meat, sugar and fruit.